consul respectively, yet their acts were not those B.c. 48 which these offices permitted, but whatever they themselves pleased.
Under these conditions, with the government divided in twain, Pompey was wintering in Thessalonica and not keeping a very careful watch upon the coast; for he did not suppose that Caesar had yet arrived in Italy from Spain, and even if he were there, he did not suspect that he would venture to cross the Ionian Gulf in the winter, at any rate. But Caesar was in Brundisium, waiting for spring, and when he ascertained that Pompey was some distance off and that the mainland opposite was rather carelessly guarded, he seized upon the "chance of war1" and attacked him while his attention was relaxed. At any rate, when the winter was about half gone, he set out with a portion of his army, as there were not enough ships to carry them all across at once, and eluding Маг-cus Bibulus, to whom the guarding of the sea had* been committed, he crossed to the Ceraunian Headlands, as they are called, the outermost point of Epirus, near the mouth of the Ionian Gulf. Arriving there before it became noised abroad that he would sail at all, he sent the ships to Brundisium for the others; but Bibulus damaged them on the return voyage and actually took some in tow, so that Caesar learned by experience that the voyage he had made was more fortunate than prudent.
1 The expression rh Kaivhv rov iro\é/j.ov appears first in Thucydides (iii. 30), and soon became proverbial; cf. Polybius xxix. 6, Diodorns xx. 30, 67, Cic. ad Att. v. 20, 3. Dio uses it again in xlix. 5, 1. It seems to be used generally in the favourable sense of " the (lucky) chance of war." The proverb ran ttoWh. та ttaivb. Tov iro\¿nov ("many are the surprises of war ").