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character, but connected by some an. way, and will perhaps be best under. cient bond of consanguinity. In words stood from the following formula. of this description, it seems, as we

Grrek-Gothic-H..German. have said, to be demonstrated that the

Aspira!e- Middle-Tenu's-- 4 spirate— Midove. mute consonants composing them are not to be found in the same form

Supposing these parallel lines to throughout the different languages, is horizontally moveable towards the

be scales, of which the upper one but are subjected to certain important left: the fixing of any one of the lan. permutations, according to a definite rule.

guages opposite to any of the order of The rule referred to, in its highest ing change which that consonant ex

consonants, will show the correspondtheoretical perfection, may be thus broadly stated, leaving out of view

hibits in becoming naturalized in the those qualifications and restrictions two other languages.

It must be observed, that in the apupon it, of which a detail can only be expected in a systematic treatise. plication of this rule to different lan. Viewing the languages of Greece and guages, there are several accidental

anomalies which disturb its operation. Rome as in this respect on the same

Thus the Latin is without the dental level, and contrasting them, as one branch, with the Gothic or Low-Ger- aspirate, and generally supplies the man dialects on the one hand, and with place of the guttural aspirate x by a the Old High-German on the other, simple h. The High-German is, in

like manner,

deficient in the dental those three sections of the Indo-Ger

aspirate, and supplies its place by a manic race are to be considered as occupying three equidistant points in

ts or z. The High-German is subject

to one or two other irregularities, a supposed circle. The mute con.

which it would here be out of place to sonants, again, being divisible into

detail. three well-known orders, the tenuis, (x, T, ) aspirate, (x, 9, 9,) and the dental class of consonants, of the

We shall now give examples, in middle, (7, 8, B,) and these being changes we have described; which, it supposed to move in that order

must be observed, are not reciprocated within the circle containing the

between any two languages, but rethree divisions of Greek, Gothic, and

volve through the whole three. The High-German, an index will thence be obtained to denote the modifica- following examples, to the other classes

rule may be easily extended, from the tions which these consonants present of mute consonants. in those different languages. Thus, where the same root exists vernacu

Greek. Gothic. High German.
Tesis

thri larly in all the three great dialects,

drei
dro
twai

zwei the consonant which, in Greek, is a

θανατος dauthus

tod. tenuis, will be found, in Gothic, as the corresponding aspirate, and, in passing The Sanscrit stands as to this ar. on to the High-German, will become a rangement on the same footing for middle. The Greek aspirate becomes the most part with the Greek and a Gothic middle and a High-German Latin. The Saxon and Scandinavian tenuis. The Greek middle a Gothic dialects occupy, in general, the same tenuis and a High-German aspirate. position with the Gothic. The mo

This statement of the rule will dern German has a mixture of the scarcely be intelligible without a visi. characteristics of the Gothic and Old ble figure. It may be put in another High-German.*

. We would here venture to suggest two enquiries, to which we scarcely think that any answer, or sufficient answer, is to be found in the books which we have yet met with on the subject. 1. Ought the statement of Grimm's law of Sound-transition to be in any respect modified by the consideration, that in each class of consonants there are two aspirates, though, except in the Sanscrit, the two are generally expressed by one letter : x

ch and gh; 9 th and dh; and Q = ph and bh? 2. Is there any community of principle or origin between Grimm's law of transition and the system of initial flexion which characterises the Celtic languages ? See an interesting article by Mr Archdeacon Williams, “ On one Source of the Non-Hellenic portion of the Latin Language,” in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin. burgh, Vol. xiii., particularly at p. 542.

NO. CCXCII, VOL. XLVII.

The system of transition now no- adverted to. It is repeatedly, indeed, ticed has commonly been called observed, that mutual transitions take Grimm's law of “ Lautverschiebung,” place among the tenues,middles, and asor Sound-shifting, as it may be loose- pirates of the same class of consonants; ly rendered. But it is due to the and it was impossible that the frequent memory of a very great philologist occurrence of such changes could esto observe, that it was anticipated, cape the most cursory enquirer. But in a partial but most important point, they are treated by those writers as the by a previous writer. The mutual re- exceptions and not as the rule; they are lation of the Greek and Scandinavian, as often misapplied and mistaken as the in their initial consonants, had been reverse ; and they are seldom resorted formally announced by Erasmus Rask, to for explanation till a more direct and in his “Enquiry into the Origin of the literal etymology, however desperate, old Northern or Icelandic Language," has been attempted in vain. Thus a work which was published in Dan- Junius, instead of connecting the ish in 1818, and of which some of the Gothic dauthus, death, with Javaras, tabular views were subsequently trans- which seems its most probable etymo. lated by Vater, and included in his logy, derives it from the Greek on Jawwy, ! Vergleichungs Tafeln." The first longevus, and gratuitously compliedition of Grimm's Grammar appeared ments the Gothic nation on their lofin 1819, and it was only in the second ty creed, thus philologically promuledition of 1822, that the general law gated, that death and immortality are referr to seems to have been pro- the same things. perly developed. Rask did not, per- It is a just observation of Grimm's, hapš, see the full extent of his own that, according to the law which we discovery, particularly as to non- have attempted to explain, a corresponinitial consonants : though it must be dence between the mute consonants of confessed, that as to these its opera- words in different sections of these aflition is sometimes considerably dis- liated languages is, generally, a proof, turbed, and it would seem that some not that the words are the same, but peculiarities in the Scandinavian that they are different in origin. We tongues might, in this respect, tend do not indeed affirm that the law to obscure his perception of the rule. is universal, and without exception Grimm, on the other hand, was pro. in its operation. Some words of bably enabled to follow it out more hardier fabric, or of happier destiny, confidently, from being led to observe have undoubtedly floated down the that the old High-German stood in stream of ages, untouched by the inthe same relation to the Gothic and fluences that have disguised or mutiits dependents as these to the Greek or tilated others. We are told that the Latin. *

word sack is to be found in the same In the older philologers we find form in almost all languages, which little or no indication of the law now gave occasion to the facetious observa.

*

As Rask's “ Undersögelse” is probably not in the hands of many of our readers, and might not be intelligible to some of them if it were, we subjoin the statement which it contains of the law referred to. The mute consonants, it is said, particularly at the beginning of words, observe the following relations in passing from Greek or Latin into Icelandic :

y becomes f, as : ratus, (broad,) flatur, (flat ;) warng, fadir, (father.) I becomes th, as reels, thrir, (three ;) tego, eg thek, (I thatch.) * becomes h: agsas, (flesh,) hræ, (a dead body;) cornu, horn; cutis, hud, (a hide.)

B generally remains unchanged: Barotavo, (to sprout,) blad, (a leaf, blade;) Beure, (to well forth,) brunnr, (a fountain ;) bullare, at bulla, (to boil.)

s becomes t: dapaw, (to tame,) tamr, (tame ;) dignus, tiginn, (exalted, noble.)

y becomes k: yuvn, kona, (a woman ;) yevos, kyn or kin, (kin ;) gena, kinn, (jaw;) aygos, akr, (a field.)

becomes b: Orros, D. bög, (beech ;) fiber, Isl. bifr, (beaver ;) Psgw, fero, eg ber, (I bear.)

I becomes d: Juon, dyr, (door ;) as in Latin, Isos, deus.

x becomes g: xuw, D. gyder, (to found, mould ;) sxsiv, ega, (to possess, owe ;) xurge, gryta, (a pot;) coan, gall, (gall.)

tion of the learned Goropius Becanus,* ing :-angodgue, acorns ; Baattw, blast; a gentleman whose lucubrations we are xunun, knee ; xo1205, to coil up ; rohdoil, httle acquainted with, except in con- collops ; odupruce, dirge, &c. ; and nexion with thisjest, that at the building worse examples might be derived of Babel, “ nemo ædificantium in su

from other sources. It must, on bitâ linguarum confusione oblitus est the other hand, be confessed, that sui SACCI.” Other vocables, and parts ordinary Teutonic philologers often of vocables, have made a similar es. lay themselves open to the charge of cape from the effects of time or tran- rashness or ignorance when they vensition ; but such exceptions would not ture far out in the sea of classical phidisprove the existence of the general lology. It must rarely, indeed, happen rule, even if they were more nume- that a thorough acquaintance with each rous and unequivocal than we believe department is united in the same inthem to be. Further enquiries, we are dividual : and perhaps in no branch of inclined to think, will show that many science is partial error or occasional apparent cases of affinity, where there oversight more probable or more paris an absence of that change of conso

donable. nants which the rule would require, One or two recent publications will are not real deviations from it, and that greatly tend, we think, more widely thus a number of common and plau- to diffuse a due knowledge and appresible etymologies are unfounded. ciation of Grimm's rules of comparaThere is little doubt that the Greek tive philology. Mr Pritchard's work Pavãos, and the Teutonic foul, are on the “ Eastern Origin of the Celtic not connected in etymology: as in- Nations,” (1831,) has attracted the deed they do not appear to be in attention that is due to any prooriginal meaning. The Latin Dies duction from so valuable a source. has perhaps less connexion with the " A Manual of Comparative PhiTeutonic day than with the terms lology," by Mr Winning of Bedtime or tide, to which, according to ford, (1838,) is entitled to much Grimm's law, it may radically cor. commendation, and deserves to be respond. The derivation of care from generally consulted, though we do cura, is doubtful, and the common not ayow ourselves converts to his identification of vulgus and folk, if not theory on the origin of the Tus. unfounded, is, at least, remote and in

Of the New Cratylus of Mr direct.

Donaldson, (1839,) we must not, as We have dwelt so long on this yet, profess to have formed any other subject, from a conviction that the opinion than that it is a work of great full truth and practical importance learning, of much interest and value, of this singular and mysterious law comprising a mass of materials that of transition is as yet but imper- have never before been collected in an fectly felt in English philology. English shape, and proceeding, in the Within the last few years numerous main, on what we perceive to be sound works in lexicography and etymology and safe principles, though sometimes, have appeared in this country, which we humbly suspect, extending into a continue to be constructed on the same latitude of speculation that is at least principles as if Rask had never lived, premature. In all of these works the or as if the Deutsche Grammatik had views of Grimm are explained and never been written. Thus, in a Greek enforced. lexieon of no. remote date, and in Having said so much of the relation other respects valuable, we find such subsisting between the consonants in English etymologies as the follow the different sections of the Indo-Teu

cans.

*

Goropius, however, was a person of some note in his day. He was physician to the Queens of France and Hungary in Charles the Fifth's time. Hickes ( Thes. Diss. Epist. p. 154) speaks of him as “ divini ingenii homine, qui duos libros scripsit de gentium originibus, lectu quidem jucundos, quos tamen maximâ ex parte, perperam, et ineptè esse scriptos, nemo est qui linguas Aquilonis antiquas calleat, quin mecum facile affirmabit.”

Goropius's chief work is his “ Origines Antwerpianæ,” (1569) in which he maintained that Adam spoke German. He did good service, however, by inserting in his work the translation of the Lord's prayer, from the Codex Argenteus, which was, we believe, the first occasion of printing any portion of the Gothic gospels.

tonic family, we must not omit to ob- sufficient to demonstrate at once the serve that the vowels also are subject existence and the value of these very to changes, which, though less fixed, remarkable laws. we have no right to suppose capricious,

It will be observed that no express and which have already been partly examples are heregiven of words which, reduced to definite limits. The changes according to the rule, ought to change which in the several languages take the Greek or Latin B into a Gothic P. place upon the vowels in the inflections In reality, the letter B, in the classical of nouns and verbs, throw a strong languages, particularly as an initial, light upon their transitions and fluc. seems to be of a very uncertain char. tuations in passing from one language acter, being often apparently a remto another. But here, as elsewhere, nant of the digamma, or a corruption it happens that phenomena occur, of of some other letter. Accordingly, it which the explanation is more or less is remarkable that the corresponding obscured by the darkness of antiquity. initial P is of rare occurrence in the This, however, is a subject too abstruse Gothic languages. There are not in and subtle to be considered in this Junius's Glossary above half a dozen place.

Gothic words commencing with that In illustration of the system of con- letter, and the number of similar words sonantal transition, to which we before in Anglo-Saxon is also few. The ori. referred, we venture to subjoin some gin and bistory of the numerous words comparative tables of the affinities in modern English which have that of Greek and Latin with Teutonic initial, have never as yet, we think, words, framed upon as simple and been fully explained. popular a plan as possible, and The examples we are' now to give containing few results that do not are chiefly of the changes of initial seem to be well established. Even if, consonants, though some words are in some instances, our suppositions also set down which show the operation should be thought mistaken or doubt. of the rule on internal consonants. ful, our lists, we think, will still be

H Gothic. Caput

X

heafod, A. S. heved, 0. E. head, E. haupt, Germ. Cranium

harns, Sc. hirn, Germ. xugdia; cor, cordis

heart, E. herz, Germ. Collum

hals, O. E. Sc. and G. Cutis

hide, E. hyd, A. S. hut, 0. H. G. baut, Germ. Calx

heel, E. Cornu

horn, E. &c. xuw, canis (çvan, Sanscrit) hound, E. hund, Germ. xwen

home, ham, hamlet, E. Casa

house, E. Calamus, culmus

halm, E. &c. Cannabis

hænep, A. S. hemp, E. hanf, Germ. Crates

hurdle, E. Copia

heap, E. (? Collis

hill, E. (?) Cervus

hart, E. hirsch, Germ. καλυξ

hull, E. hool, Sc. nagros

harvest, E. hærfæst, A. S. herbst, Germ. (?) xngug

herald, E. ngatus, nugtigos

hard, hardy, E. κοιλος

hollow, E. Claudus

halt, E. Centum (-κοντα ?)

hund, A. S. hund-red, E. Celo, καλυπτο

hill, O. E. (to cover) helan, A. S. Curro

hurry, E. Cursor (courser, Norm. E.) horse, E. κευθω

hide, E. andsw

heed, E. ?

Nox, noctis
Lux, lucis
Octo
Rectua

nicht, Sc. nahts, Goth.
licht, Sc, liuhath, Goth.
acht, Sc. ahtau, Goth.
richt, Sc. raihto, Goth.

y=K, Gothic, (c, ch, English.) Gena, ysrus

chin, E. Gepu, yoru

knee, E. kniu, Goth. yum

quean, queen, E. gevos, genus, gens

kin, kind, kindred, E. Gelu, gelidus

chill, cool, cold, E. Granum, granulum

corn, kernel, E. regaros

crane, E, Grex

crew, crowd, E. ? Glomus

clue, E. Globus

cloud, clod, E. ? yayywora (prow) (8)novi

know, E. yfiw, gusto

chew, choose E. kosten, Germ. Gero

carry, E. ? Gyrus

churn, quern, E. kirn, Sc. ?

[blocks in formation]

acre,

E. akrs, Goth.
yoke, E.
work, E.
meikle, E. mikils, Goth. much, E.
eke, E. aukan, Goth.
wake, E.

milk, E.
x (h, Lat.) G, Gothic.

garden, yard, E. gards, garda, Goth.
guest, E, gasts, Goth,
gåt, A. S. goat, E.
gans, Germ. goose, gander, E.
gall, E.
guma, A.S.; corrupted groom, E.; bryd-guma,

A. S.; bridegroom, E. ; brautigam, Germ.
grice, 0. E. and Sc.* gris, Icrl. ?
gestren-daeg, A. S. yesterday.
geonan, A. S. yawn, E. gaunt, Sc. gape. E.
grue, Sc. gruesome, Sc. ; grisly, E. grauen, Germ.
gush, E.

Kolpos
Hesternus
Hio, χαινω, χαζω
Horreo
XEW, X EUOW

Vehiculum, Foxnuice, (wahana, s.) waggon, E.

Th, Gothic. Tonitru

thunder, E. ; donner, Germ. Turdus

thrush, E. ; drossel, G. Turba

thorp, E.; dorff, Germ. ? Grimm, &c, Tenuis

thin, E.; dünn, Germ.

three, E.; drei, Germ. Tu

thou, E. ; thu, Goth. ; du, Germ.

then, E.; daon, G. Trans

through, E. ; thairh, Goth. ; durch, Germ. Torqueo

throw, E. ; thraw, Sc.; drehen, Germ. Tahaw, tolero, tuli

thole, Sc. ; dulden, Germ. Trudo

thrust, E.; drucken, Germ. Tego, tectum

thatch, E. ; theek, Sc.; decken, dach, Germ.

Tres, τρεις

Tum

Uter, neuter

either, whether, neither, E. Alter

other, E, ; anthar, Goth. Mors, mortis

murther, E ; maurthr, Goth. ; mord, Germ. 8

: T, Gothic. Dens, dentis ; 0-885, o-foxtos, (dan- tooth, E. ; tunthus, Goth. ; zahn, Germ.

tas, S.) dangu

tear, E.; tagrs, Goth. Dingua, O. Lat. lingua

tongue, E.

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*

Grice is the old word for pig, and is not the plural of grouse, as an eminent writer on Tithes seems to have supposed, misled, no doubt, by the analogy of mouse. I. Connell on Tithes, 125. Ed. 1815,

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