The Disciplinary Revolution: Calvinism and the Rise of the State in Early Modern Europe
What explains the rapid growth of state power in early modern Europe? While most scholars have pointed to the impact of military or capitalist revolutions, Philip S. Gorski argues instead for the importance of a disciplinary revolution unleashed by the Reformation. By refining and diffusing a variety of disciplinary techniques and strategies, such as communal surveillance, control through incarceration, and bureaucratic office-holding, Calvin and his followers created an infrastructure of religious governance and social control that served as a model for the rest of Europe—and the world.
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absolutism absolutist administrative Amsterdam argue argument army ascetic bellicist Berlin Brandenburg Brandenburg-Prussia bureaucratic Calvinism Calvinist Catholic central chap church clergy confession confessional consistories course court Crown disciplinary revolution disciplining process discussion dominant Dutch Republic Dutch Revolt early modern Europe ecclesiastical elector elites England Ertman especially estates ethic ethos evidence example focuses Foucault France Francke's Frederick William French Friedrich German Geschichte Gustav historians historical Hohenzollerns Holland Ibid impact important infrastructure insofar institutions king least Luther Lutheran Max Weber ment Military Revolution Netherlands nobility Oestreich office holding organization orphanages overview particular patrimonial percent Philipp Jacob Spener Pietismus Pietist political poor poor-relief population precisionist Protestant Protestant Reformation Protestantism provincial Prussian public venality Reformation regime Reichsthalers relief religion religious role royal rulers secular sixteenth century social discipline Spain Spanish Spener stadtholder state-formation taxes territorial Tilly tion various Weber Wiirttemberg