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examples of the « Book of the Dead » in Egyptian Hieroglyphic and Hieratic. The Demotic papyri form by far the most important collection ot documents in this script at present extant. There are a number of Greek papyri, at present under arrangement by Drs. Grenfell and Hunt, who have discovered, among other interesting documents, a new fragment of the recently-discovered Greek historian, Theopompus. There is also a considerable collection of Arabic papyri, the result of the examination of which is awaited with keen interest.

In Coptic, the papyri and the codices range from the sixth to the sixteenth century. In Samaritan there is an interesting, though not large, group of Biblical and liturgical texts, including an important vellum code: of the « Pentateuch », written in A.D. 1211. In Syriac there is a vellum codex of the « Gospels » of the sixth century, and what is probably the earliest known complete Syriac « New Testament », written about A.D. 1000. The Hebrew manuscripts comprise many « Rolls of the Law », and several illuminated codices of the << Haggadah »>, or << Service for Passover ». Of Greek codices there are several beautiful Gospel books, but by far the most important volume of the group is a fragment of about twelve leaves of a vellum codex of the « Odyssey » in a handwriting probably of the third century. Should this date be established it would, make of it the earliest vellum book known ».


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The last number of The Library (a quarterly Review) has an interesting article on « The Bindings of Thomas Wolton» by Mr. E. Gordon Duff, M. A., late Chief Librarian of the famous Rylands Library, Manchester.

About the middle of the sixteenth century a style of binding arose in this country which, though obviously copied from foreign models, acquired a distinctive character of its own, and was much in favour with the most eminent book collectors. It is generally known as << English Grolieresque », a most inappropriate term, and associated with the name of that great book collector Thomas Wotton called from the motto often placed on his book, « Thomae Wottoni et amicorum », the English Grolier (1).

The bindings, which are always of smooth brown calf, have very elaborate geometrical designs formed by a band or bands coloured black, and bordered with gold-lines. These are relieved with bold gilt sprays, sometimes plain, sometimes azured or also coloured black. A very judicious use of dotted gold backgrounds in small spaces adds much to the general effect. This style of ornament seems to have originally come from Lyons, and many beautiful examples of such foreign bindings are in existence. They, however, differ from the English examples in that they are very rarely worked with the interlacing bands in black alone, the more general custom having been to use a combination of brighter colours, red, blue or green, at first these bindings were very carefully tooled, but they grew so rapidly in favour that the Lyonnese printers, especially the firm of Griphius, introduced the labour-saving device of printing the whole of the design of the side from one block in gold, the interlacing bands being afterward coloured by hand, a few of the bindings of Grolier and Maioli are of fine Lyonnese work, but most of their best specimens are Italian. As to the ultimate fate of the fine library which Wolton possessed we have no information says Mr. Gordon Duff. It probably passed (he surmises) with the estate of Boughton Malherbe to Edward, Baron Wotton, his son. The question naturally arises who bound the books that formed so magnificent a collection? The author of the article thinks that « we owe them to the foreign refugees who poured into England on the accession of Edward VI. The fine gilt bindings of Henry VIII's reign, which are usually associated with the name of Thomas Berthelet, the royal binder, are quite different in style, and, as he himself tells us, were tooled in the Ve

(1) Wotton born in 1521 was a man of great learning, religion and wealth.

netian manner with tools cut after the Italian models.

But even his bindings show the influence of the new style, and on his bindings made for Edward VI, be often makes use of interlaced geometrical patterns which were unknown in the preceding reign ».

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The Publisher's Circular (says The Times in his Literary supplement of Jan. 12 th) in its annual analyses of the books of the past year announces in spite of two general Elections and the death of King Edward VIII a slight increase in the output of books in the United Kingdom. The total for the year is 10.804 as compared with 10.725 for last year, an increase of 79. Taken class by class, the figures show increases in the following subjects.: Religion and Philosophy 42; Educational 30; Law 5; Social Science 54; Arts and Sciences 53; Voyages and Travels 71; Poetry and Drama 115; Medicine 51; while the following subjects show decreases: Fiction 48: History and Biography 53; Year Books 29; Belles Lettres 32 ; and Miscellaneous (pamphlets etc.) 191.


We read in The Times of Feb. 2nd that it is proposed, to sell the copy of Foxe's Book of Martyrs which belonged to John Bunyan during his imprisonment in the old country gaol of Bedford, to raise funds for the Bedford General Library where the book has been since 1841. The book is in three folio volumes, and it was printed in London for the Company of the stationers, 1641. It is in black letters and there are several pictures of martyrs suffering at the stake. At the foot of each title page is written in ink in capital letters the name John Bunyan -It is disputed however whether the autographs are in the handwriting of the famous Author of Pilgrim's Progress. (Opposition has been offered to this proposal, as evidenced by a letter in The Times Feb. 8th, 11).

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Mr. B. Quaritch says The Times, has issued in one volume the numerous catalogues of books on the fine arts which he has issued in parts and at irregular intervals during the past two years. The whole forms a substantial volume of 350 pages, enumerating some 4,400 works on nearly every phase of art, including decorative and industrial art as well as the many subjects comprised in the description « practical arts », such as aeronautics, horology, textile fabrics, dyeing and so forth. There are indeed a great many art books which are not included in Mr. Quaritch's useful catalogue, but those which are there sufficiently indicate the costliness of forming anything like a good and comprehensive reference library of books on art. The section of catalogues of art collections and exhibitions is a lengthy one, and includes a good many that are rare. One little idiosyncrasy strikes one in looking over this list: the price asked for Christie's catalogue of the very tenth-rate Deutsch collection (1895) is more than three times that put on the superb Dudley catalogue (1892). The latter collection was one of the finest which has come up for sale in recent times; the Deutsch collection came in quite another category.


The London University Gazette announces that Dr. Percy Furnivall has presented to King's College the library of his late father, Dr. F. J. Furnivall, to form part of the departmental library of English Language and Literature, on condition that it is available to those attending the evening school of English. In this department the late Dr. Furnivall evinced special interest, and contributed before his death the nucleus of a library of Old Middle English literature. The library is to be known as « The Furnivall Library ».


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Messrs. Hodgson ad Co. sold last January the valuable library of the late Rev. J. H. Dent, removed from the Manor House, Hallaton, Leicestershire, among

which were a number of choice and interesting volumes, many possessing an importance apart from and in addition to their rarity. The series of 50 early Bibles realized a total of £125, and 39 editions of Prayerbooks £195, the entire library of 417 lots producing £1,633.

The early printed and other rare books included a good copy of the Lactantius 1468, a book printed at Rome by Sweynheym and Pannartz, from the Duke of Sussex's library-£61 (Leighton); St. Jerome, « Epistolæ et Opuscula », printed at Mentz by Peter Schoeffer, 1470, from the Hawtrey library-£41 (Leighton); a fine copy of the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1491 £31; and an unusually fine and perfect example of the Book of Hours printed on vellum by Gillet Hardouyn, 1510, from the Hawtrey library-£33 (Edwards). A copy of Stow's « Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster », 1720, with annotations in the autograph of Thomas Gray, the poet, extending over 60 pages, realized £95 (Hornstein); a presentation copy of John Nichols's << History and Antiquities of the County of Leicester », 1795-1815, from the author to J. Tailb« as a testimony of gratitude for collections made and drawings taken for this work-£88; Izaak Walton's "Lives of Dr. John Downę », &c., 1670, with autograph inscription to his sister from the author-£31 (Hornstein); « The Houghton Gallery », 1788, with 129 fine engravings and an autograph letter from the Earl of Orford to Mr. Christie, 1779, relating to the valuation and sale of the collection-£50 (Brall); J. B. Silvestre « Paléographie Universelle », 1850, a good copy of this splendid work-£27 (Nijhoff); and a sound and genuine example of the Fourth Folio Shakespeare, 1665-£42 (Stevens and Brown). From other sources there were numerous early books of travel relating to America, the most important of these being the very rare tract « A True Declaration of the Estate of the Colonie in Virginia », London, 1610-£200 (Stevens and Brown). Only three copies of this rarity are recorded in Livingston's « Auction Prices of Books », the Barlow copy selling for $210 in 1890, whilst the Whitchurch example sold for £43 in 1894. Other sales were:-R. Hamor. Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia », 1615-£121 (Sabin); J. Lederer, « Discoveries »>, 1672, a clean copy of this very rare tract, with both the map and the « Licensed » leaf-£136 (Sabin); and S. Purchas, « Hakluytus Posthumous », 1624-6-£64 (Maggs). The two days' sale realized a total of £2,410.

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The Standard Febr. 2nd, says: Among many books, formerly the property of Mr. Hughes, author of Mr. Brown's schooldays, which was sold on Feb. 1st by Mr. Hodgson, London, from the property of a Lady, copies of the Ingoldsby Legends 1st edition of the 3 series presented to Mrs. Hughes by their anonymous author Mr. Barham fetched £70. The 1st series contained the Ingoldsby's autograph and in the last Volume was transcribed a poem written to Hughes, father.


Mess. Sotheby, Wilkinson, and Hodge of London sold by auction, on Febr. 22nd, 23nd and 27th respectively the following Books and Mss. forming part of the Townshend Heirlooms (removed from Raynham Hall, Fakenham), including scarce Works on America, Travels, History, English and Foreign Literature, Books in Fine Bindings, Collections of Pamphlets on Trade, Finance, Ireland, &c., Fénelon's Aventures de Télémaque, 2 vols., 1785, with Original Drawings, Broadside Acts, Piranesi's Works, &c., also Books and Manuscripts, comprising Standard Works in English Literature, History, Science, &c.; Sport and Travel, Biography, Art, Topography, and Genealogy; Manuscripts on Vellum; Milton's Paradise Regain'd, First Edition; Ackermann's Microcosm of London, University of Oxford, and Abbey Church of St. Peter's; Oudry's Edition of Lafontaine's Fables, Large Paper; Hume and Marshall's Game Birds of India; Books illustrated by T. Bewick; Markham's How to Chuse, Ride, and Diet Hunting Horses; Books on Scotland; Early Printed Books and Foreign Literature, &c., the Library of the Rev. G. Lockhart Ross (deceased), late of 20, Richmond-square, S. W.,

comprising valuable Theological Works, Topography, Books on Art, &c., including Publications of the Scottish Historical Society, English Historical Review, Henry Bradshaw Society Publications, Wilkins' Concilia, Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum, by Caley, Ellis and Bandinel; Works of the Fathers, Catholic Writings, &c.


By the death of Dr. Watson, professor at the Royal Manchester College of Music and the University, the Musical Library of 5000 volumes which be bequeathed to the Corporation of Manchester in his lifetime, becomes the absolute property of the citizens of that industrious centre. This magnificent Collection of early editions and rare works on the History of art and music, vocal and instrumental scores etc., will be housed in the temporary building of the Free Reference Library, for which an edifice worthy of the city of Manchester will (it is hoped) be erected on the site of the old Infirmary in the next 3 years. The Collection is supplemented by Dr. Hall's generous gift of 750 items.

It will interest our Italian readers to know that the present Chief Librarian of the Free Reference Library Mr. C. W. Sutton, M. A., succeeded the late Dr. Crestadoro, of Genoa, an Italian patriot and a man of uncommon learning.

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Says The Manchester Guardian: Examples of beautiful printing are the first four books in the Verulam Library (Chapman and Hall) where for 6s. net you may have, in the kind of form Ruskin pleaded for in a celebrated passage in « Sesame and Lilies »>, Marcus Aurelius and à Kempis of the ancients, and for the moderns Bacon's « Essays » and Lamb's « Essays of Elia ». Mr. Arthur Humphreys has issued in small half-crown booklets, beautifully printed with vignette headings, « five types by Mr. Chesterton and some other extracts and essays from writers of belles-lettres ». The big centenary editions of Dickens and Thackeray published respectively by Messrs. Chapman and Hall (3s. 6d. each) and Messrs. Smith, Elder (6s. net each) have reached a further stage of publication, and the Caxton Publishing Company has completed its edition of Shakspere (6s. 6d. net each).

The experiment of the Messrs. Nelson in putting upon the French market cheap reprints of French works printed and published in this country has not lasted long enough to render possible any prediction as to its lasting success.

The Times, London. Messrs. Christie, Manson, and Woods sold in January engravings of the Early English and French schools, the property of Lord Ronald Sutherland-Gower and from other sources, the chief lots being: << Christmas Gambols », after G. Morland by J. R. Smith, and « Christmas Holidays », by and after J. R. Smith, a pair, in colours 215

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guineas (W. Sabin); « Mrs. Pelham feeding chickens », after

Sir J. Reynolds by W. Dickinson Tomkins, in colours, with wide after J. Heppner by

120 guineas (Bush); « He Sleeps », by and after P. W. margin — 175 guineas (Ellis and Smith); « Lady Charlotte Greville », J. Young, in colours

43 guineas (Maggs); and « La Petite Laitière Anglaise », after J. Northcote by T. Gaugain, in colours 46 guineas (Ellis and Smith).

The new edition this year of Webster's New International Dictionary is more conservative in the matter of spelling than one might expect in an American publication. Spelling across the Atlantic has developed on its own lines, and the advocates of reformed spelling are much more active there than here. But for all that, Webster assures us that American popular practice has been little affected by the reform movement, and even the old American spellings are ceasing to be universal. American publishers follow the English spelling in books intended for both the American and English market, and this tends to favour our more conservative practice. However, Webster is tolerably advanced. We find << center »>, << traveler >>, << imperiling», and << wagon » preferred to the ordinary English forms. << Program »,

La Bibliofilia, anno XIII, dispensa 1


we are told, is now generally adopted, but the English reader is not startled by such words as « tho», «< catalog », « relativ », « finisht », and « alfabet », (from « Miscellany », Manchester Guardian).


The University of Cambridge has taken over the copyright and control of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the promised new edition (the 11th) will be issued from the Cambridge University Press.

This edition is a completely new work, founded upon a fresh survey of the world in every department of knowledge. Its production, which represents the labours of 1500 eminent specialists, costs £230,000 before a single volume was printed, and has occupied for eight years a permanent editorial staff of 64 members.

The 28 quarto volumes of text contain, on an average, 960 pages each, with 1500 words to a page. There are 40,000 articles; 7000 illustrations in the text; 450 full-page plates; 417 maps. The index volume contains some 500,000 references. By those who apply immediately the work may be purchased at the rate of 15s. 10d. a volume. Payments will also be accepted in monthly instalments of 21s.

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Lord Rosebery on Dickens. « Lord Rosebery was the chief speaker at a meeting held in the Mansion House on Feb. 24 in support of the fund that is being raised in aid of the relatives of Dickens. The centenary of the birth of Dickens falls next year, and it has been decided to raise the commemorative fund by means of the issue of the Dickens stamp, which people are asked to buy and fix in their copies of the works. The Lord Mayor was in the chair.

<< In the course of his remarks the noble Lord said, Dickens has given us a pleasure which I think none of us overestimate, and we have given him uncommonly little in return. It is estimated that there are 25 million sets of Dickens's works in the world at this moment, making due allowance for wear and tear.-(Laughter). We must all allow thet the wear and tear of Dickens's works must be almost the greatest wear and tear known in literature; for those great works for which we owe him a debt which we can never express on repary we gave him very little. I think he died worth between £70,000 and £80,000. It is calculated that £50,000 of that rose not from the works but from his readings of those works.

<< After explaining the scheme of the Dickens stamp, Lord Rosebery went on :—« I hope the time will come when a man owning a house and an edition of Dickens bringing down a volume to lend to a friend and finding no stamp in it will be ashamed to produce it, or at any rate will be so bitterly vituperated by his friend that he will hurry to buy stamps. I like this idea of a Dickens stamp. There is no man so poor who cannot buy one penny stamp and feel he owes to this dead man who passed away in his prime before the days of great pecuniary profits from books and left this immortal heritage to bless his nation and other nations of the same race. Sir Conan Doyle put in a plea for a revision of the law of copyright. <«< It is », he said, « a hard case when a modern mediocrity at six shillings has to make a living against a dead genius at sixpence ». It would be a glorious memorial to Dickens if the injustice under which he and so many authors suffered was finally removed.

<< Mr. Birrell said that now he had seen the stamp he saw that it was a beautiful thing and a real ornament to the book, and he thought this the best and happiest scheme which could be hit upon. On the copyright question he said a difficulty was that you could not help authors selling their copyrights. They sometimes did not know they were going to be read 150 years hence, and they might be very foolish to rely upon it.-(Laughter). They were very apt to sell their rights out and out to a publisher, and « we have none of us », be added, « any desire whatever to enrich publishers ».-(Laughter) ».

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