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CH. XIII.-37. Prodigia. Ad verbum, cf. note, 1, 3. Ad rem, compare the fuller account of these prodigies in Josephus (B. J. 6, 5, 3; 7, 31), and with both histories compare the predictions of Christ (Mat. 27, 45. 51; Luke, 23, 44. 45). The Roman and the Jewish historians both strikingly confirm the prophetic character and divine mission of the great Teacher, in whom neither of them believed.

38. Superstitioni. See the etymology of the word in note, 3, 58. It is commonly used by T. in a bad sense, as here.

221 2. Exapertae... fores.

These doors or gates were of brass, and could scarcely be opened by twenty men. Cf. Joseph. B. J. 6, 5, 3. Exapertae is found in no other classic writer. It appears in Jerome's confessions.

3. Delubri. Probably from de and luo = the place of expiation. Freund. Excedere deos. That the gods (the guardian divinities of the temple) were departing. Compare with this the Roman custom of evoking the gods from the cities which they besieged. 28, 4.


4. In metum trahebant. Construed as a ground of fear, i. e. as ominous of evil. So Ann. 14, 32: ad metum trahebant. Trahere is used in the same sense in 3, 3.

5. Antiquis.... literis, i. e. the books of the prophets, which are full of prophecies of the Messiah, and some of which, e. g. Danièl, fix with great definiteness the time of his coming (eo ipso tempore). The Jews understood these to promise a temporal deliverer and conqueror. Hence the universal expectation, that at this very time the East should become powerful, and persons proceeding from Judæa should become masters of the world. Language happily descriptive of the spiritual conquests of Christ and his apostles! Josephus and Suetonius use very similar language. B. J. 6, 5, 1; Suet. Vesp. 4.

7. Quae ambages. . . . praedixerat. Which oracle was to be accomplished in Vespasian and Titus, who had command in the East, and thence marched to the sovereignty of Rome. Such an interpretation would be easily adopted by a Roman historian, especially one who had received favors from the Flavian dynasty (cf. 1, 1). It is even countenanced by Josephus, in compliment doubtless to the same princes. B. J. 6, 5, 1. Al. praedixerant. Ambages is used by other writers only in the pl. and the abl. sing. Cf. Ann. 6, 46. 10. Ne adversis .. the calamities that have persecution.


mutabantur. Nor have they been by all befallen them through eighteen centuries of

12. Sexcenta millia. Josephus (B. J. 6, 9, 3. 4) and Zonaras (6, 26) estimate the number who perished in and after the siege at eleven hundred thousand. Others make it still larger. Ernesti remarks, that the number of the slain in battles and sieges is the most frequent subject of discrepancy in all history.


13. Plures quam pro numero, i. e. more than the fourth or fifth 221 part, that are usually reckoned able to bear arms.

15. Hanc adversus urbem. Hanc is put first, as the emphatic word: such was the city against which, etc. T. allows himself in such liberties oftener than most Latin authors.

16. Subita belli, lit. sudden modes of warfare. Cf. A. 37. Here it manifestly refers to carrying the city by storm, in contradistinction to the gradual approaches of a regular siege. The use of abnuere, in the sense of forbidding a thing, belongs to the later Latin, and is a favorite usage of T. Cf. Boet. Lex. Tac.

The foregoing thirteen sections are all that remain of our author's history of the Jewish war. The major part of his entire Histories is lost (cf. Preliminary Remarks, p. 231), and, with the rest, his narrative of the destruction of Jerusalem, a tragic scene which T. must have described with great power-fit theme for such a master, as he was a master fully adequate to such a theme.

CH. XIV.-21. Malam

pugnam. The unsuccessful battle,

or defeat, described 4, 77. 78

23. Tutus loco. The security of the situation involves the first reason. Observe the varied grammatical construction, by which T. chooses to express the same logical relation.-Et ut.... animi. This clause assigns a second reason why Civilis encamped at Vetera (which he had previously taken and plundered, 4, 60).

24. Eodem. Old dat. used adverbially to the same place.


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26. Post victoriam, sc. that gained by Cerialis and the 21st legion over Civilis. Cf. 4, 78.

28. Arcebat. Hindered, sc. an engagement. Observe the author's conciseness.

29. Addiderat, i. e. had interposed as an additional obstacle to an engagement, over and above the natural wetness of the plains (camporum suopte ingenio humentium).—Molem a dam of wood or stone; agger, a dike of earth. Or.

30. Ea.... forma. Such was the nature of the country (locality).-33. Proceritas corporum. Cf. G. 4: magna corpora.

CH. XV.-35. Ferocissimo cuique. Dat. of the agent = a ferocissimo quoque. Cf. notes, 1, 86: auctoribus, and 3, 12: Vespasiano. 37. Arma, equi. Notice the asyndeton. The arms were first dropped by the horsemen in their trepidation, and then they sunk to the bottom (haurirentur).

1. Pedestri acie. A land fight in opposition to a naval battle 222 (navali pugna). So pedestris is often used by the best Latin authors, like πεζοί, πεζομαχία, etc., in Greek.

6. Egredi paludem. Cf. note, 4, 44: egressos exsilium.

CH. XVI.-17. Propiora fluminis. The parts nearer the river. Propior and proximus may be followed by the gen. in this sense. Cf


2223, 42: proxima litorum; Ann. 3, 1: proxima maris; Sall. Jug. 48: fluminis propinqua loca; Lucr. 4, 339: propior caliginis aer. So Wr. Others take propiora fluminis to mean the parts of the river nearer the bank, where the Germans could fight to advantage (cf. 14), and whence they might annoy the flank of the Romans. So Freund seems to understand it. Vid. sub voce. Cf. note, 2: propiora Syriae.

19. Cerialis, sc. memorat.

20. Ut... exciderent. Al. exscinderent. Wr., Dōd. and many others place a colon after exciderent, and make it depend on a verb of entreaty or command understood. But such a verb is not appropriate to the previous clause; and in such a case the ut would be omitted. Cf. 3, 5: celeraret; 3, 10: injicerent; 3, 68: retinerent, et passim.

23. Quod roboris fuerit. This clause is in app. with Germanos. The Germans constituted all the real strength of Civilis.

25. Proprios.... legionibus. We learn from 4, 68, that the 14th legion had been summoned from Britain; the 6th from Spain, where it seems to have taken the lead in proclaiming Galba emperor (cf. 1, 4); and the 2d was a recently enlisted legion—hence illa primum acie.. ・・・・ nova signa, etc.


29. Praevectus. Passing along the lines, before (prae) the legions.-Manus tendebat. As a sign of entreaty. Cf. 1, 36.

CH. XVII.-34. Silentem... aciem, i. e. he not only addressed his troops, as Cerialis had addressed the Romans, but they responded with shouts. Or. Ita dicimus silens vel tacitum iter facere. Wr.-Locum, sc. Vetera. Cf. 14, and notes there.

223 2. Dum.... impediunt. The general rule requires the subj. in such dependent clauses in the oratio obliqua. Cf. Gr. 266, 2; Z. 603. But when the dependent clause expresses a fact independent of the speaker's opinion, it is put in the ind. Gr. 266, 2, R. 5; Z. 603.

5. Gnaros, in the passive sense (known to) is found only in T.— Rhenum.... deos. Probably Civilis means to speak of the Rhine as a divinity, and so it is represented on some ancient coins. See a similar appeal to the sun and stars, as divinities, by a German chief, in Ann. 13, 55, and Grote's note on the same, Hist. Greece, vol. i. p. 465. The word Rhein a stream, in Celtic or old German.

6. Capesserent. Subj. for the imp. of the oratio recta. Z. 603, c. 9. Ita .... mos. Cf. G. 11. 11. Neque .... et. Correl. Our soldiers on the one hand not entering the marsh (cf. 14. 15, supra), and the Germans on the other assailing them (saxis glandibusque) to draw them off, sc. into the marsh.

CH. XVIII.-16. Quam.... retulimus. Cf. 14, supra, where and in 15, see incidents similar to and illustrative of those here narrated.

20. Terga

promittens. Lit. promising him the rear of the


enemy, i. e. to bring the cavalry upon their rear, if sent agreeably to 223 his suggestion. Others take terga in the sense of flight, rout.

21. Extremo paludis. Abl. of the way. Cf. 4, 15: Oceano; 4, 68: Alpibus.-22. Illa, sc. parte.

27. Institit, sc. fugientibus Germanis.

CH. XIX.-29. Superiorem provinciam. Upper Germany. Cf note, 1, 9: inferioris Germaniae.

30. Gallo Annio. See 4, 68, and note, ibid.

32. Oppidum Batavorum. These words have greatly perplexed the commentators. Some take oppidum to be a proper name; others a common noun; but what walled town is referred to, they cannot agree. Several editors, and Ukert in his Geography, adopt the reading oppida.

33. Insulam. Formed by the mouths of the Rhine, and constituting the chief territory of the Batavi. Cf. G. 29.

35. Molem.... factam. Cf. Ann. 3, 53.

38. Abacto amne. The river was drawn off by its steeper (prono alveo) and more natural channel on the Gallic side of the island, as soon as the dam on that side was broken down.-Insulam inter. Observe the position of inter. Cf. notes, 2, 78; 4, 77.

3. Senatores. We find a senate instituted among the Frisii. 224 Ann. 11, 19.

4. Quem.... memoravimus, sc. 3, 35. There, however, Montanus is said to have been sent into Germany, by which, if we understand Germany Cisrhenana or Belgica, which was properly a part of Gaul, there will be no real contradiction. Cf. note, 1, 9: inferioris Germaniae. So Brot. and Wr.

CH. XX.-8. Superfuit. Remained, sc. after the defeat of Civilis, as related in the foregoing section. 9. Quadripartito, sc. exercitu.

Cf. Ann. 13, 39.

10. Arenaci, Batavoduri, etc. Walled towns of the Batavians, whose exact position is so disputed, that we shall not attempt to identify them. Cf. Rup., Or. and Ukert's and Walckenaer's Geog. of Gaul.

13. Traherent. Compare with this imperf. the perf. invaserit, and note, 1, 24: dederit.

14. Affore and posse.... intercipi depend on fiducia, or some kindred word to be supplied.

16. Obvenerant. Had been allotted. Cf. A. 6: jurisdictio obvenerat.-17. Decumanorum. The soldiers of the 10th legion.

18. Materiis. Wood for building, fortifying, etc. Wood, considered as to its nature and substance, is lignum; in reference to its uses, materia. Cf. Rams. Syn. 638. Wood intended expressly for burning, is also usually called lignum.

21. Rumpere. So nearly all the editions. Wr., with most of the MSS. and earliest editions, reads irrumpere, which he takes in the


224 sense interrupt. But T. uses irrumpere in the sense of break in or rush into (cf. 3, 9: stationes... irrumpit), and the ir- may easily have attached itself to rumpere by mistake from the last syllable of the previous word.

CH. XXI.-27. Quem.... diximus, sc. 4, 70. Cf. also 2, 22. 29. Versa fortuna is abl. abs.

33. Ne tum quidem....classis, etc. Not even at this time did the fleet, etc. The emphatic ne tum quidem has reference to a like failure of the fleet to do its duty in a former battle. Cf. 18.

34. Sed. But, i. e. notwithstanding their orders.—Et remiges, Observe the attraction for et quod remiges, etc. = and the fact that the rowers, etc. Cf. Essay, p. 18.



35. Sane. Indeed, or the fact is.

37. Defuissent. Subj. after ubi = cum in the sense of although. Gr. 263, 5, R. 1; Z. 577. Notice the effect of the plup.: fortune favored even, though skill had not been used.

38. Paucos post dies, sc. as described in the next section. For this way of designating a definite time, cf. Gr. 253, R. 1. Zumpt (477) gives eight different modes of expressing the same time. 225 1. Quanquam ... evasisset. Quanquam seldom with Cic., but

usually with T., is followed by the subj. Z. 574, Note. Wr. says, that when followed by the subj. it denotes a closer causal connection, than when followed by the ind. Tamen is omitted in the beginning of the antith. clause, as it often is by T.

CH. XXII.-3. Novesium. Cf. note, 4, 26.-Bonnam. Cf. note, 4, 19.

6. Germanis. Dat. for abl. with a, so often used by T.-Composuere. Planned, lit. put together.

7. Prono.... rapti. Borne rapidly down the current of the stream. This is a frequent sense of rapio.—Vallum, sc. where the troops of Cerialis had encamped for the night, with the fleet moored at the bank near by.

11. Utque. ... silentio. Supply by zeugma some verb correlative to miscebant: And as they approached in silence in order to escape observation, so when the slaughter was begun, etc.

13. Exciti. Awaked out of sleep.

16. Praetoriam navem. The ship of the commander, praetor originally denoting any leader (prae-itor).

17. Abripiunt. They hurry it away, sc. from the fleet. Cf. notes, 2, 26. 36; 4, 27. Compare rapti above.

Tacere is op

20. Silere. Here, as usual, opposed to all noise. posed to speech.

21. Signo et vocibus. The sound of the trumpet and the watchwords, though some take them by hendiadys, as both relating to watchwords.-Se.... lapsos depends on excusabant.

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