Cholinesterase-inhibiting Insecticides: Their Impact on Wildlife and the Environment
Elsevier, 1991 - 348 pagine
Foremost specialists in the field of cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides have contributed to this volume, to provide an accurate assessment of the impacts of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on non-target organisms, especially wildlife. The increased scrutiny of pest control agents in recent years has resulted from several factors. These comprise the demands for environmental protection, the recognition of wildlife as a valuable and diminishing resource, and the realization that few wild habitats exist that pest control programs do not directly target or indirectly affect. In that context, the book brings together the scattered literature on the effects of anticholinesterase pesticides on wildlife and other non-target species. The literature has long been dominated by research emanating from the drug industry and the military. The therapeutic aspects of cholinergically-active substances and their potential as chemical warfare agents has directed research in the field. Thus the measurement of cholinesterase activity as a biomarker to assess the impact on wildlife species is a relatively recent phenomenon.
BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHOLINESTERASES IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS
METHODS USED IN DETERMINATION OF CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY
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acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase AChE inhibition acid Acute Exposure analysis animals anticholinesterase assay assessment avian BChE behavior Biochem biological birds and mammals blood brain AChE activity brain ChE inhibition Brain Cholinesterase Bull C.E. Grue carbamate carbamate pesticides carboxylesterases ChE activity Chem chemicals chlorfenvinphos cholinergic cholinesterase activity cholinesterase inhibition cholinesterase measurements compounds Contam correlation coworkers detected diagnostic diazinon dicrotophos E.F. Hill effects Environ enzyme activity enzyme inhibition esterases esters European Starlings exposed factors fenitrothion fish free-living G.E. Westlake hydrolysis increase inhibitors insecticides insects Japanese Quail laboratory malathion Mallard mammals method methyl parathion monitoring nestlings Neurochem normal Northern Bobwhite oral dose organophosphates organophosphorus Overt toxicity P.I. Stanley P.J. Bunyan paraoxon percent Pestic Pharmacol phosphorylated phosphoserine Physiol plasma ChE activity poisoning protein rainbow trout rats reactivation reported reproductive residues samples sensitivity serum ChE activity Sparrows species spray studies sublethal substrate Survival Table temperature tissue Toxicol Toxicology variability variation Wildl wildlife