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138 means of which the Grecians destroyed Troy. See Virgil's Eneid, Book Second.

20. Non solum unum actum, sed totam fabulam, confecissem: It has already been observed, that the authors of Cæsar's death were undecided in their conduct, after they had slain him. Cicero seems here to imply, that it was his opinion, that more should have been done, besides removing Cæsar. This was but one act; the success of the drama was not complete; there should have been a catastrophe, which would have destroyed faction, and reformed the abuses of the constitution of the republic. He seems to insinuate, that Antony should have been slain.

23. Narbone: This was one of the most ancient cities of Gaul, and gave its name to the province in which it was situated.-Hoc consilium, etc. When the conspirators were consulting about killing Cæsar, it was debated among them, whether they should invite Antony to assist them; but Trebonius was opposed to the motion, pretending that he knew Antony's sentiments relative to this matter, as he had already endeavored to urge Antony to it, at the time when Cæsar was returning from Gaul. He represented, at the same time, that Antony refused to comply with what he proposed, but that he had nevertheless kept the secret faithfully. They then debated whether they should kill Antony together with Cæsar; but Brutus opposed this, because he thought, that whatever was undertaken in defence of liberty and the laws of one's country, ought, if possible, to be conducted in a popular manner. Thus much Plutarch relates; Cicero, however, affirms, that Antony entered into the design against Cæsar, but that he had not courage to assist in the execution of it.

25. Sevocari: When the conspirators determined on the manner in which Cæsar should be slain, they ordered Trebonius to call Antony aside, in fear that Antony, who was then consul, and Cæsar's colleague, should exert his consular power to frustrate their design.

35. Ad quem, etc.: Calpurnia, Cæsar's wife, after the death of her husband, fled for shelter to Antony, carrying with her all the money Caesar had left behind him, amounting to near a million sterlingCujus domus, etc.: Antony had much reason to be pleased with the death of Cæsar, as it became the means of his political elevation; by altering the writings, which Cæsar left, foisting into them new clauses, and bribing those who wrote them to write others in the same hand, he was enabled to govern the republic, dispose of offices, and gratify his own desires in the same manner as Cæsar had done.


4. Castra....Pompeii, etc.: Antony said of Cicero, that, though he espoused Pompey's party in the civil wars, yet he did more injury than service to his friends, which assertion Cicero undertakes to refute; he advised peace, as he foresaw the evil consequences of war, and of victory, on either side.

25. At verò, etc.: When Cicero joined Pompey, he was greatly dissatisfied with many things in regard to his management of the war, and the conduct of the chiefs of his party, who, trusting to the superior fame and authority of their leader, and dazzled with the splendor of the troops, which the princes of the East had sent to their assistance, assured themselves of victory, and, without reflecting on the different characters of the two armies, would hear of nothing but fighting. Cicero endeavored to discourage this wild. spirit; but, finding that his remonstrances were slighted, he resumed his usual way of raillery, and what he could not frustrate by his authority, endeavored to make ridiculous by his jests.

35. Paphum: After the defeat at Pharsalia, Pompey fled to Pa- 139 phos, a city of Cyprus.

4. Hæreditates mihi negasti venire: It was common among the 140 Romans to bequeath legacies to distinguished men, and it was a reproach to a man of talents to have no legacy bequeathed him. In reply to this sarcasm of Antony, Cicero said, he wished that what Antony said was true, as, in that case, many of his friends, who were dead, would be living; and then he asserts, that he had received by legacies more than £160,000.

6. HS ducenties: H may be considered as II (i. e. duo) merely crossed by a horizontal line; since HVIR, for DUUMVIR, is found on ancient coins, and the numeral X is frequently so crossed (). s stands for semis, half. Thus HS ("two and a half") are used as a sign for sestertius, which also means "two and a half" (i. e. asses), being written by syncope for semis tertius, "three minus half," according to the ancient custom, in reckoning money, of placing a fraction before a whole number to diminish the latter. Similar is the Greek idiom julov тgitov, “two and a half." Sestertius is properly an adjective agreeing with nummus, understood, which, however, is sometimes expressed (sestertius nummus), and is sometimes even used alone in this sense, having sestertius understood before it. The sestertius (nummus) was originally one quarter (23 asses) of the denarius or piece of 10 asses. In computing by the sestertius, when the number amounted to one or more thousands, the Romans commonly put the word in the genitive plural (sestertiorum, or, contracted, sestertium) governed by mille, bis mille or bina millia, octo millia, centena millia, bis centena millia, &c., signifying so many thousands, or hundreds of thousands, of sestertii (nummi); but when the number amounted to decies centena millia sestertium, "ten hundred thousand" or a "million sestertii," the words centena millia were by custom suppressed, leaving decies sestertium, to signify "a million sestertii." But we find expressions like summa decies sestertii, and vivere in decies sestertio, meaning also "a million sestertii," and the grammatical form they present is not accounted for by the mode of reckoning sums less than a million. Hence several learned critics have adopted the opinion, that decies, in the reckoning of sestertii, came to be considered as an indeclinable substantive noun, in the singular number, and sestertium as an adjective, agreeing with it in number and gender, and varying in case as the position of decies in the sentence might require. This opinion is supported by the phrases, hoc decies, decies plenum, and the like. The same is true of the numeral adverbs higher than decies. According to this explanation, HS ducenties in the text is sestertio ducenties, in the ablative, governed by amplius, and is equivalent to ducenties centena millia sestertium, " two hundred hundred thousand" or twenty million sestertii." See also page 141, line 25, where sestertium sexagies is in the accusative, governed by peteret, and signifies 6,000,000. On this subject, the student is referred to the "Additional Remarks on Roman Money," at the end of Gould's edition of Adam's Latin Grammar.


8. Fateor feliciorem, etc: Cicero insinuates, that he succeeded to legacies only by the wills of his friends; that Antony succeeded to legacies not only by the wills of his friends, but by forging wills of both friends and enemies, and defrauding their heirs.

the name

11, Cassinas: This adjective is formed from Cassinum,

140 of a town of Campania, near which the Via Appia and Via Latina


24. Patris: He had dissipated his estate.

25. Hæc ut colligeres, etc. After Cicero delivered his first Philippic, Antony determined to answer him in person in the senate, and for this purpose is said to have employed himself seventeen days in preparing the materials of a speech, and declaiming against Cicero in Scipio's villa near the Tiber.

26. Alienâ villâ : These are words of reproach, which imply, that notwithstanding the rapacity and frauds of Antony, he was so prodigal, that he had not a villa of his own, in which he could retire for study or recreation.

29. Rhetorem: A rhetorician was less honorable than an orator, because the former taught the rules of rhetoric in private, which the latter practised in public.

32. Avum tuum: M. Antonius, grandfather of Antony, was a celebrated orator.

36. Campi Leontini Sex. Clodio: This Sextus Clodius, the rhetorical master of Antony, was a Sicilian by birth, and received from Antony two thousand acres of Leontine land, esteemed the most fertile in Sicily, as a reward for his instructions.

38. Ex Cæsaris commentariis: Cicero reproachfully asks, whether Cæsar's posthumous decrees, which Antony altered and interpolated as he pleased, bestowed these lands upon Sextus Clodius. 141 6. Decoxisse: Became bankrupt.-Patris: It has already been observed that Antony's father had dissipated his estate.

7. Pietatis: The original signification of this word, and the sense in which it is here used, is " filial duty."

8. Lege Roscia: The Roscian law decreed, that those knight whose estates were correspondent to their dignity, should have benches provided for them in the theatre, from which all knights should be excluded, who, either by their own fault, or the fault of fortune, had lost their property.

11. Muliebrem togam: Alluding to the licentious pleasures of Antony. At first, among the Romans, the gown was worn by both men and women. Afterwards the modest women were distinguished by the palla and the stola; the former was their ordinary vest, worn within doors, coming down to their ancles; the latter they put on when they went abroad, and covered with it the stola and their whole body. The common courtesans were not allowed to wear the stola, but were obliged to appear in a toga, as a mark of infamy, on account of its resemblance to the habit of the other sex.

25. Sestertium sexagies: See Note, page 140, line 6.


4. Intimus erat in tribunatu Clodio: Antony was intimate with Clodius while the latter was in prosperity, but deserted him when in adversity.-Qui sua erga me beneficia commemorat: No favors Antony could bestow upon Cicero, could compensate for his being an intimate friend of Clodius, while that seditious tribune was executing the dictates of his implacable enmity against Cicero.

5. Ejus....incendiorum fax: The profligacy of Antony's character justified this assertion.

6. Quiddam: Antony endeavored to commit adultery with Fulvia, Clodius's wife, whom, after the death of Clodius, he married.

7. Contra senatus auctoritatem: Ptolemy, king of Egypt, being expelled by the Alexandrines, applied to the Romans for restoration to his throne. Gahinius, persuaded by Antony, undertook to `reïn


state him, contrary to the authority of the senate, and to the Sibylline 142 oracles, which forbade that an Egyptian king should be replaced by an army.

10. Reditus....Priùs in ultimam Galliam....quàm domum: From Egypt, whither Antony had gone with Gabinius, he went to Cæsar in Farther Gaul; his numerous debts prevented his going to Rome. As Cicero asserts, Antony had no house, except one at Misēnus, a part of which was in possession of his creditors.

15. Sisaponem: Sisapone was a town of Cordŭba, in Spain, famous for its mines of red lead. It is here applied reproachfully to Antony's possession of his farm at Misēnus; for Sisăpo was held in common, not by any one in particular.

18. Acceperam.... Cæsaris literas: One of Antony's objects in going to Cæsar in Spain, was to procure money enough to secure an election to the quæstorship; but fearing that he should not succeed, if Ci cero was opposed to him, on account of his intimacy with Clodius, he prevailed upon Cæsar to write conciliatory letters to the orator.

30. Quæstor es factus: The quæstors, who were the treasurers of the republic, were sent annually into the seven provinces, one with every proconsul or governor, to whom they were next in authority; their provinces were assigned them by decree of the senate, or by casting lots. But Antony, without regard to laws or customs, went directly to Cæsar, as soon as he was made quæstor.

44..Ipsique C. Cæsari: Lentulus and Marcellus were devoted to Pompey's interest, and when they had entered the office of consuls, the senate voted a decree, that Cæsar before a certain day should dismiss his army, or be declared an enemy. Antony and Cassius were attached to Cæsar, and, during their tribuneship, would permit no decree to be passed, which was detrimental to him; they therefore opposed this; and when the senate perceived, that they would not withdraw their negative, they voted that the consuls should take care that the republic should receive no detriment. This vote gave the consuls absolute power over every individual in the city whom they thought enemies to the commonwealth. Antony and Cassius, supposing themselves endangered, immediately departed from Rome, and fled to Cæsar's camp.

5. Tot luminibus exstinctis: Cato, Marcellus, Lentulus, Domitius, 143 and other worthy characters, who were slain in the civil war.-Hostem togatum: A conspirator or traitor, who, without putting off the robe of peace, betrays his country.

26. Tu, tu....princeps: The conduct of Antony in his tribuneship was such, that the senate were obliged to take violent measures. Antony then fled to Cæsar, and afforded him a pretext for usurping the power of his country. Cæsar used the pretext; and among other pretences, by which he justified the usurpation, complained, that the constitution was disregarded by the senate and consuls, that Antony's Veto was overruled, and himself persecuted by them for discharging the official duties of the tribuneship.

38. Consules....excussos: As Cæsar advanced to the city, Marcellus and Lentulus fled to Pompey, who was with his army at Capua.

2. Tres exercitus: Pompey's at Pharsalia, Afranius's in Spain, and 144 Scipio's in Africa.

8. Helena Trojanis: For the story of Helen, the student is referred to Virgil's Eneid.

13. Patrui nulla mentio: C. Antonius, who was Cicero's colleague

144 in the consulship, had the province of Macedonia assigned to him, and for mal-administration was condemned to perpetual exile.


21. De aleâ lege: Sulla passed a law, by which all games were prohibited, except such as improved the body by exercise; such as throwing the spear, running, jumping, wrestling, and boxing.

30. Cum Casar, in Hispaniam: When Cæsar went to Spain, he committed Rome to the government of Lepidus, the prætor, and Italy and the other garrisons to Antony, who was then tribune. During the absence of Cæsar, Antony lived very profligately.

35. Qui non fui: Cicero resided only a short time in Italy, while Cæsar was in Spain.

40. Essedo: This was a kind of warlike wagon used in battle by the Gauls and Britons.

41. Mima portabatur: This mistress of Antony was Cytheris, who was also called Volumnia.

45. Rejecta mater: The unhappy mother of Antony was obliged to follow this actress as an attendant.


12. Victor e Thessalid: Pharsalia was in Thessaly.


12. Brundisium: Was a port in Italy, in which Cæsar, after the battle of Pharsalia, stationed Antony to guard Italy, while he pursued Pompey. At Brundisium it was in Antony's power to kill Cicero.

27. Tot dierum: Brundisium was fourteen days' journey from Rome.

35. Equos vectigales: Tributary horses.-Non hanc: Antony had unlawfully entered and kept possession of Pompey's house. 146 4. Hippiæ nuptiis: Hippia separated herself from her first husband,

who was a senator, and married the actor Sergius. At the nuptials of these debauched lovers, Antony drank so much wine, that the next day he vomited in the presence of the Roman people, which would have been scandalous in a common citizen, and was extremely disgraceful to a magistrate, so eminent as the master of the horse.

16. Hasta posità: After the Alexandrine war was ended, Antony advertised the goods and estate of Pompey for sale by public auction. At the sale, a spear was erected, as usual, which signified that the auction was legal, that instrument of war being an emblem of authority.

26. Unus inventus: Antony.

38. Apud poetam : This poet is said to be Nævius.

147 3. Charybdis: Charybdis is a whirlpool in the strait between the island of Sicily and Italy, and is opposite to the rock Scylla. See Virgil's Æneid, Book III, verse 414, and the following.

24. Rostra, etc.: The spoils Pompey had taken from the ships of the enemy in the piratic war. The Romans were fond of decorating their porches, and the avenues to their houses.

39. Suas res sibi habere jussit: That is, he divorced his actress; for the form of a divorce of this kind was a command, ordering the wife, res suas sibi habere, and sometimes, res suas sibi agere, which was according to the law of the Twelve Tables.

43. Et consul et Antonius: This was an appellation, which, through vanity, Antony gave to himself.

5. Earum partium Cæsar's party, which Antony followed. 9. Ei bello: This war was undertaken after Cæsar had finished the Alexandrine war. Cæsar prosecuted it in Africa against Scipio and Cato; but Antony did not join him.

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