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There are already fourteen or fifteen hundred squatters on the borders of this river; the greater part of whom have given up hunting and trading for the cultivation of rich lands whose products are certain, and the necessary labour peaceful and without danger. The wise man who wishes to live independent and tranquil, free from the shackles of sophisticated society, may enjoy bere full and complete satisfaction. Agriculture, the chace, fishing, and the pleasures of a well provided table will amply compensate him for the absence of the too often perfidious attentions of the shining cit. Those who have played a distinguished part in life retain their greatness in solitude, but lose it on the pavements. Adieu, my dear friend. I could write you a full volume; but I dread the task, and fear you will be scarcely able to read my scrawl. My hands are only suited to the plough, and to it I destine them for the remainder of my life. “Ubi libertas, ibi Patria." My best respects to the illustrious exiles. Tell them, I beg you, that they cannot better place the wreck of their fortunes than here. With five or six thousand dollars and discretion, a respectable beginning can be made, life be enjoyed, and independence secured. With courage and perseverance, we shall speedily attain a fortune, rely upon it. Tell our friend Anacreon ****** not to bury himself in the snows of the St. Lawrence; let him transport his talents and chemical apparatus here, and we will keep a continued jubilee. Here is a country ignorant of arts, and ratherone that calls out aloud for them. Did I not dread writing, I could sketch him scenes, in blooming colours. Be kind enough to communicate to him my long epistle. Apropos; there is scarcely any winter in this country. We are already in the midst of spring. Frost is seen but five or six times during winter, and the heat is said not to be so great as at Philadelphia. The cultivation of cotton, the manufacturing of oil and soap, and attention to the vine, are sure of obtaining independence here. One man can cultivate six acres of land-when cleared, the acre yields one thousand to twelve hundred pounds of cotton in the pod, and three hundred pounds picked. The nett produce of the acre may be estimated at $50. Children can be employed to gather it, and men be very profitably engaged in making oil, soap, brandy and staves, which sell for $50 the thousand at New Orleans. Sufficient for their support may be easily raised, and the food for the cattle costs nothing, which is a very great advantage.
CONDITION OF THE POOR. THOSE who have been engaged in large manufactories, have, probably, had the best opportunities of observing the poor in gross. Individual benevolence is applied only in detail, and more particularly to the meritorious poor; to those who have habits of cleanliness, order and probity; to those who acquired such habits under the roof or protection of independent families; to those who are, to a certain degree, civilized, and who look forward with something like ambition to the improvement of their own situation. But the manufacturer has to deal with the average poor; with the spendthrift and the sparethrift, with the young and the
old, with the single and the married, with the jobber and the jour. neyman, with the libertine and the drunkard, the ignorant and the religious, the ill paid and the well paid. If to local observation, and to inquiry not negligent, some weight may be assigned, the manufacturers find that the poorest of the poor are in all their habits the least prudent, and the least virtuous. Cleanliness requires time, which those, whose earnings are small, cannot afford. Honesty is superinduced by appropriating early to children their playthings and their clothes individually, and by enforcing from each a rigid respect for the little appurtenances of the brother and the sister. Extreme poverty compels frequent encroachment. The father's watch, or the mother's cloak, must be carried to the pawn-broker; and this is done by stealth, and in their abserce. The clothes of two must be employed upon the one, who is this Sunday to be led to church. The gift of a week of plenty, must be sold in a week of scarcity, for bread for the little ones. Hence all learn to enjoy and consume what they have, while it lasts, without forethought; and when they want, learn to encroach, without remorse, on the right of another. Instruction is purchased when work is plentiful; and the children are sent to those evening schools, where reading, writing, and cyphering are taught for sixpence a week; but instruction ceases with income, and poverty's inexorable bar shuts out even the chance of advancement. Religious instruction again is pursued when work is plentiful; when a decent appearance can be made at church, when a mite can be thrown in the bag, which solicits the contribution of charity. Frugality, providing against the morrow, or the impending morrow and winter of sickness and of age, can only be practised where more is earned than is sufficient for to day. Enrich then the poor. Their virtues usually follow in the exact order and degree of their habitual earnings. Be it observed, however, that profuse uncertain earnings do not produce so beneficial an effect on the character, as less considerable regular earnings. He who undertakes task-work, who contracts for a whole job, or works by the piece, although he will work harder, is seldom a man of so provident a character, as he who is paid by the day, or the week, or the month, or the year. In proportion to the reliance on the continuance of the prosperity is the care to enjoy it with modera
tion. 'Sailors and soldiers are improvident for the same reasons as jobbers in a manufactory: providers, clerks, house-servants, are orderly, cleanly, provident. Almost every man will gladly forego a great many pleasures of the senses, such as intoxication and the like, in order to come at the pleasures of opinion, which a neat room and a neat garment confer. But to be decently dressed and lodged is only valuable if it can be continual: the more tification incurred by the cessation prevents those from begin. ning who cannot hope to grow: so that the preference of debauch to respectability is itself only the prudence of misery, the calculated choice of despairing penury, the natural behaviour of the poorest of the poor.
In looking over the life of general Morgan, published in the Port Folio in the year 1814, I found the following observations, relating to a medal presented to that officer:
“ We would merely observe, that in our opinion, those honoured by their country by such testimonials of national gratitude, would do well to deposit them in the archives of sone public institution. The testimonial is there preserved, not liable to casualty, or to fall into the hands of some ignorant administrator or executor, who is insensible of its value, and would willingly exchange it for an eagle."
“ We would ask, what has now become of the medal granted to Morgan?”
For the information of the writer of that article, I take the liberty of stating that the medal which was granted to general Morgan is now in the possession of his grandson Morgan Ne. vilie, Esq. of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; a gentleman capable of appreciating its real value, and of transmitting it unsullied to his posterity. In reply to another part of these remarks, I would ask what are the objects of these “testimonials of public gratitude?" To reward merit and to excite emulation. Who then so proper to cherish and preserve them as the descendents of those whose worth has gained them! Who so likely to be affected by the example as the possessor of those laurels which were gained by the gallantry of his ancestor! To deposit such a memorial in the archives of a public institution would be to consign it to oblivion. Buried in a crowd, it would be seen only by the amateur who would value the execution more than the occasion that produced it, while those who could feel its value would be deprived of the precious inheritance.
The biographer of general Morgan probably did not consider how delicate a string he struck-if he had, he would not, I pre. sume, have touched it with so careless a hand. The descendents of the brave are the rightful heirs to all their honours and there are few among us so degenerate as to be willing to barter a timonial of national gratitude" for an “ eagle.”
THE DISEASE OF SCOLDING. From the days of the Spectator to the present time, periodical writers have indulged in invectives against scolding, from an evi. dent misconception of the true nature, principles, and practice of scolding Nay, our ancestors were more to blame, because they went farther, and, considering scolding as a crime, invented a punishment for it. Much light has never been thrown upon the subject; but, as I have made it my particular study for the last five. and-thirty years, that is, ever since I entered into the happy state of matrimony, I hope I shall have it in my power to dispel the darkness of ignorant and persecuting times, and contribute some. thing to eradicate those unreasonable prejudices, which many gentlemen of our own days entertain against scolding.
The theory of scolding has been grossly mistaken. That which is a disease has been considered as a fault: whereas, in fact, scolding is a disease, principaily of the lungs, and when the noxious matter has been long pent up, it affects the organs of speech in a very extraordinary manner, and is discharged with a violence which, while it relieves the patients, tends very much to disturb and frighten the beholders, or persons that happen to be within hearing
Such is my theory of scolding; and if we examine all the appearances which it presents, in different families, we shall find that they will all confirm this doctrine. It is, therefore, the greatest cruelty, and the greatest ignorance, to consider it as a crime. A person may as well be confined in jail for a fever, or transported for the gout, as punished for scolding, which is, to all intents and purposes, a disease arising from the causes already mentioned.
Nor is it only a disease of itself, but it is also, when improperly treated, the cause of many other disorders. Neglected scoldings have often produced fits, of which a remarkable instance may be found in a treatise written by Dr. Colman, entitled, The Jealous Wife, in the fourth chapter, or act, as he calls it, of that celebrated work. On the other hand, where the scolding matter has been long pent up, without any vent, I have, little doubt that it may bring on consumptions of the lungs, and those dreadful hysterical disorders which, if not speedily fatal, at least embitter the lives of many worthy members of society. All these evils might have been
averted, if the faculty had considered scolding in the light of a disease, and had treated it accordingly. In pursuance of my theory, I now proceed to the
Symptoms.-The symptoms of scolding are these; a quick pulse, generally about one hundred beats in a minute; the eyes considerably inflamed, especially in persons who are fat, or reside near Wapping; a flushing in the face, very often to a great degree; at other times, in the course of the fit, the colour goes and comes in a most surprising manner; an irregular, but violent mo. tion of the hands and arms, and a stamping with the right foot; the voice exceedingly loud, and, as the disorder advances, it becomes huarse and inarticulate; and the whole frame is agitated. After these symptoms have continued for some time, they gradu. ally, and in some cases very suddenly, go off; a plentiful effusion of water comes from the eyes, and the patient is restored to health; but the disorder leaves a considerable degree of weakness, and a peculiar foolishness of look, especially if any strangers have been present during the fit. The memory too, is, I conceive, somewhat impaired; the patient appears to retain a very imperfect recollection of what passed, and if put in mind of any circumstances, obstinately denies them. These symptoms, it may be supposed, will vary considerably, in different patients, but where they appear at one time, there can be very little doubt of the disorder.
Predisposing Causes. In all diseases, a knowledge of the predisposing causes will be found to assist us in the cure. In the present case, these causes are, irritability of the vascular system, an exaltation of the passions, and a moderate deficiency of natural temper.
Occasional Causes.-The occasional causes of scolding are many. Among them may be enumerated, the throwing down of a china bason, misplacing a hat, or a pair of gloves, or an umbrella; leaving a door open; over-doing the meat; under-doing the same; spilling the soup; letting the fire go out; mistaking the hour, &c. &c. with many others, which I do not think it very necessary to enumerate, because these causes are so natural, that we cannot prevent them, and because, whatever the occasional cause of the disorder may be, the symptoms are the same, and the mode of cure the same.
Cure.-Various remedies have been thought of for this distemper, but all, hitherto, of the rough and violent kind, which, therefore, if they remove the symptoms for the present, leaves a greater disposition toward the disoriler than before. Among these the common people frequently prescribe the application of an oak stick, a horse-whip, or a leather strap or belt, which, however, are all liable to the objection I have just stated. Others have recommended argumentation; but this, like inoculation, will not produce the desired effect, unless the patient be, in some degree, prepared to receive it. Some have advised a perfect silence in all persons