Understanding Violence: The Intertwining of Morality, Religion and Violence: A Philosophical Stance
Springer Science & Business Media, 18 set 2011 - 340 pagine
This volume sets out to give a philosophical “applied” account of violence, engaged with both empirical and theoretical debates in other disciplines such as cognitive science, sociology, psychiatry, anthropology, political theory, evolutionary biology, and theology. The book’s primary thesis is that violence is inescapably intertwined with morality and typically enacted for “moral” reasons. To show this, the book compellingly demonstrates how morality operates to trigger and justify violence and how people, in their violent behaviors, can engage and disengage with discrete moralities. The author’s fundamental account of language, and in particular its normative aspects, is particularly insightful as regards extending the range of what is to be understood as violence beyond the domain of physical harm. By employing concepts such as “coalition enforcement”, “moral bubbles”, “cognitive niches”, “overmoralization”, “military intelligence” and so on, the book aims to spell out how perpetrators and victims of violence systematically disagree about the very nature of violence. The author’s original claim is that disagreement can be understood naturalistically, described by an account of morality informed by evolutionary perspectives as well. This book might help us come to terms with the fact that we are intrinsically “violent beings”. To acknowledge this condition, and our stupefying capacity to inflict harm, is a responsibility we must face up to: such understanding could ultimately be of help in order to achieve a safer ownership of our destinies, by individuating and reinforcing those cognitive firewalls that would prevent violence from always escalating and overflowing.
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The Violent Nature of Language Language Is a Tool Exactly Like a Knife
Legitimizing and Dissimulating Violence Distributing Violence through Fallacies
Multiple Individual Moralities May Trigger Violence Engaging and Disengaging Morality
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abductive actions activity agents aggressive animals arguments artifacts aspects attitude axiologies basic behavior beliefs Bollas bullshitter chapter coalition enforcement cognitive dissonance cognitive niches commitment concept confabulation confirmation bias conflicts consequences considered contend cooperation course criminal cultural Darwinian democracy democratic dimension disengagement effect emergence emotional environment epistemic ethical evil evolutionary evolutionary psychology example external fact fallacies fascist favor feel forgiveness further gossip human hypothesis illustrated individual instance intellectual interplay killing kind knowledge language less Magnani mental mimetic desire mind moral bubble moral cognitive moral hazard moral mediators morality and violence natural niche construction norms object ochlocracy one’s organisms paradox perceived performed perpetrated person perspective perverting philosophical possible potential pregnance problem punishment reasoning relationship religion religious responsibility role selection semiotic sense simply so-called social stress structural violence structure subsection theory Thom tion trigger various victims viscosity wisdom of crowds