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RURAL ECONOMY.--FOR THE PORT FOLIO.
* So shall thy barns be filled with plenty.”—Prov. iii. 10.
Steeping of seed, is a practice that has prevailed in some degree since the early periods of the art of husbandry--its utility has not been fully determined. Much depends upon the nature of the steep
The carbonated liquor afforded by dung hills, is highly esteemed in China, as a steep, which promotes the growth of the crop, and protects the seed from injury by insects.
Sowing:-Greater attention ought to be paid by our farmers to the manner of depositing seed in the ground. Winter grain should be sown deep, as it would thereby be better protected against the effect of frost and thaws, so common in our climate, which throws the grain out of the soil; in consequence of which it perishes. Spring grain, does not require so much depth. Sowing broad cast answers with some seed, but for others, the drill might be used to much greater advantage.
Manures.-We do not know that any subject of equal importance, has less regard paid to it by our farmers, than the formation of manures.
Many vegetable, and other substances, which are permitted to lay unobserved, and unimproved, would essentially contribute to increase this valuable article in husbandry. Soiling of horses, and different kinds of cattle, with clover, and other artificial grasses, would richly repay the supposed waste of time, which the practice would require. Raking the woodland and conveying the vegetable matter thus collected to the barn yard, and the clearing up of fences, instead of being burnt, should be taken to the same depot, together with all other substances capable of decomposition; and by a judicious management of the drainings of the stable admixed, would form a valuable stock of manure.
Application of manure. It is certainly a great error, to spread a small quantity of manure over a large space of ground.
If our farmers would cultivate fewer acres, and them well, their gains would be proportionate. People who pursue the plan of extensive cultivation with small stocks of manurc do not calcu
late the time, and labour expended to so little purpose. One acre properly manured, and well attended, will yield more than five, less judiciously managed.
Marle. The various success that has attended the use of this article, renders it important that accurate observation and experiment should be made with respect to it. It abounds in the state of New Jersey, and in most alluvial countries, and certainly forms a valuable item in the list of manures. It differs however so much in quality, and produces such opposite effects on different soils, as to require great care in its application. If some of our intelligent agriculturists would make this subject an object of investigation, and publish the result, they would essentially serve the interests of husbandry. (vid. post.)
Hedges. Owing to the rapid consumption of our timber, it has become of importance that we should adopt the use of live fence. Not only the utility, but the beauty of this mode of dividing grounds, should be regarded by farmers.
The Hessian fly is an insect whose character and habits, have not been sufficiently studied. When we consider the extent of its ravages in some seasons it might be supposed to be of sufficient importance to give to it the attention which it merits.
Whether any particular kind of wheat is less liable to its assaults, or any mode of culivation a protection against its ravages, are questions which ought to engage the serious notice of practical farmers.
The cui worm, or corn grub, has of late years become a formidable foe. Fall ploughing has been adopted with singular success, in preventing its destructive career. We strongly, and confidently recommend the practice.
AGRICULTURAL SOOIETY OF PHILADELPHIA.
Marl. From Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, Bart. president of the Bath and West of England Society for promoting agriculture, a letter was received accompanied by the 14th vol. ot Memoirs of that institution. Among other interesting papers contained in the work, is an analysis of the marl of New Jersey by
Dr. Wilkinson of Bath, who concludes his observations as follows: “ With Mr. Cooper (professor Cooper) I think, it is most probable, that the good qualities (of the marl) are principally to be attributed to the iron."
Crope. Letters from gentlemen of great respectability were read on the subject of the crops.-It appears that the Hessian fly has destroyed many fields of wheat in the state of Virginia. In Maryland and Delaware, it has done much injury. In Pennsylvania the harvest promises to be abundant. The cut worm has every where seriously affected the corn, and unless the season should be uncommonly favourable, not more than one-third of the usual quantity of Indian corn will be grown.
New plough. T. M. Randolph Esqr. of Virginia has presented to the president of the society a hill-side plough; this implement will no doubt be found an important acquisition to the farmers of Pennsylvania.
Hare's blow-pipe.--From a Letter of Dr. Wilkinson of Bath to the president we make the following extract: “I avail myself of the present opportunity in mentioning that the experiments noticed by Dr. Clarke of Cambridge with an apparatus containing a condensed mixture of the oxygene and hydrogene gases in the same proportion as they enter into the composition of water, have been repeated in Bath about two months since by myself, with the valuable assistance of Sir H. Davy. We observed very little difference in our experiments from those published in the American Memoirs of 1804 by Mr. Hure, although the heat from this inflamed mixture is very intense, yet it only fused the earths, but did not reduce any to the metallic state. account I prefer Mr. Hare's mode of conducting the experiments, to the one adopted by Dr. Clarke.
Sheep. Several applications were made from the southward for the broad tail Tunis sheep, experience having proved (as the writers assert) that that breed possesses advantages superior to the Merino.-Meeting of the 12th. June.
CRITICISM.-The Colonial Policy of Great Britain, considered with Rela
tion to the North American Provinces, and West Indian Possessions, &c. &c. By a British Traveller. 1816.
The following article will be perused with no little interest, by the American reader, because it contains the sentiments of a respectable journal, which is published in the metropolis of a country where we are regarded with a watchful eye. The anxiety of the author and his reviewer, on the subject of Canada, is quite natural, but as long as Great Britain is obliged to give bribes to settlers “ to prevent them from repairing to the United States, in preference to remaining in Canada," the population will be small, and the Colony continue to be exposed to great hazard. It is in vain that these writers assume an air of contempt in estimating our strength. It suits their purposes to represent us as a nation, which exhibits " at once the dissipation of youth, the selfishness of maturer years, and the feebleness of old age." John Bull may
swallow all this, because he is a great blockhead, and it is his principle to " hate all other countries,” and “ to think all other people, fools." (Ed. Rev.) But in an unguarded moment these writers will admit—as is done in the review before us,--that “Great Britain never had an enemy more to be dreaded," than her dissipated, selfish, and feeble offspring. Reflections on Custom-houses come with an ill grace from a country whose commercial revenues are protected by a mass of legislative provisions, greater we believe in bulk, than those which contains the whole code of the United States. In the various reports of our collectors to the Treasury Department, it is frequently remarked how seldom frauds occur. These reports are confirmed by an inspection of the calendars of the District Courts, where such offences are cognizable. Not long since, a parcel of stones were found concealed in cotion which had been shipped to a foreign port. In the English newspapers such occurrences are published daily, and John Bull shakes his chubby cheeks at the hoax, as it is there innocently termed. But among us this infamous fraud excited an universal burst of indignation, and the people were urged in the daily gazettes, to vindicate the national character, by detecting the swindler. Because “ an eminent divine" took occasion to say,
in Boston, that “ we are accused of being too greedy of gain, and not over-scrupulous how we obtain it,” the author of the book under consideration, takes it pro confe880 and affirms that we are “ justly characterized.” How it may be in Boston we shall not say, but in the Southern section the very reverse of this is the fact. If a Virginian can get enough to clothe his negroes and entertain his friends he is satisfied. We fear that there are very few dealers in any country, who could stand the test which the holy minister is commissioned to apply. The most upright dealer who occupies his compter for six days, and on the seventh, instead of resting from his labours, shall sit down to count his gains, will assuredly learn from this authority that he is too greedy of gain. Yet it would be regarded as an atrocious libel to say of this man, that he is not very nice as to the adoption of means” in his « commercial transactions." If we were to draw inferences with such facility, what could we say of the state of moráls, among our calumniators after reading “ the Book”-the most remarkable speeches of Erskine, Curran and Phillips, the delicate epistles of the “ commander in chief,” and that miracle of piety, as he is described by some writers,-lord Nelson? what could we not say that would not be quite as liberal and as logical as the strictures of the Quarterly Review on Inchiquin's Letters, and Porter's Journal? Has our “cupidity” ever prevailed to so “ astonishing a degree," as to induce us to subjugate an immense empire, by means, which, when described by Burke, produced sensations almost incredible? Do our ministers of justice seek for culprits in the abodes of opulence and the circles of fashion, and knock, in vain, at the gates of the palace?-Why must we be compelled to perform the painful task of exhibiting such profligacy? Far more in unison with our feelings would it be to expatiate on the nobler qualities of the English character; to extol their patience under difficulty, their greatness in action, and their magnanimity in success: to sit at the feet of their philosophers, and gather experience from her statesmen. But the continent is the theatre which they select for the display of their bright side, while to us, who are united to them by the ties of blood and act under the same code of moral and municipal law,—to us they exhibit only the dark features. Their obstinacy drove us into a political independence;