« IndietroContinua »
exposed himself to the united fire of our vessels and fort, both of which swept the plain. The order of landing may have been equally exceptionable. Instead of following, and rendering it possible to be beaten in detail, the engagement would doubtless have been much shortened, and the success far more complete, had the whole line been thrown on shore simultaneously. The enemy could not then, without hazard, have concentrated his force, as he did, at one point; and while one portion of the line engaged him, the remainder might have acted on his flanks or
As it was-when the advance and first brigade had beaten the enemy, he was able to make an almost unmolested retreat, as the two other brigades had not yet reached the scene of action. Or, instead of assailing him in one point only, had one brigade, or even colonel Macomb's command, been joined to colonel Burn's dragoons, and under the cover of the light artillery-which easily commanded the other side of the river-been directed to cross above, and make a lodgment on the Queenstown road, and intercepted his retreat that way,—the enemy would have been greatly embarrassed, and, if he escaped, obliged to retreat by the almost impracticable lake-roads. Being allowed, as he was, to take the Queenstown road, he had a feasible route, and fell back upon the garrison of Fort Erie, which, having evacuated that post, was on its march to join him.
The operations, subsequently to this day, were little calculated to retrieve past errors. An almost entire day was suffered to elapse before the pursuit was resumed. After two or three days marching on the Queenstown route, major-general Lewis was recalled, and brigadier-general Chandler, with one brigade, despatched by the lake-road. Brigadier-general Winder was ordered to follow with another brigade. The third or fourth day, colonel Miller, with a detachment, followed the latter. This ha. zardous separation of the troops was perhaps justified by necessity or sufficient reasons; but they certainly incurred the risk of being beaten in detail by an enemy, which, although discomfited, and inferior to the united detachments, was superior to any one of them alone. The singular and disastrous affair of Stoney Creek closed the pursuit, and finished the triumphs of this part of the American army for that campaign.
SOME ACCOUNT OF THE AMERICAN ARMY.
ACCOUN The reduced peace establishment of the army in 1776, after the Indian wars under major-general Wayne, was as follows:
One brigadier-general, one adjutant and inspector, one quartermaster-general, one pay-master-gencral, one judge advocate, two brigade-inspectors, two assistant pay-masters, ten garrison surgeons' mates.
REGIMENTS AND OORPS.
Cavalry-Two troops of dragoons under two captains, four lieutenants and two cornets.
Corps of artillerists and engineers-One lieutenant-colonel commandant, four majors, sixteen captains, thirty-two lieutenants, one surgcon and four mates.
Infantry-Four regiments, each under one lieutenant commandant, two majors, eight captains, eight lieutenants and eight ensigns.
The whole military force under this organization was something less than 6000.
Augmentation of the Army in 1798 and 1799. By an act passed 27th April, 1798, an additional regiment of artillerists and engineers is ordered to be raised by voluntary enlistments, for five years. Eighty-eight thousand dollars appropriated therefor.
By an act passed May 28th, 1798, the President of the United States is authorized, at any time within three years after the passing of this act, if in his opinion the public interest shall require it, to accept of any company or companies of volunteers, either of artillery, cavalry, or infantry, who may offer themselves for the service, armed, clothed, and equipped at their own expense, who shall be liable to do duty at any time the President shall judge proper, within two years after he shall accept their services. While in service, they shall be under the same regulations, and entitled to the same pay and emoluments of every kind, except bounty and clothing, as the other troops.
The President is also authorized to loan to the militia corps
of the different states, such pieces, (not exceeding two, to any one corps) of the field artillery of the United States, as can be most conveniently spared; and also, when any portion of the militia, or volunteer corps, shall be called forth, and engaged in the actual service of the United States, to loan a supply of artillery, arms and accoutrements, from the arsenals of the United States.
He is also authorized to procure a quantity of caps, swords or sabres, pistols arfd holsters, not exceeding the quantity sufficient for four thousand cavalry, to be deposited in the parts of the United States, where he shall deem it most commodious, for the supply of any corps of cavalry that may be called into actual service of the United States, and which he may loan as aforesaid.
He is further authorized, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint an inspector-general, with the rank of major-general; an adjutant-general, with the rank, pay, and emoluments of brigadier-general; two major-generals, and three brigadier-generals, in addition to the present establishment; and to appoint, from time to time, assistant inspectors to every portion of the army.
He is empowered, if he thinks necessary, to appoint a quartermaster-general, physician-general, and pay-master-general—but no commissioned or staff officer to be entitled to any pay or emolument, unless in actual service.
By an act of June 13, 1798, supplementary to the foregoing, the volunteers who shall have been accepted and organized by the President, shall submit to such rules and regulations as may be thought necessary, to prepare them for actual service; and they are during such time, çxempted from all militia duty.
The President is authorized to appoint and commission, as soon as he shall think it "expedient, as many field officers, as may be necessary for organizing and embodying in legions, regiments and battalions, any volunteer companies who shall be accepted as aforesaid; provided, no such field-officers shall be considered in the pay of the United States, until called into actual service.
By an act to augment the army of the United States, passed July 16, 1798, the President is authorized to raise, in addition to the foregoing military establishment, twelve regiments of infan
try, and six troops of light dragoons, to be enlisted for and during the continuance of the existing differences between the United States and the French Republic.
The said six troops shall be formed into a regiment, and there shall be appointed thereto, one lieutenant-colonel.commandant, two majors, one adjutant, one pay-master, one quarter-master, one sergeant-major, and one quarter-master-sergeant, whose pay and emoluments, as well as the coronets respectively, shall be the same as are by law allowed to officers of the same grade in the infantry.
By act of Congress, of March 2, 1799, giving eventual authority to the President of the United States to augment the army, he is authorized, in case war shall break out between the United States and any foreign power, or in case of imminent danger of invasion of our territory by any such power, shall, in his opinion, be discovered to exist, to organize and cause to be raised, in addition to the other military force of the United States, twenty-four regiments of infantry, a regiment and a battalion of rifle-men, a battalion of artillerists and engineers, and three regiments of cavalry, or such parts thereof, as he shall judge necessary. The non-commissioned officers and privates of which, to be enlisted for a term not exceeding three years, and to be entitled to a bounty of ten dollars, half at the time of enlistment, and the remainder at joining the regiment they belong to.
The troops thus raised, may be discharged at the discretion of the President.
The President is authorized to appoint and commission all officers for the said troops, agreeably to the rules prescribed by law; provided, that the general and field-officers who may be appointed in the recess of the senate, shall, at the next meeting thereof, be nominated and submitted to them for their advice and consent.
All the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates, of the troops raised in pursuance to this act, shall be entitled to the like pay, clothing, rations, and other emoluments, as the like officers and troops composing the army of the United States. Provided, that no other officer, except captains and subalterns em
ployed in the recruiting service, shall be entitled to any pay, or Other emolument, until he shall be called into actual service.
The president is also authorized to organize all volunteer companies that may be accepted, in pursuance to the “ Act authorizing the President of the United States to raise a Provisional Army," into regiments, brigades, and divisions, and to appoint all officers thereof, agreeably to the organization prescribed by law.
The said volunteers shall not be compelled to serve out of the state in which they reside, longer than three months after their arrival at the place of rendezvous.
Two millions of dollars are appropriated for carrying into effect this act; to be raised, by loan, on the most advantageous terms.
By an act for better organizing the troops of the United States, passed March 3, 1799, it is enacted, that a regiment of infantry shall be composed of one lieutenant-colonel-commandant, two majors, one adjutant, one quarter-master, and one paymaster, cach being a lieutenant; one surgeon, two surgeon's mates, ten captains, len first and ten second lieutenants, besides the three before mentioned; ten cadets, two serjeant-majors, two quarter-master-serjeants, two chief musicians, twenty other musicians, forty serjeants, forty corporals, and nine hundred and twenty privates, which together shall form two battalions, each battalion five companies.
A regiment of cavalry is composed of the same number and grade of officers as the regiment of infantry; ten musicians, and nine bundred and twenty privates, to include ten saddlers, ten blacksmiths, and ten boot-makers, formed as aforesaid..
A regiment of artillery is composed of one lieutenant-colonel-commandant, four majors, one adjutant, one quarter-master, and one pay-master, each being a lieutenant; one surgeon, two surgeon's mates, sixteen captains, thirty-two lieutenants, besides the three before mentioned; thirty-two cadets, four serjeant majors, four quarter-master-serjeants, sixty-four serjeants, sixty-four corporals, one chief musician, ten other musicians, eight hundred and ninety-six privates, including one hundred and twenty-eight artificers, which, together, shall form four battalions, and each battalion four companies.