Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices

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Springer Science & Business Media, 31 ago 1999 - 848 pagine
3 Recensioni
Presenting divergent philosophies in a balanced manner, this comprehensive and up-to-date text covers all of the basic techniques of sensory testing, from simple discrimination tests to home use placements of consumers. Not only does it provide a practical guide to how tests are conducted, it also explores the fundamental psychological and statistical theories that form the basis and rationale for sensory test design. Statistics used in sensory evaluation are demonstrated as integrated applications in the context of appropriate sensory methods and are also presented as stand-alone material in appendices. Statistical applications are tailored to common analyses encountered in sensory work, so that practicality and relevance are obvious, and space is not wasted on designs or analyses that are not suitable for data collection from human observers. Offering a balanced view of diverse approaches, the text presents the chapters in such a way as to provide undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in sensory evaluation, who want only practical aspects of conducting sensory tests, with clear instructions on how tests should be conducted. Advanced students will profit from the more-detailed sections on rationale and sensory evaluation issues. The book will also be an essential reference for industrial practitioners. "It covers the entire spectrum of sensory analysis. I have read many books on this intriguing subject, but this is the Rolls-Royce." – Aubrey Parsons, governing council member, International Union for Food Science and Technology
 

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Indice

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
1
Historical Landmarks and the Three Classes of Test Methods
6
The Central DogmaAnalytic vs Hedonic Tests
13
Why Collect Sensory Data?
17
Differences from Other Research Methods
21
Summary and Conclusions
24
References
26
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SENSORY FUNCTION
28
References
475
CONSUMER FIELD TESTS AND QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN
480
Central Location Home Use
484
Practical Conduct of Home Use Tests
489
Interacting with Field Services
492
Questionnaire Design
499
10 Rules of Thumb for Questionnaire Construction
503
Conclusions
511

Anatomy Physiology and Functions of Taste
39
Anatomy Physiology and Functions of Smell
50
The Trigeminal Flavor Senses
61
Sensory Interactions
67
Summary and Conclusions
73
References
74
PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
83
Sensory Testing Environment
85
Test Protocol Considerations
91
Tabulation and Analysis
112
Conclusion
113
References
114
DISCRIMINATION TESTING
116
Types of Discrimination Tests
117
Reputed Strengths and Weaknesses
128
Data Analyses
129
Issues
133
Common Mistakes Made in the Interpretation of Discrimination Tests
138
DISCRIMINATION THEORIES AND ADVANCED TOPICS
140
The Theory of Signal Detection
142
Thurstonian Models for Choice Tests
151
Signal Detection Applied to Foods Using the Rindex
157
Guessing Models and Discriminator Theory
159
Estimating Sample Size in Discrimination Tests
164
The Test for Significant Similarity
166
Signal detection Thurstonian and Guessing Models for Discrimination
170
References
171
MEASUREMENT OF SENSORY THRESHOLDS
173
Concepts Issues and Problems
176
Ascending Forcedchoice
181
Rated Difference Adaptive Procedures Signal Detection
191
Dilution Analysis and Odor Units
198
Conclusions
202
References
204
SCALING
208
Common Methods of Scaling
216
Some VariationsOther Scaling Techniques
230
What Is a Good Scale?
241
Practical Guidelines
246
Conclusions
253
The 9Point Scale RevisitedHow They Did It
254
References
259
TIMEINTENSITY METHODS
265
History of TimeIntensity Methods
267
Examples and Applications
270
Data Analysis Issues
283
Problems and Remaining Questions
290
Conclusions
294
References
296
CONTEXT EFFECTS AND BIASES IN SENSORY JUDGMENT
301
Simple Contrast and Adaptation Level
306
Range Frequency Theory
315
Poultons Classification of Biases
319
Halo Effects and False Enhancement from Response Restriction
326
Classical Psychological Errors
330
Antidotes
332
Conclusions
335
References
337
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
341
Language and Descriptive Analysis
342
Descriptive Analysis Techniques
346
References
372
TEXTURE EVALUATION
379
Auditory Visual and Tactile Texture
383
Sensory Texture Measurements
392
Instrumental Texture Measurements and Sensory Correlations
395
Conclusions
399
References
400
COLOR AND APPEARANCE
406
What Is Color
408
Vision
410
Measurement of Appearance and Color Attributes
411
Instrumental Color Measurement
417
Conclusions
428
ACCEPTANCE AND PREFERENCE TESTING
430
Preference Tests
431
Acceptance Tests
450
Variations on Acceptance
457
Qualifying Panelists
470
Conclusions
474
References
513
Sample Consumer Test Questionnaire
514
QUALITATIVE CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS
519
Characteristics of Focus Groups
523
Using Focus Groups in Sensory Evaluation
526
Conducting Focus Group Studies
528
Issues in Moderating
533
Analysis and Reporting
536
Alternative Procedures and Variations of the Group Interview
541
Conclusions
544
References
546
SENSORY EVALUATION IN QUALITY CONTROL
548
Program Development and Management Issues
552
Features of a Sensory QC System
555
Methods for Sensory QC
558
Importance of Good Practice
574
Summary and Conclusions
577
Whither Excellence?
578
References
582
DATA RELATIONSHIPS AND MULTIVARIATE APPLICATIONS
585
Overview of Multivariate Statistical Techniques
586
Relating Consumer and Descriptive Data
596
Conclusions
598
STRATEGIC RESEARCH
602
The Category Review
605
Perceptual Mapping and Opportunity Identification
606
Consumer Contact
618
Conclusions
620
OVERVIEW OF SENSORY PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES
623
50 or so Rules of Thumb for Sensory Testing
625
Flowcharts for Sensory Evaluation Procedures
630
Sensory Evaluation in Industrial and Academic Research
640
Conclusions
644
References
646
BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS FOR SENSORY EVALUATION
647
Basic Statistical Concepts
650
Hypothesis Testing and Statistical Inference
658
Variations of the tTest
667
Statistical Hypothesis Testing
674
What pvalues Signify and What They Dont
675
References
678
NON PARAMETRIC AND BINOMIALBASED STATISTICAL METHODS
679
BinomialBased Tests on Proportions
681
ChiSquare
686
McNemar Test
688
Useful Rank Order Tests
691
Mann Whitney U Test
692
Ranked Data with More Than Two Samples
694
The Spearman Rank Order Correlation
697
Conclusions
698
References
699
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
701
Basic Analysis of Variance Rationale and Worked Example
702
An Interlude for the Confused
707
MultipleFactor Analysis of Variance and the Concept of a Linear Model
708
Analysis of Variance from Complete Block Designs and Partitioning of Panelist Variance
712
Fixed or Random Effects
719
Planned Comparisons Between Means Following ANOVA
722
TwoWay Anova from Randomized Complete Block Designs
724
SplitPlot or BetweenGroups Nested Designs
731
Other Techniques
735
References
737
CORRELATION REGRESSION AND MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION
738
Correlation
741
Linear Regression
745
Multiple Linear Regression
749
References
753
STATISTICAL POWER AND TEST SENSITIVITY
754
Factors Affecting the Power of Statistical Tests
757
Worked Examples
767
Power in Simple Difference and Preference Tests
771
Summary and Conclusions
778
References
781
STATISTICAL TABLES
783
BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES FROM DISCRIMINATION TESTS
795
COMPLETE BLOCK ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
797
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
803
INDEX
819
Copyright

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