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achromatic albumin alveolar amphiaster anaphase animals annelids archoplasm arise Ascaris aster astral rays attraction-sphere axial filament Beneden Biitschli blastomeres Boveri cell-body cell-division cells central granule centre centrosome centrosphere chemical chromatin chromatin-granules chromatophores cleavage conclusion conjugation containing cytoplasm daughter-cells definite degenerate described deutoplasm differentiation divides division Driesch echinoderms egg-nucleus embryo especially fact fertilization fibrillar Flemming formation germ-cells germ-nuclei germinal vesicle give rise growth Heidenhain Hertwig hypothesis idioplasm Kostanecki large number later longitudinal mass maturation-divisions membrane Meves microsomes middle-piece mitosis mitotic figure morphological nearly nuclear nucleinic acid nucleoli nucleus number of chromosomes observers organization origin ovum paternal phenomena physiological plants plastids polar bodies polar spindle prophases protoplasm reduction regarded relation result reticulum salamander sea-urchin second polar segments shown somatic sperm-aster sperm-nucleus spermatids spermatocytes spermatogonia spermatozoon sphere spireme split stage staining Strasburger structure substance t'ber tetrads theory tion tissue-cells true nucleoli Uber Weismann yolk-nucleus
Pagina 67 - The remarkable fact has now been established with high probability that every species of plant or animal has a fixed and characteristic number of chromosomes, which regularly recurs in the division of all of its cells, and in all forms arising by sexual reproduction the number is even...
Pagina 449 - ... fittest. Whether these variations first arise in the idioplasm of the germcells, as Weismann maintains, or whether they may arise in the body-cells and then be reflected back upon the idioplasm, is a question to which the study of the cell has thus far given no certain answer. Whatever position we take on this question, the same difficulty is encountered ; namely, the origin of that co-ordinated fitness, that power of active adjustment between internal and external relations, which, as so many...
Pagina 200 - The ripe egg possesses all of the organs and qualities necessary for division excepting the centrosome, by which division is initiated. The spermatozoon, on the other hand, is provided with a centrosome, but lacks the substance in which this organ of division may exert its activity. Through the union of the two cells in fertilization all of the essential organs necessary for division are brought together ; the egg now contains a centrosome which by its own division leads the way in the embryonic...
Pagina 298 - Again, it is a question whether the finer granules seen within the cell are or are not typical structures, "capable of assimilation, growth, and division, and hence to be regarded as elementary units of structure standing between the cell and the ultimate molecules of living matter.
Pagina 447 - In its physiological aspect, therefore, inheritance is the recurrence, in successive generations, of like forms of metabolism ; and this is effected through the transmission from generation to generation of a specific substance or idioplasm which we have seen reason to identify with chromatin.
Pagina 450 - The study of the cell has, on the whole, seemed to widen rather than to narrow the enormous gap that separates even the lowest forms of life from the inorganic world.
Pagina 1 - DURING the half-century that has elapsed since the enunciation of the cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, in 1838-39, it has become ever more clearly apparent that the key to all ultimate biological problems must, in the last analysis, be sought in the cell.
Pagina 449 - ... formed a part ; and we are able to study with greater or less precision the mechanism by which that transformation is effected and the conditions under which it takes place. But despite all our theories we no more know how the organization of the germ-cell involves the properties of the adult body than we know how the properties of hydrogen and oxygen involve those of water.
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