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atau permit such mighty interests to be crockery ware," (as he irreverently

regulated by merchants; an overru« styled their forts at the Bocca,) in

ling participation in the power was such a summary style, with the guns Ta demanded ; a domestic board of con- of his old storm-shaken ship the Cen

strol was established; and finally, by turion, that all the tails in Canton ***287 many further changes, of which not stood on end with horror. Frightened citas the least has been the gradual reduc- as the British factory was at this ex

za tion of the Bengal voyage from six plosion of naval spirit, they could not sense months to three, and the organization hide from themselves that it succeeded w of overland routes from Bombay in for the moment, and left a useful im. samke still shorter space of time, the great pression behind it for a pretty long 427 Indian colonies have long been placed period. It was in fact the results from waren under the close supervision of English this demonstration of Anson's, that subEr-n domestic counsels.

sequently suggested the two embassies But that case was a splendid and a of the Lords Macartney and Amherst. mac natural exception. There it was no But previously to the era even of De me longer a commerce, no longer a pro- Lord Macartney's mission, an affair

vincial factory, but a 'vast empire of the year 1785 had put into everlastcome which was concerned ; an empire that ing characters of shame, had inscribed 27 in many parts had resumed the throne deeply upon a poor murdered victim's De cila and place of the Moguls—the only gravestone, what is the capacity for

sovereigns in the Mahometan line who evil, how infinite the possible degrahave ever approached to a general dation under a venal spirit of moneysovereignty over India. The great making, when not counteracted and circumstances accounted for the great overruled by the public opinion of an change. But elsewhere things con- honourable Christian community.

The cher ty x tinued as they had been. At Canton case, a memorable one for our Eng. Gezgi especially, no symptom of an improved lish instruction, was this :–Either in

si surveillance has been manifested. The firing a salute of honour, or on some speranto greater distance, the lesser value at festal occasion, a ball from one of the

stake, explain this neglect for the pre- great guns on board an English Indiacroies sent. But steam, in conjunction with man unfortunately killed' a Chinese.

railway, is rapidly annihilating the Never in the history of human affairs first ; and circumstances, which we was there a more absolute accident as are now to indicate, will so vary the respected the man who fired the gun. last, that a great revolution must now The man who loaded it was never disbe looked for. We shall be compelled covered. But this wicked nation, to change our system, or ruin is at who are so thoroughly demoralized as hand for English interests in China. to perceive no moral difference beThe nature of the changes to be ex- tween the purest case of misfortune pected, we shall briefly state.

terminating in a man's death and the Up to the year 1785 it is not worth vilest murder of premeditating malice, while to trace the little oscillations of demanded (according to their pracour Canton history. It is merely the tice) all the men to be given up who history of a counting-house, except for had in any way been parties to the the interest attached to national indig- loading, the priming, or the firing of nities. Little real variation could take the gun. The English factory, whose place in our relations with the Chinese very cowardice had taken a lesson in court, when all trembled before a the policy of making some resistance power that by one word could annihi- to monstrous demands, kicked a little late their prosperity, unless when some at this summons. But the Chinese, lion-hearted sailor, such as Lord (then being so thoroughly in the wrong, Commodore) Anson, touched at Macao were of course thoroughly in earnest. for the sake of repairs or refreshments. The usual circle of remonstrances was This gallant race of men, having no run through by the factory; the usual alien interests of a money nature to insolent retorts came from the Lins of mislead the simplicity of their English 1785; the usual steps were taken feeling, treated the insolence of the through the Hong for “ closing the Chinese authorities with the disdain it trade;" and then-upon that magical merited ; and Lord Anson, in parti- sesame-all scruples of honour, justice, cular, on finding a puny opposition Christian feeling, gave way at once ; prepared to his passage, smashed their wide open flew English doors to the vile

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Chinese murderers; and, to the ever. suffered on a Chinese gallows by hanglasting shame of poor dishonoured ing, for having fulfilled his duty on England, the innocent man, who had the deck of a British ship. Basenesg acted in obedience to absolute orders and faint-heartedness so complicated, from his captain, was given up to these we willingly believe, cannot often have Canton devils, in order that they, under been repeated by British authorities colour of avenging an imaginary mur- even in a factory. We would even hope der, might perpetrate as real and foul a that the case must be unique. But it murder as human annals record. The is proper that we should know what are man who had fired the gun was profes- the atrocities which, under the spirit of sionally the gunner of the vessel; and to gain, even free-born Britons can comour feeling it adds to the inhuman base mit, and which, under their accursed ness of the surrender, that he was an system of law, the Chinese can exact. elderly Portuguese, who had for many These precedents, it will be said, years sought by preference the service belong to a past age. Certainly as reof the British flag. When the wretches gards the British share in the disgrace; an came to seek him, he was on board his but not as regards the Chinese share ship. The boat being ready, he was in the terror. The same scenes are called to take his place in her; well eternally impending. The Chinese * he knew whither he was going, and laws do not change. It is the very al what would be his fate. The officer expression of their improgressive state was present under whose orders he that they cannot. Centuries make had acted, yet he uttered not a murmur. no reforms in a land open to no light. kun He took his place modestly at a dis- That same monstrous principle, upon tance from the officers, and when called which a poor dependent of England to take a more honourable seat by their was then given up to an ignominious side, again he obeyed the order. death—the principle that, in a certain One of the captains, pitying the man's event, inevitable misfortune and malice case, and admiring his meekness, hu- aforethought are equally criminal

, mility, and fortitude, uttered some punishable equally by the death of a words of consolation; and other cap. dog-this principle never will be tains, adding lies to their perfidy and abandoned. This principle has, since their cowardice, assured him that not the year 1785, again and again brought a hair of his head should be touched. us into terrific embarrassments;

and it But the poor Portuguese knew better is idle to suppose that in a seaport, -he understood the case ; he knew the resort of sailors from the highestthe brutal stupidity of the Chinese, spirited nation upon the earth, and and he read his fate in the obstinacy liable to perpetual insults from Chinese thi of their pursuit. Still he murmured vagabonds, any vigilance can ever close not; only at these delusive assuran. or seal up this opening to occasional ces, which added mockery to murder, manslaughters. We do not mention, he shook his head with a mournful as a separate evil, the liability of our significancy. The sequel is soon told people to be confounded with the

- this humble servant of the British Americans ; from the identity of their flag was solemnly delivered up to his naval costume, this must continually assassins. Some of the better Chinese happen: but amongst Chinese idola. were themselves startled at the ap- ters we view the Americans as one proaching tragedy ; for, let it be ob- with ourselves. They are Christiansserved, there was no deviation from they have our British blood in their the statement here made, even in cre- veins; and they have inherited from dulous Canton. The Chinese version ourselves, as children of enlightened of the story differed in no iota from liberty, the same intolerance of wrong: the English. Murmurs began to creep It would be a petty clannish form of through that timid, servile city. The nationality to separate our cause from man's deportment, so humble and sub- theirs. missive, conciliated some pity even But now mark :-as yet, or at from the fools who thought him a cri. least until the last few years, this bor, minal. It was found expedient to dis- rible Chinese degeneration of moral patch a courier to Pekin for further distinctions has operated only upon orders. In due course, the fatal man- a known, distinct, and concentrated date returned for the execution to surface, upon a body of men under proceed, and this poor injured man the eye, and partially reined up

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*3 tightly by the hand, of cautious supe- are now directed upon the general

riors. Had any other been the case, subject of colonization from the centres a long before this the very stones in of European civilisation; 2dly, in *England would have mutinied for ven- consequence of the peculiar local en

geance—such would have been the dowments; and lastly, in consequence on judicial atrocities committed by the of the magical revolution in the arts of er Chinese.

At present all things are locomotion. Estem changing in the aspects of English 3dly, The missionary efforts, from i colonization and of our Asiatic com- Christian England, are now annually

The mere expansion of our expanding their means, and organizing anita Indian empire, and the widening circle their forces. Were it merely through

2 ofour Asiatic relations, would gradually the growing knowledge of Eastern S multiply our shipping, our social ne- languages, this religious interest must

it cessities, and our points of contact with go on at a pace liable to sudden accee a foreigners in all Eastern seas. But, lerations of speed. It is in the nature

o apart from India, the following im. of such undertakings to kindle as they at en portant changes have recently begun advance; and, as the separate centres These to open :

of radiation, begin to link on to each ist

, The colonial importance of New other, gradually interknitting as s South Wales is now annually strength- chain of posts in active intercommuni

ening, so much as to send off sub-de. cation. set le pendencies to other parts of the same All these concurring causes will se great continent. The insular colonies soon multiply our Oriental shipping

of Van Diemen's will add another by twenty-fold. In fact, fresh em

nucleus in the same region, which al poria, such as Singapore, have been hat ready is connecting itself, by numerous rising of late years. Ceylon has been at threads, with important settlements in rising rapidly in importance. Our mies every part of the Eastern ocean. increasing intercourse with the Red

2dly, The infant colony of New Sea, (now strengthened by military Zealand will soon, of itself, form an- stations,) will further abbreviate the other and a separate nucleus in the intercourse between Europe and the same region of that ocean. This colony Indian Ocean. These causes, taken by has been treated with contradictory themselves, and apart from the fact harshness by Lord John Russell that the missionaries have been applynow drawing back from the most ing themselves, with peculiar energy, reasonable interposition of Govern- to the vast unguarded sea-coast of ment-now volunteering the most hose China, will avail to carry into Chinese tile; this day refusing the slightest jurisdictions a score of British ships for expression of maternal grace from one that has had occasion to face that England-next day placing England, danger. Occasional shipwrecks, or towards her own suppliant children, calls under stress of weather, will inin the attitude of a malignant step- crease in the same proportion. And mother. But, for all that, New Zeas of this we may be assured, that opporland is destined to a giant's career. It tunities for retaliation, in a twenty-fold isa youthful Hercules, that will throttle proportion, will henceforwards offer to the snakes about its cradle. The cli« this ignoble people in every case where

mate, not too relaxing, the soil, the their monstrous laws may happen to There are Waters, the interconnexion between the be infringed.

noblest children of civilisation, and by It is a subject of just alarm, that very much the noblest race of savages not only will the occasions for revenge in the world—these great advantages, be multiplied, but the chances of procombined with two others-(the first voking revenge, by offending those being, that a large proportion of capi- unnatural laws, will even outrun our talists will be concerned in this colo. increased scale of intercourse. For it nial edifice; and the second, that must never be forgotten, that the convicts will be excluded,)—compose opening of the trade to China-were a body of inauguration for this enter- there no other change in operationprise, which wears a promise hardly has, by itself, utterly deranged the old within the compass of disappointment. local authority of any superintendents The long infancy of all other colonies whom the new condition of the comwill be spared to this; lst, in conse- merce will endure. Hitherto the enquence of the power and light which terprising parties (the final controllers)

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have been cautious and intelligent subjected to the torture by this accursed capitalists—now they will be desperate state. adventurers. The trade, as it now No: it is vain to dissemble. Even stands, has succeeded to an inheritance without the irritations of contraband of some ancient forms ; but it has in. trade, and without the extension of herited no part of the ancient obedi. our Eastern intercourse now opening

The obedience paid to Captain before us, it is too certain that the hu. Elliot was, in all its circumstances, as miliation and the national crime of different from that which once corre- 1785 will revolve upon us. Many sponded to the demands of China, as times we have been on the brink of the new condition of the China seas the same tragedy. And, knowing will be from those of the eighteenth those facts, it is scarcely to be forgiven century. This obedience heretofore that our Government should not long was compulsory-now it is pruden- ago have taken steps in a most decided tial, and (in the literal sense of that way to place our relations with this imword) precarious ; for it depended moral state upon a footing of Euroupon the entreaties of Captain Elliot. pean security. Things have at last Heretofore it was instant; now it taken a turn which, or other grounds, followed after long deliberation has induced our Government to mediHeretofore it unconditional; tate an armed negotiation with China. now it took the shape of a capi. Now, therefore, it will be most imtulation. So much obedience was portant to combine this ancient and sold for so much indemnification. lasting purpose of security with the And most undoubtedly even this form accidental purposes of the moment; of submission would have been refused, and, whilst healing a present wound had the quality of the indemnification of our own infliction, (for the indembeen known, or its distance suspected. nity we are seeking corresponds to a In future, every man will govern him- surrender volunteered by ourselves,) self according to his separate views of to obtain a lasting guarantee, once Chinese policy, or his own facilities and for ever, against far worse wounds for evading it. But, amongst these to character, as well as property, which facilities, the most tempting will be have continually impended over our the unprotected state of the Chinese Canton connexion. coast as regards the coercion of smug. Let us now consider in what way gling. With the inefficacy of Chinese this great object can be compassed; administration will grow the cruelty and how it may be possible to extract of Chinese revenge, in order that ven- from an ill-advised rupture, not merely geance may redress the weakness of a satisfaction for the momentary foresight, and barbarous punishments grievance, but such concessions in make up for defective precautions. regard to our permanent perils, as This people, who are bestial enough to may reconcile us all to the rashness of think the will and the intention no Captain Elliot, and

may turn the necessary element in the moral quality opium loss (were that even past reof an act, are also savage enough to trieval) into a mere pepper-corn rent punish vicariously. A smuggler will for the very amplest condition of combe caught and impaled within sight of mercial privilege. his ship: his comrades, by way of What we want with Oriental powers furious revenge, will land, will burn a like China, incapable of a true civilisadozen or two of villages, and massacre tion, semi-refined in manners and methe flying inhabitants. These particu- chanic arts, but incurably savage in lar criminals will probably escape. the moral sense, is a full explanation But the ship that goes next on shore of our meaning under an adequate dein China, will meet the full storm of monstration of our power. We have Chinese vengeance.

And, if some never obtained either the one or the colonial ship freighted with emigrants, other. Our two 'embassies were or some packet with passengers, should faithfully executed, but erroneously be driven out of her course, and touch planned. To pause at the outset at a Chinese port, as sure as we live upon what may be thought a trifle, some horrid record will convulse us all but is really no trife in dealing with with the intelligence—that our brave Oriental princes, even the presents in countrymen, our gentle countrywomen, those embassies were not childishly, so and their innocent children, have been much as ruinously selected. Certaia

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departments of public business have cannot be mentioned with decorum.
immemorially been conducted as jobs in Oriental princes will not believe that
Great Britain : for instance, the build the sovereign, who is nominally the
ing of palaces, and the regulation of presenter of such offerings, has not a
national presents. The first, instead personal cognizance of the affront. In
of being confided to a national super- their own establishments every trifle
intendence, has constantly settled upon of this nature is duly reported and dis-
the individual caprice of the existing cussed, as one means of relieving the
prince; which caprice taking every dire monotony which besieges the sen-
variety of direction, it has naturally sual lives of the East. And, besides,
followed, that more money has been not to have had cognizance of what
spent in merely undoing and pulling concerned a brother potentate, is al-
down walls, than availed in France to ready an affront.
build the Louvre, the Tuileries, and That preliminary being first of all
Versailles; and with this final result, settled, which requires great tact in
-that, excepting Windsor, we have the case of China, from the jealousy
no palace worthy of the nation. The with which they regard our superiority
same hole-and-corner influence has in the mechanic arts, and their entire
mismanaged the department of pre- incapacity for the liberal arts, a pro-
sents. For no reason upon earth, be- ject is suggested by our present exi.
yond an old precedent, thousand-gui- gencies which has slightly been enter-
nea diamond boxes were at one time tained in former times. It is now
given to a variety of people on every certain that we must have some sort
occasion of signing a treaty: and, in of military expedition against China.
Mr Canning's brief administration, It is also certain that we can never
when that minister was questioned have full explanations exchanged, or
about them, it actually came out that the basis of any treaty laid, without a
no person was officially responsible for solemn diplomatic congress between
the boxes being worth any thing ap- the two nations. What if the two
proaching to the price paid by the na. appeals were combined ? Embassies
tion. In another case, and a very im- have failed in the East, partly because,
portant one --viz. the Algerine pre- speaking from no apparent station of
sents—we have the evidence of a most power, and appealing to no previous
respectable consul, Mr Broughton, knowledge of our European rank, they
who made large personal sacrifices for could not command the requisite at.
the British honour, that blunders the tention and respect. On the other
most childish were committed-blun- hand, a warlike invasion is too openly
ders interpreted as insults. Had an an expression of coercion to found a
old frigate, or even a corvette, of which settlement that will last. But what if
so many were going to decay "in the feelings of an arrogant state were
dinary," been sent to the Dey, the so far consulted as to allow her some
present would have been received colourable varnish for wounded vanity?
thankfully as a royal one: instead of What if, instead of a negotiating
which an assortment of bijouterie was army, we were to send an armed ne-
offered, by which the Dey thought gotiator? Instead of an army with
himself mocked. The diamond-box an ambassador in its rear, an ambas-
concern had interfered as usual. Asador followed by an army for his
musical snuff-box, valued to the nation train ? Such retinues are not unknown
at five hundred guineas, was scornfully in many Eastern lands. A column of
tossed by the Dey to his cook; and 14,000 men, with a suitable train of
the only article which he thought artillery, it is understood to be the
worthy of himself was a brace of finely opinion of military men, would easily
finished pistols, which probably had march to Pekin, if landed at the
not cost above fifty guineas. Thus nearest point. One person, indeed,
highly does the nation pay to found a assures us that we underrate the Chi.
lasting sense of injury in the minds of nese Tartar troops : an experienced
foreign princes.

native, it seems, of Nepaul, had told
As respected China the matter was him, “that the Chinese scymetar cuts
worse. Amongst the presents assorts deeply.” Now, if this officer confined
ed for the Celestial Emperor was ac-

his remark literally to the swords, (and tually a complex apparatus, (suited to not using the word as a general symbol the bedchamber of an invalid,) which for martial power,) there is no doubt ;


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