The Hindu-Arabic Numerals

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Courier Corporation, 1 gen 2004 - 160 pagine

The numbers that we call Arabic are so familiar throughout Europe and the Americas that it can be difficult to realize that their general acceptance in commercial transactions is a matter of only the last four centuries and they still remain unknown in parts of the world.
In this volume, one of the earliest texts to trace the origin and development of our number system, two distinguished mathematicians collaborated to bring together many fragmentary narrations to produce a concise history of Hindu-Arabic numerals. Clearly and succinctly, they recount the labors of scholars who have studied the subject in different parts of the world; they then assess the historical testimony and draw conclusions from its evidence. Topics include early ideas of the origin of numerals; Hindu forms with and without a place value; the symbol zero; the introduction of numbers into Europe by Boethius; the development of numerals among Arabic cultures; and the definitive introduction of numerals into Europe and their subsequent spread. Helpful supplements to the text include a guide to the pronunciation of Oriental names and an index.

 

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The Hindu-Arabic Numerals attempts to trace the origin of our present numbers from either the Arabs, the Hindus, or the Chinese. David E. Smith collects much of the, then known, sources for the early ... Leggi recensione completa

Indice

EARLY IDEAS OF THEIR ORIGIN
1
EARLY HINDU FORMS WITH NO PLACE VALUE
12
LATER HINDU FORMS WITH A PLACE VALUE
38
THE SYMBOL ZERO
51
THE QUESTION OF THE INTRODUCTION OF THE NUMERALS INTO EUROPE BY BOETHIUS
63
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NUMERALS AMONG THE ARABS
91
THE DEFINITE INTRODUCTION OF THE NUMERALS INTO EUROPE
99
THE SPREAD OF THE NUMERALS IN EUROPE
128
INDEX
153

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