3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation

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Springer Science & Business Media, 7 ago 2002 - 324 pagine
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Manyimportant decisions,ranging from locating an oil prospect or a land-fill site to determining the location and sizeof an earthquake-producingfault,are based on geo logical maps. Because a map-scale structure is never completely sampled in three dimensions, geological maps and the cross sections derived from maps are always interpretations. The interpretation may be complicated by direct structural observati ons,likebedding attitudes,that are misleading because they represent a local structu re,not the map-scale structure. Some data may simply be wrong. The interpretation of the geometry of even a single horizon, therefore,alwaysinvolvesinferences about the validity and meaning of the observations themselves as wellas the nature of the geo metry between the observation points. How is an accurate interpretation to be con structed and how is it to be validated once complete? The objective of this book is to demonstrate the concepts and techniques required to obtain the most complete and accurate interpretation of the geometry ofstructures at the map scale. The methods are designedprimarilyforinterpretations based on out crop measurements and subsurface information of the type derived from welllogs and two-dimensional seismic reflection profiles. These forms of information all present a similar interpretive problem, which is to define the geometry from isolated and dis continuous observations. The underlying philosophy of interpretation is that structu res are three-dimensional solid bodies and that data from throughout the bodyshould be integrated into an internally consistent interpretation.
 

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Indice

Elements of MapScale Structure
1
121 Structure Contour Map
2
122 Triangulated Irregular Network
3
13 Map Units and Contact Types
4
132 Unconformities
5
133 TimeEquivalent Boundaries
6
134 Welds
7
14 Thickness
8
494 Plane Bisecting Two Planes
148
495 Axial Surface Geometry
150
410 Problems
151
4104 Structure of a Selected Map Area
153
References
154
Faults and Unconformities
155
522 Discontinuities on Reflection Profile
157
524 Stratigraphic Thickness Anomaly
159

151 Styles
9
152 ThreeDimensional Geometry
12
153 Mechanical Origins
13
16 Faults
17
161 Slip
18
163 Geometrical Classifications
19
164 Mechanical Origins
22
165 FaultFold Relationships
23
17 Sources of Structural Data and Related Uncertainties
25
172 Wells
26
173 Seismic Reflection Profiles
29
References
30
Location Attitude and Thickness
33
222 Wells
36
23 Orientation of Lines and Planes
39
231 Stereogram Representation
40
232 Natural Variation of Dip and Measurement Error
43
233 Tangent Diagram Representation
44
24 Finding the Orientations of Planes
45
241 Attitude of a Plane from Three Points
46
2412 Analytical ThreePoint Problem
47
242 Structure Contours
49
2422 Structure Contours from Attitude
50
2424 Intersecting Contoured Surfaces
51
25 Finding the Orientations of Lines
53
252 Apparent Dip
54
262 PoleThickness Equation
56
2622 Angle Between Two Lines Analytical
57
263 Thickness Between Structure Contours
58
264 Effect of Measurement Errors
59
27 Thickness of Folded Beds
62
272 DipDomain Fold
63
28 Thickness Maps
64
282 Dip vs Thickness
65
283 Location Anomalies Dip and Thickness
66
292 Solid Geometry
67
2922 Direction Cosines of a Line from Azimuth and Plunge
68
2924 Direction Cosines of a Line on a Map
69
2927 Attitude of a Plane from Three Points
70
293 Thickness
71
2932 BedNormal Form
72
2933 Circular Arc in Dip Direction
73
210 Problems
74
2102 Attitude
75
2104 Attitude and Thickness from Map
76
2105 Isopach Map
79
References
81
Structure Contouring
83
321 Control Points
84
322 Rules of Contouring
85
TIN or Grid
86
324 Triangulated Irregular Networks
87
3241 Delauney Triangles
88
3243 Biasing the Network
89
33 Contouring Styles
90
333 Parallel
92
335 Smooth vs Angular
93
336 Artifacts
94
34 Additional Sources of Information
95
341 Including the Bedding Attitude
96
342 Projected and Composite Surfaces
97
343 FluidFlow Barriers
100
351 Composite Surface
102
352 Contour Compatibility
103
353 Trend Compatibility
105
36 Problems
106
364 CompositeSurface Map
107
References
111
Fold Geometry
113
422 Conical Fold
115
423 Planar Dip Domains and Hinge Lines
117
43 Plunge Lines
120
432 Example
122
44 Crest and Trough
123
45 Axial Surfaces
125
452 Orientation
128
453 Predicting Thickness Changes
131
46 Dip Sequence Analysis
132
461 Curvature Models
133
462 Dip Components
135
463 Example
139
47 Minor Folds
142
48 Growth Folds
145
49 Derivations
146
493 Line of Intersection Between Two Planes
147
525 Discontinuity in Stratigraphic Sequence
162
526 Rock Type
163
527 Fault Drag
164
53 Dip Sequence Analysis
165
532 Example
169
54 Unconformities
172
55 Displacement
175
552 Separation
177
553 Heave and Throw from Stratigraphic Separation
178
56 Geometric Properties of Faults
180
57 Growth Faults
184
572 Expansion Index
185
58 Problems
187
586 Estimating fault offset
192
References
193
Mapping Faults and Faulted Surfaces
197
621 Trend and Sense of Throw
198
622 Shape
200
623 Separation
203
624 Growth History
205
63 Faulted Surfaces
207
631 Fault Trace on a Structure Contour Map
208
633 Map Validation
211
64 Contouring Across Faults
213
641 Projected Fault Cutoffs
214
642 Restored Vertical Separation
216
65 Displacement Transfer
217
651 Relay Overlap
218
653 Splay Fault
220
654 Fault Horse
221
Crossing Faults
222
662 Contemporaneous Faults
228
67 Faults on Isopach Maps
231
68 Problems
234
683 Reservoir Structure
235
685 Method of Restored Tops
236
686 Thrust Faulted Fold
237
688 Map validation
238
6810 Branching Fault
239
6812 Sequential Faults 1
241
Faults on an isopach map
243
References
244
Cross Sections
245
72 Choosing the Line of Section
246
73 Vertical and Horizontal Exaggeration
248
74 Transferring Data from Map to Cross Section
253
741 Data Located on the Section Line
254
742 Projecting Data to the Section Line
256
7421 With Structure Contours
258
7422 Along Plunge
259
7423 Within Dip Domains
263
751 Planar Dip Domains
264
7511 Method
265
7512 Cylindrical Fold Example
266
7513 Noncylindrical Fold Example
271
752 Circular Arcs
273
7522 Dip Interpolation
275
753 Cubic Curves
277
76 Changing the Orientation of the Section Plane
279
77 Fault Cutoff Maps
281
772 Determination of Fault Slip
282
773 Determination of Fluid Migration Pathways
285
78 Derivations
286
782 Analytical Projection along Plunge Lines
288
79 Problems
290
Parallel Faults and Folds
291
Two Normal Faults
292
Different Style
293
798 Fold and thrust fault interpretation
294
Normal Faults
295
References
296
Restoration and Validation
299
82 RigidBody Restoration
302
83 FlexuralSlip Restoration
303
84 SimpleShear Restoration
305
85 Area Restoration
308
86 AreaDepth Relationship
309
87 Problems
312
873 FlexuralSlip Restoration 2
313
874 Restoration of Folded and Faulted Section
314
876 Length and Area Restoration
315
877 AreaDepth Graph and Area Restoration
317
Index
319
Copyright

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