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together, such an assemblage of noble scenery, as the cye rarely encounters; and the whole mostly encircled with distant mouatains, the sides of which are well clothed with foliage from the forest and other trees; and the grounds all in a state of high cultivation. The windings of the fine river, with the boats and other craft frequently passing to and fromthe town and its elevated public buildings, all conspire to form the most agreeable and picturesque scenery that can well be imagined; in short, from this spot, and many others about the town, one notices the surrounding country so delightfully variegated and bold, as must ever be desirable for a painter to exercise his talents, as the boast of every species of scenery necessary to mark the sublimest subjects in nature. The variety of' tints, and bold effects of the hills and mountains, are a school for the first landscape painter in this, or any other country.

I should also notice, that the town and its environs are fortunate in the possession of three very essential particulars conducive to the health and happiness of man, namely:-the extreme beau. ty of the situation--the salubrity and clearness of its general atmosphere, and the excellence of its waters.

Yours, &c.


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On the late visit of the President to the Independence 74, com. Bainbridge, with that attention to the interests of those under his command which so strongly characterises him, on presenting his officers, detained acting midshipman King, while he mentioned his escape alone in an open boat from Bermuda. The following is the statement in the words of midshipman King himself.

“I was taken in the U. S. brig Vixen, on the 22d of November, 1812, by his Britannic Majesty's ship Southampton, commanded by Sir James Yeo. The Vixen and Southampton were wrecked on the 27th of November, on Little Island, one of the · Bahamas. We were taken off Little Island, by his Majesty's brig Rhodian, and taken 10 Jamaica, where we were kept prisoners until the 3rd of April, 1813, when a part of the Vixen's

erew were paroled, myself among the number, and sent home in the Rebecca Syms, of Philadelphia. We entered the Delaware on the 2d of May, and were boarded by the Poictiers of 71 guns, commanded by Sir John P. Beresford, who ordered us to come to anchor, and took all the officers and men belonging to the Vixen on board the Poictiers, for the purpose of exchanging them for some of his crew, then prisoners at Philadelphia. The officers and men were released on the 10th of May, with the exception of James Stephens, carpenter of the Vixen, and myself; whom Sir John thought proper to detain on the supposition of our being British subjects. The Poictiers sailed for Bermuda on the 12th, and arrived on the 25th of May. Stephens and my. self were sent on board the guard-ship Ruby, of 64 guns, then commanded by com. Evans. The Ruby had a fine boat, which sailed remarkably fast. I mentioned to some of my companions in captivity, that we might venture to cross the gulf in her with. out much danger, but could get none of them to join me, with the exception of a man by the name of John Black, who gave his assent, and gave his oath that he would join me in any scheme for our liberty. Thinking that I could put confidence in this man, I next day sold some shirts to some of the crew, and got one of the men belonging to the Ruby to buy me a pocket compass and four loaves of bread. --Being 6 or 8 days without getting any chance to make my escape, and our mess being short of provisions, I gave two of my loaves to the mess. The 24th of July being very stormy, and continuing so during the night, I thought it would be the best opportunity I could get of going off with the boat, and accordingly watched for the favouring moment. About 11 o'clock, P. M. a heavy squall of rain came on, and the sentry on the gang-way went under a shed that was built over the main hatchway, and the officer of the deck and quartermaster got under the forward part of the poop. Seeing the coast clear, I got my pocket compass and the remaining two loaves of bread, and called my companion. We got down on the lower deck, and unshipped one of the gratings of the lower deck port; I gave my bundle to my companion, and told him to remain there until I could get the boat along side; I got out on the swinging boom and cut the painter and hauled the boat close in the side; but what was my astonishment when my companion, after handing me the bundle, said he would not go! In vain did I state that we would have fair wind one half the way at least, owing to the trade winds prevailing in that latitude; he said it would be impossible to cross the gulf in an open boat, and mentioned the scantiness of our provisions; finding that I could not prevail on him to go, I shoved off, and let the boat drift astern of the ship. When about a hundred yards astern, they struck a bell, and the sentry cried all was well. I made sail as soon as possible, and at day light was 36 miles from the ship-On missing the boat they sent several vessels in chase of me, as I have since been informed by one of the prisoners on board.

I had several squalls between Bermuda and the gulf stream. I suffered a good deal for want of sleep, and did every thing I could think of to keep myself awake. My lips were parched with the sun; I used to irritate them with my fingers to try if the pain would keep me awake; but all proved ineffectual; I often got asleep, and sometimes when I awoke, would find the boat with her sails aback and steering a different course. After being out four days, I tried to steer by tying my hand to the tiller, which proved to be very useful to me the rest of the pas. sage. I suffered a good deal in the gulf, owing to the continual motion of the boat. I saw a brig, but thinking that she was an Englishman, I was fearful of approaching her. I made Cape Henry on the 2nd of August, about 4 P. M. and on approaching the light house, discovered the British fleet lying in Lynnhaven bay. I hauled to the southward, and beached the boat about 12 o'clock at night, about 10 miles to the southward of the Cape. I unbent the boat's jib, and carried it about a quarter of a mile from the boat, and went to sleep. I got up about sun-rise next morning, and got to Mr. Whitehouse's dwelling, who treated me with every kindness that my situation required. I proceeded to Norfolk after remaining with Mr. Whitehouse two days, when I, reported myself to capt. Cassin, who advanced me funds to go to Washington. I sold my boat for 30 dollars; the boat was about 22 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 3 deep, with a foresail, mainsail and jib. She was ballasted with fresh water in breakers."

ON THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SUMMERS Which are adapted to give activity to the infection or seeds of the

Yellow Fever, in the city of Philadelphia.

On the first day of August 1809, there was published in the American Daily Advertiser, and on the same day or within a few days after, in most of the other daily papers of this city, an account, which I had prepared, of the state of Farenheit's Thermometer taken in the shade at 3 P. M. during seventeen summers, 1793 to 1809, both inclusive. I shall now republish that account, and subjoin a state of the same instrument from 1810 to 1817, so as to comprehend in all twenty-five summers, 1793 to 1817. The intent of this publication is to exhibit to public view the mean heat at 3 P. M. of each and every of those summer months, and to draw an inference from thence, that the Yellow Fever, being a

native of hot climates, cannot probably prevail to any alarming extent here in any season, except the mean heat of the thermometer at that hour, during the summer, and especially during the two whole months of June and July shall be as high as seventynine degreesif cooler, it will not spread, although some passengers and their clothing and bedding may arrive here, bringing the disease or the infection with them; but in hotter seasons it has prevailed and probably will again prevail more or less, and very much in proportion to the heat of the season.

This is not an inquiry prompted by idle curiosity, but an attempt to establish a knowledge very important in its consequences, not only to all our citizens concerned in naval or mercatile business, but to the whole population of this city and liberties: because, if well founded, as I believe it to be, it will serve as a rule to point out to every citizen when there is, or is not danger to be apprehended; when it may be necessary, or not, to provide retreats in the country. If well understood and established to be a truth founded in experience, it may also tend to disembarrass the trade of this port, in some years, from detentions and quarantines, when they are useless.

By the following account of the mean heat at 3 P. M. of each month in the last twenty-five summers, it will appear evidently that the Yellow Fever has never within that period prevailed here at all, or so as to occasion alarm, when the mean heat at that hour of all June and July had been lower than 49° only a very little in 1802; and that in cvery summer when it has been above 79° it has prevailed more or less, and the mortality has been regulated very much by the heat being higher or lower. In 1793 and 1798, which were the hottest summers in all the twenty-five years, it prevailed most, and was attended by the most extreme mortality: In 1797, 1799, 1803 and 1805, when lower degrees of heat prevailed, the mortality was less. In all the other years (except a small mortality in 1802) when the mean heat of those two months was below 790 at the hour mentioned, we have had no alarm of the Yellow Fever.

I consider the two months of June and July as governing the summer season, insomuch that by the first day of August in any year, we may be pretty certain, whether we shall be afflicted with

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Yellow Fever that year, or not, so that if we find the mean heat of the thermometer at 3 P. M. placed properly in the shade in a free current of air, at least 20 or 30 feet from any sunshine, and not exposed to the reflected heat of any building, to be below 79• we may rest easy, and conclude that we are not likely to be visited with that scourge during the summer or autumn then passing over our heads.

In 1793 the mean heat of June and July at 3 P. M. was 82 degrees-in 1798 it was 80 degrees 6, both of which indicated the calamity that followed; but August 1798 was so extremely hot, that it heightened the mortality, and made it nearly equal to what it was in 1793, when the two first summer months were hotter, but August not so hot as in 1798. The wetness or dryness of the summer may also have an effect, not yet well ascertained: it being remarkable that in 1805, when the mean heat of all. June and July was 79 degrees and August 81 degrees 7, the two months of July and August were so very dry, that perhaps not so much as one quarter of an inch in depth, of rain fell till within three or four days of the end of the latter month, when it rained moderately; this rain appeared sufficient, coming after the preceding heat, to give activity to the dormant infection of the Yellow Fever, which immediately afterwards broke out, more especially in southwark, where it was very mortal in all September. The use of the Schuylkill water which is said to be much purer than the old pump water, may have had a very beneficial effect by way of prevention, within the last ten or twelve years; so may the regulations and care of the different boards of health, which to a certain degree should never be intermitted: still I am ot opinion that the heat, not of a few days or weeks, but the mean heat of the summer season is the grand governing cause, under Providence, that exa cites or depresses this alarming and dreadful scourge when it appears in our city.

Here follows the state of the thermometer in each month, of those twenty-five summers as above referred to.

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