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ried into the street, saying, “If I deceive « Well!" we all exclaimed, “

go myself this time-if I am again mis on." taken-I shall either go mad or blow 66 What more have I to tell you ?" my brains out !” And having come to said M. Baraton, with a knowing this sage resolution he walked steadily smile. “I have just come from dining to the Rue de Provence, he knocked with them. The ceremony took place at the door, (which was instantly to-day.” opened,) and asked for-Judith!

“ They are married, then?" H Madame is within, sir," said the

66 To be sure.” porteress, very quietly.

" A widow is a kind of animal," Arthur almost fainted, and liad to said one of our circle," who”. support himself on the banister. He “ Has very little resemblance to Ju. went up to the second floor, crossed dith," interposed the notary ; “ for a the well-known rooms, and opened very curious part of the story that I the door of the boudoir. It was fur- have not told you is, that the old peer, nished exactly as it was six years be- her husband, never called her any fore.

thing but his daughter." The supper he had ordered before At that moment the box on the sehis departure was there, all laid on cond tier opened -Judith came in the table. There were seats set for wrapped up in her ermined mantle, two; and Judith, sitting on a sofa, and leaning on the arm of her loversaid to him the moment he entered, her husband. 6. You come late, Arthur," and held And a round of exclamations might out her hand.

be heard among the audience, Arthur fell at her feet.

6. How lovely she is !" Here the notary stopped short. " A lucky dog!"



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The secret history of Judæa, through he known. He must have given a the two generations preceding the de. Roman, an ex parte statement, at any struction of Jerusalem, might yet be rate; and let that consideration never illuminated a little better than it has be lost sight of in taking his evidence. been by Josephus. It would, however, He might blame a particular Roman, require a separate paper for itself. such as Gessius Florus, because he At present we shall take but a slight found that Romans themselves con. glance or two at that subject, and demned him. He might vaunt his merely in reference to the Essenes. veracity and his rapprocce in a little Nothing shows the crooked conduct corner of the general story; but durst of Josephus so much as the utter per he speak plainly on the broad field of plexity, the mere labyrinth of doubts, Judæan politics ? Not for his life. in which he has involved the capital Or, had the Roman magnanimity features of the last Jewish war. Two taken off his shackles, what became points only we notice, for their con of his court favour and preferment, in nexion with the Essenes ;

case he spoke freely of Roman policy First, What was the cause, the out as a system? standing pretext, on either side, for Hence it is that Josephus shuffies so the Jewish insurrectionary war? We miserably when attempting to assign know well what were the real impulses the cause or causes of the war. Four to that war; but what was the capital different causes he assigns in different and overt act on either side which places, not one of which is other than forced the Jewish irritation into a itself an effect from higher causes, hopeless contest? What was the and a mere symptom of the convul. ostensible ground alleged for the war? sions working below. For instance,

Josephus durst not have told, had the obstinate withdrawal of the daily


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sacrifice offered for Cæsar, which is for the sake of murder, should end in one of the causes alleged, could not nobility of spir it so eminent, that nohave occurred until the real and deep- thing in Christian martyrdoms goes buria seated causes of that war had operated beyond the extremity of self-sacrifice on the general temper for some time. which even their enemies have granted It was a public insult to Rome: would to the Sicarii ? have occasioned a demand for explan- (we are quoting from the bitterest of ation: would have been revoked: the enemies,) " whose courage, or shall faria immediate author punished : and all we call it madness, every body was would have subsided into a personal amazed at ; for, when all sorts of a affair, had it not been supported by torments that could be imagined were extensive combinations below the sur applied to their bodies, not one of face, which could no longer be sup them would comply so far as to conpressed. Into them we are not going fess, or seem to confess, that Cæsar to enter. We wish only to fix atten was their lord-as if they received tion upon the ignorance of Josephus, those torments, and the very fury of the whether unaffected in this instance, or furnace which burned them to ashes, assumed for the sake of disguising with bodies that were insensible and truths unacceptable to Roman ears. with souls that exceedingly rejoiced.

The question of itself has much to But what most of all astonished the do with the origin of the Essenes. beholders was the courage of the chil ito

Secondly, Who were those Sicarü dren; for not one of all these children of whom Josephus talks so much dur was so far subdued by the torments it ing the latter years of Jerusalem ? endured, as to confess Cæsar for its Can any man believe so monstrous a lord. Such a marvellous thing for fable as this, viz. that not one, but endựrance is the tender and delicate thousands of men were confederated body of man, when supported by an for purposes of murder; 2dly, of mur unconquerable soul!" der not interested in its own success No, no, reader, there is villany at -murder not directed against any work in this whole story about the known determinate objects, but mur Sicarii. Weare duped, we are cheated, der indiscriminate, secret, objectless, we are mocked. Felony, conscious what a lawyer might call homicidium murder, never in this world led to such vagum ; 3dly, that this confederacy results as these. Conscience it was, should subsist for years, should levy that must have acted here. No power „war, should entrench itselfin fortresses; short of that, ever sustained frail wo4thly, (which is more incomprehens men and children in such fiery trials. sible than all the rest,) should talk and A conscience it may have been erring harangue in the spirit of sublime in its principles ; but those principles martyrdom to some holy interest ; must have been divine. Resting on 5thly, should breathe the same spirit any confidence less than that, the reinto women and little children ; and solution of women and children 80 finally, that all, with one accord, tried must have given way. Here too, rather than submit to foreign conquest, evidently, we have the genuine temper should choose to die in one hour, from of the Maccabees, struggling and sufthe oldest to the youngest ? Such a fering in the same spirit and with the tale in its outset, in the preliminary same ultimate hopes. confederation, is a tale of ogres and After what has been exposed with ogresses, not of human creatures train regard to Josephus, we presume that ed under a divine law to a profound his testimony against the Sicarii will sense of accountability. Such a tale,

go for little, That man may readily in its latter sections, is a tale of martyrs be supposed to have borne false witmore than human. Such a tale, as a ness against his brethren who is whole, is self.contradictory. A vile proved to have borne false witness purpose makes vile all those that pur- against God. Him, therefore, or any sue it. Even the East Indian Thugs thing that he can say, we set aside

. are not congregated by families. It But as all is still dark about the Si. is much if ten thousand families fur- carii, we shall endeavour to trace their nish one Thug. And as to the results real position in the Jewish war. of such a league, is it possible that a zealous purpose of murder of murder calumniated does not remove the

merely to prove that they have been

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cloud that 'rests upon their history. tial believer, the wavering believer, That, indeed, cannot be removed at equally with the true, the spiritual, this day in a manner satisfactory ; but the entire, and the steadfast believer. we see enough to indicate the purity What sort of believers were those who of their intentions. And, with respect would have taken Christ and forcibly to their enemy Josephus, let us re made him a king? Erroneous bemember one fact, which merely the lievers, it must be admitted; but still want of a personal interest in the in some points, partially and obscurely, question has permitted to lie so long they must have been powerfully imin the shade, viz. that three distinct pressed by the truth which they had causes made it really impossible for heard from Christ. Many of these that man to speak the truth. First, His might fall away when that personal

own partisanship: having adopted impression was withdrawn; but many i one faction, he was bound to regard must have survived all binderances and

all others as wrong and hostile: Se obstacles. Semi- Christians there must condly, his captivity and interest : always have been in great numbers.

in what regarded the merits of the Those who were such in a merely reis cause, a Roman prisoner durst not ligious view we believe to have been

have spoken the truth. These causes called Nazarenes ; those in whom the of distortion or falsehood in giving political aspects, at first universally

that history would apply even to ascribed to Christianity, happened to is honest men, unless with their honesty predominate, were known by the more * they combined a spirit of martyrdom. general name of Galileans. This name lä But there was a third cause peculiar expressed in its foremost element op

to the position of Josephus, viz. con. position to the Romans; in its seconscious guilt and shame. He could not dary element, Christianity. And its admit others to have been right but rise may be traced thus:in words that would have confounded Whoever would thoroughly investihimself. If they were not mad, he gate the very complex condition of was a poltroon: if they had done Palestine in our Saviour's days, must their duty as patriots, then was he a go back to Herod the Great. This traitor ; if they were not frantic, then man, by his peculiar policy and his was Josephus an apostate.

power, stood between the Jews and a logic which required no subtle dia the Romans as a sort of Janus or ·lectician' to point and enforce : simply indifferent mediator. Any measure

the narrative, if kept steady to the which Roman ignorance would have fact and faithful, must silently sug inflicted, unmodified, on the rawest gest that conclusion to every body. condition of Jewish bigotry, he conAnd for that reason, had there been trived to have tempered and qualified. no other, it was not steady ; for that For his own interest, and not with any reason it was not faithful. Now, let

more generous purpose, he screened us turn to the Sicarii.

Who were

from the Romans various ebullitions they?

of Jewish refractoriness, and from Thirdly, It is a step towards the the Jews he screened all accurate answer if we ask previously, Who knowledge of the probable Roman were the Galileans ? Many people read intentions. But after his death, and Josephus under the impression that, precisely during the course of our of course, this term designates merely Saviour's life, these intentions tranthe inhabitants of the two Galilees. spired : reciprocal knowledge and We, by diligent collation of passages, menaces were exchanged; and the have convinced ourselves that it does elements of insurrection began to not-it means a particular faction in mould themselves silently, but not Jewish politics. And, which is a fact steadily; for the agitation was great already noticed by Eusebius, it often and increasing as the crisis seemed to includes many of the new Christian approach.

Herod the Great, as a sect. But this requires an explana- vigorous prince, and very rich, might tion.

possibly have maintained the equili. Strange it seems to us that men brium, had he lived. But this is doubta should overlook so obvious a truth as ful. In his old age various events that in every age Christianity must had combined to shake his autho have counted amongst its nominal rity, viz. the tragedies in his own adherents the erring believer, the par- family, and especially the death of

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Mariamne ;* by which, like Ferdi. Sicarii in that part of his narrative nand of Aragon, or our Henry VII., which most required some clue to under the same circumstances, he their purposes, afterwards forgets him. seemed in law to lose his title to self, and incidentally betrays [Wars, the throne. But, above all, his com. B. vii. chap. 8, sect. 1] that the Sicarii pliance with idolatry, (according to had originally been an offset from the the Jewish interpretation,) in setting sect founded by Judas the Galilean; up the golden eagle by way of homage that their general purpose was the to Rome, gave a shock to his authority same ; so that, no doubt, it was a that never could have been healed. Out new feature of the time giving a new of the affair of the golden eagle grew, momentary direction to the efforts of as we are persuaded, the sect of the the patriotic which had constituted the Herodians—those who justified a com distinction and which authorized the promising spirit of dealing with the denomination. Was Miltiades wrong? Romans. This threw off, as its anti Was Tell wrong? Was Wallace pole, a sect furiously opposed to the wrong? Then, but not else, were Romans. That sect, under the ma the Galileans; and from them the nagement of Judas, (otherwise called Sicarii probably differed only as the Theudas,) expanded greatly; he was a brave doer differs from the just Galilean, and the sect were therefore thinker. But the Sicarii, you will naturally called Galileans. Into this say, used unhallowed means. Promain sea of Jewish nationality emptied bably not. We do not know what themselves all other less powerful means they used, except most indissects that, under any modification, tinctly from their base and rancorous avowed an anti-Roman spirit. The enemy. The truth, so far as it can religious sect of the Christians was be descried through the dust of ages from the first caught and hurried and the fury of partisanship, appears away into this overmastering vortex. to be, that, at a moment when law No matter that Christ lost no oppor slumbered and police was inefficient, tunity of teaching that his kingdom was they assumed the duties of resistance not of this world. Did he not preach to a tyranny which even the Roman a new salvation to the House of Israel? apologist admits to have been insufWhere could that lie but through re ferable. They are not heard of as sistance to Rome? His followers re actors until the time when Gessius solved to place him at their head as Florus, by opening the floodgates to a king; and his crucifixion in those military insolence, had himself given stormy times was certainly much in a license to an armed reaction. Where fluenced by the belief that, as the ob- justice was sought in vain, probably ject of political attachment, he had the Sicarii showed themselves as mibecome dangerous whether sanction nisters of a sudden retribution. When ing that attachment or not.

the vilest outrages were offered by Out of this sect of Galileans, come foreigners to their women, probably prehending all who avowed a Jewish they « visited" for such atrocities

. nationality, and therefore many

semi That state of things, which caused the Christians, that is, men who, in a tribunal to slumber, privileged the inpopular sense, and under whatever dividual to awake. "And in a land view, had professed to follow Christ,) whose inspired monuments recorded arose the sect of Sicarii—that is, out for everlasting praise the acts of Juof a vast multitude professing good dith, of Samson, of Judas Maccabæus, will to the service, these men sepa these summary avengers, the Si. rated themselves as the men of action, carii, might reasonably conceive that the executive ministers, the self-de- they held the same heavenly commisvoting soldiers. This is no conjec- sion under the same earthly oppresture. It happens that Josephus, who sion. had kept us in the dark about these Reviewing the whole of that calami

* Especially the death of Mariamne." -There is a remarkable proof extant of the veneration attached in Jewish imagination to the memory of this lady as a Maccabee. Long after her death, a pretender (or alleged pretender) to the name and rights of Alexander, one of her two murdered sons, appeared at Rome, and instantly drew to himself the enthusiastic support of all the Jews throughout Italy.


tous period, combining the scattered ring but through years of probation, notices of the men and their acts, and through multiplied trials of temper, the reflections of both thrown back multiplied obligations upon the con. from the mirrors offered to us by the science to secrecy, the Christian fa. measures of counteraction adopted at thers were enabled to lead men on

the time, we have little doubt that the wards insensibly from intense Judaic 22. Sicarii and the Zealots were both offsets bigotry to the purest form of Chris

from the same great sect of the Gali- tianity. The outermost circle received leans, and that in an imperfect sense, those candidates only whose zeal for or by tendency, all were Christians; rigorous Judaism argued a hatred of

whence partly the re-infusion of the pagan corruptions, and therefore gave 3 ancient Jewish spirit into their acts some pledge for religious fervour. In and counsels and indomitable resolu- this rank of novices no ray of light

broke out from the centremno sus. But also we believe that this very picion of any alien doctrine dawned political leaven it was, as dispersed upon them : all was Judaic, and the through the body of the Galileans, whole Mosaic theology was cultivated which led to the projection from the alike. This we will call the ultimate main body of a new order called the rank. Next, in the penultimate rank,

Essenes ; this political taint, that is to the eye was familiarized with the pro% say, combined with the danger of pro- . phecies respecting the Messiah, and 23 fessing a proselytizing Christianity. somewhat exclusively pointed to that

In that anarchy, which through the doctrine, and such other doctrines in e latter years of Nero covered Judæa the Mosaic scheme as express an im

as with the atmosphere of hell, the perfection, a tendency, a call for an Christian fathers saw the necessity of integration. In the third, or anteseparating themselves from these chil. penultimate rank, the attention was dren of violence. They might be right trained to the general characters of politically-and certainly they began the Messiah, as likely to be realized in in patriotism-but too often the appre some personal manifestation; and a hensive consciences of Christians re- question was raised, as if for investigacoiled from the vengeance in which tion, in what degree these characters they ended. By tolerating the belief met were exemplified in the mystethat they countenanced the Galileans rious


who had so lately engaged or Sicarii, the primitive Church felt the earnest attention of all Palestine.

that she would be making herself a He had assumed the office of Messiah: Sie party to their actions-often bloody he had suffered for that assumption at

and vindictive, and sometimes ques- Jerusalem. By what evidences was tionable on any principles, since pri- it ascertained, in a way satisfactory to vate enmities would too easily mingle just men, that he was not the Messiah? with public motives, and if right, would Many points, it would be urged as by be right in an earthly sense. But the way of unwilling concession, did cere persecution which arose at Jerusalem tainly correspond between the mystewould strengthen these conscientious rious person and the prophetic delinescruples by others of urgent prudence. ation of the idea. Thus far no susA sect that proselytized was at any picion has been suffered to reach the rate a hazardous sect in Judæa; and disciple, that he is now rapidly ap. a sect that had drawn upon itself per- proaching to torrent that will suck secution must have felt a triple sum

him into a new faith. Nothing has mons to the instant assumption of a transpired, which can have shocked the disguise.

most angry Jewish fanaticism. And Upon this warning, we may sup- yet all is ready for the great transition. pose, arose the secret society of the But at this point comes the last crisis Essenes ; and its organization was most for the aspirant. Under colour of artful. In fact, the relations of Juda- disputing the claims of Christ, the ism to Christianity furnished a means disciple has been brought acquainted of concealment such as could not have with the whole mystery of the Chrisotherwise existed without positive de- tian theory. If his heart is good and ceit. By arranging four concentric true, he has manifested by this time circles about one mysterious centre such a sense of the radiant beauty by suffering no advances to be made which has been gradually unveiled, from the outside to the innermost that he reveals his own trustworthi

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