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and translate: 'I shall decline the task.' neque et non, there being no corresponding neque. 18. non vulnus super vulnus: i. e. not another blow of the same kind, but multiplex

23. tanta mole

24. ad Aegatis

clades, a disaster many times as great.' cladis by so overwhelming a defeat.' insulas: the concluding battle of the first Punic war, 241 B. C. 25. fracti: 'disheartened.' Sardinia: this island was not

ceded then; cf. note on p. 74, 1. 20. 26. vectigalis ac stipendia27. pugnam . . . in Africa :

114, 1. 27.

202 B. C.

rios cf. note on p. the battle of Zama, CHAP. LV. 30. praetores: the highest magistrates in the absence of consuls. Upon them devolved the chief executive power. It should be remembered that the senate was in theory a mere advisory body. The magistrates acted by virtue of their imperium, but took counsel of the senate, which, however, had no initiative of its own. 31. curiam Hostiliam: cf. note on p. 38, 1. 5.

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Page 201. 1. sicuti . . . ita: 'as as,' not 'though yet.' ne.. expedirent: 'they could not form any definite plan.' 3. nondum palam facto: 'as the facts were not yet published.' 5. Appia et Latina via: the two great southern roads, by which fugitives or messengers from the battle. field would arrive. 13. agendum : 'measures were to be taken.' 18. suae . . fortunae : as to the fate of his own relatives;' sua fortuna means what specially concerned himself. 19. domi: locative; construe with expectet. auctorem: 'an informant.'

CHAP. LVI. 25. pedibus issent had voted for ' (without debate); the division was made by going to one or the other side of the house. 27. diversi: ‘in different directions.' 31. inconpositorum inordinatorumque: 'demoralized and disorganized.'

Page 202. 1. nundinantem: 'bargaining,' 'haggling; denominative verb from nundinae (novem dies), market days.' 3. anniversarium Cereris: the regular Cerealia occurred in April. This statement is obscure, as the battle was fought nominally on August 2d. The allusion may be to another feast of Ceres mentioned by Cicero (Pro Balbo, 55; De Leg. ii. 21, 37). The Cerealia was a festival of matrons, and so many of

them were in mourning that few were left to wear the white festal garb. 7. diebus ablative. 11. regnum Hieronis: Syracuse and the country about it along the east coast of the island. 13. Aegatis insulas: off the northwest corner of the island. 15. Lilybaeum: cf. note on p. 123, 1. 22.

CHAP. LVII. 20. M. Claudium (Marcellum): he had not yet gone to his province (cf. p. 180, l. 24). He was already a distinguished soldier, and had gained a signal victory over the Gauls in 222 B. C., slaying their king Viridomarus, and thus gaining spolia opima for the third and last time in Roman history. classi: probably the one mentioned p. 176, l. 18. 28. necata: it was deemed sacrilegious to lay violent hands on the Vestals who had been consecrated to the goddess, and so, when convicted of unchastity, they were buried in a subterranean vault in the campus sceleratus by the Colline gate. scriba . . . quos: constructio per synesim, the relative indicating the class to which the individual belonged.



Page 203. 1. Fabius Pictor: the historian; cf. Introduction, p. viii. 3. suppliciis supplicationibus; archaic. 4. fatalibus libris: the Sybilline books. 6. in foro bovario : cf. note on p. 137, 1. 28. 8. minime Romano: what Livy disapproves is un-Roman; the blame is here laid upon the foreign books. There are several traces of human sacrifice in Roman history, e. g. M. Curtius, Decius Mus, the ver sacrum, etc. 13. legio tertia: it appeared, p. 198, 1. 29, that the third legion was at Cannae. This may have been the third marine legion, or a new count may have been made after the destruction of the consular army, or it may be a mistake. Teanum Sidicinum: an important town in northern Campania, commanding the Via Latina. 17. M. Junius (Pera): the last dictator rei gerendae causa. Ti. Sempronius (Gracchus): consul in 215 and 213 B. C. 19. praetextatos: boys under seventeen, who had not exchanged the toga praetexta for the toga virilis. 21. ex formula: the list of those capable of bearing arms, according to which the quota of each of the allied communities was regulated. 25. servitiis servis: abstract for concrete. By being enrolled in the legions, the slaves were emancipated. 28. copia fieret: 'the opportunity was


CHAP. LVIII. 29. secundum: immediately after.'


Page 204. 8. aliquantum adiciebatur: cf. p. 198, 1. 1, where no distinction is made between equites and pedites. aliquid oblitus: A. 219; H. 407; G. 375, R. 2. dictatoris verbis: 'in the dictator's name.'



21. finibus Romanis: the territory of the thirty-five tribes of cives Romani.

CHAP. LIX. 22. senatus: 'an audience of the senate.' 23. M. Iuni: the dictator, as the presiding officer, is addressed first and by name.

Page 205. 7. a Gallis: in 390 B. C. 8. patres vestros: more than sixty years before, the senate had sent an embassy concerning an exchange of prisoners to Pyrrhus of Epirus. 14. nisi in quibus: 'only because,' etc. 19. premendo : = deprimendo, 'by disparaging.' 25. utemini: 'you will find.'

Page 206.

1. avarior an crudelior: A. 192; H. 444, 2; G. 314. 5. Intueri potestis: the doors of the curia were standing open, so that the crowd outside was visible to the senators. 10. in discrimine: at stake.' fidius : i. e. ita me d. f. iuvet, ‘so help me,' etc.

11. me dius

21. vos

pepercisse: 'that you grudged the money.' CHAP. LX. 24. in comitio: the northeast part of the forum, in front of the curia. 28. arbitris: including the delegates of the prisoners; cf. note on p. 26, 1. 14. consuli: passive because individual members were called on by the presiding magistrate for their opinions. 32. mutuam: 'as a loan.' praedibusque 'sureties,' 'bondsmen;' praedes (prae, vas). 33. praediis: 'landed estates,' i. e. 'mortgages;' praedium=praehendium. T. Manlius Torquatus: consul in 235 and 224 B. C.; the surname 'was from the torque or necklace of a gigantic Gaul slain by his ancestor, 361 B. C. 34. priscae, etc.: Cicero would not thus join a genitive of quality with a proper name.

Page 207. 4. quid enim aliud quam quam directly before ut;

331, R. 2. 19. ipsis:

in translating put

aliud, A. 238, b;

H. 371, II.; G.

they too,' as well as the Romans.

21. etiam per confertos: 'even if they had been in close array.'

23. Nocte prope tota: rhetorical exaggeration; cf. p. 196, 11. 8, sqq. 28. P. Decius (Mus) secured the retreat of the Roman army in the first Samnite war, 343 B. C., by seizing and holding, with a small detachment, a position where their destruction by the enemy seemed almost certain. 30. priore: not primo, as the speaker knew of no third Punic war. Calpurnius Flamma, in 258 B. C. in Sicily sacrificed himself and his detachment to save the army.

Page 208. 10. deminuti capite for the different grades of capitis deminutio, vide Sandars' Justinian, p. 124 (Am. ed.); these men suffered the maxima c. d., as they lost liberty as well as citizenship. Being no longer cives, they had no patria to regret. abalienati = = privati.

would have succeeded).' but an under-statement.

18. conati sunt: 'attempted (and 28. viginti milia: a round number,

Page 209. 2. At ad erumpendum, etc. : rhetorical statement, made in order to be contradicted with emphasis. 8. Orto sole the speaker drops his irony and states the fact as it was. 10. vobis: A. 236; H. 389; G. 351.

CHAP. LXI. 29. locupletari: a weak argument; the same result would follow if the prisoners were sold as slaves, and we learn that these very ones were sold in Greece for five hundred denarii apiece. (Livy, Bk. xxxiv., ch. 50.) 30. redimi: present, instead of future, showing the certainty of the decision. 33. fallaci reditu: cf. p. 204, ll. 15, sqq.

Page 210. 14. per causam: 'under the pretext.' 18. proxumis censoribus: temporal ablative. 19. notis: the nota was the censor's entry on the list of senators, equites, or citizens, giving the reason for the degradation of those whose names were removed therefrom; thence it came to mean any brand of disgrace. 21. omni deinde vita: 'all the rest of their lives.' 28. Defecere: the nations here named did not all fall away at once, but gradually; but it was at this time that defection on a large scale began.

Page 211. 2. causa maxima: it is not unlikely that Varro, like Flaminius, has been made a scapegoat for the errors of the government. It is altogether probable that the senate and people

had resolved to fight a pitched battle and end a situation that was felt to be no longer tolerable. The extraordinary preparations and this subsequent action of the senate support this view. After the event it was easy, and soon became traditional, to lay the blame on the plebeian consul.

5. nihil recusandum supplicii foret: 'there is no extreme of punishment that he would not have had to bear;' the Carthaginians were in the habit of crucifying generals who were unsuccessful.


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