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land has, in the first-class barbor of quite another, viz., whether he should Esquimalt, on Vancouver's Island, all be justified in taking exclusive possesthat can be wanted for military or com- sion of the islands pending the action mercial purposes, whereas the United of the two commissioners then on the States needs that Archipelago as a mili- ground for the purpose of deciding the tary and naval station, to protect the boundary-line. This exclusive posseswhole of Puget's Sound. All of our sion he continued, notwithstanding the possessions, in that quarter, are frown- language of Mr. Marcy, in his letter of ed down upon by Vancouver's Island, 17th July, 1855, to Mr. Crampton, wbich and Mr. Polk's cry of “54° 40' or expressly provided that, pending the fight," appeared to indicate at least a running of the boundary, neither party clear appreciation of our wants in that “should exclude the other by force, or quarter : we say it appeared to indicate exercise complete and exclusive sovesuch an appreciation, for he ought cer- reign rights within the disputed limits.” tainly to have insisted to the end on We have avoided calling this the “ San our retention of Vancouver's Island. Juan Question," as that might be misIt is believed that it could then have understood as referring to the action of been easily obtained.
Harney, and not to the northwestern 7th. Any one who carefully reads the boundary dispute. His action only obcorrespondence will be convinced that scured the main question, and kept our this claim was an after-thought. This Government busy for a twelvemonth in view is strikingly confirmed on reading clearing away the smoke thus raised. the memorandum of Mr. Packenham, And it led to the joint military occupathe British negotiator, who admits (p. tion instituted by General Scott, which 224) that he cannot call to mind any does not appear to have hastened the circumstance of the negotiation “to settlement of the question. strengthen or invalidate the pretension The briefest notice of this correspondnow put forward by the United States." ence requires an allusion to two things This is quoted by Lord Russell, in his in the language of the British negotiadespatch of 24th August, 1859, to Lord tors. Whereas our commissioner was Lyons. That, at the end of thirteen simply instructed to carry out the treaty years, he could recall nothing to invali- and run the boundary-line, Captain Predate our claim, is very significant. It is vost's powers were limited, and he was plain, from Mr. Bancroft's letter of 29th instructed, under any circumstances, not March, 1847, to Mr. Buchanan, that the to surrender San Juan. Lord Russell, British claim to the Haro Archipelago in his letter to Lord Lyons of the 24th originated with the Hudson's Bay Com- August, 1859, indicates a similar ultipany.
matum. There is a small intermediate The above closes our resumé of the channel leaving San Juan on the west, principal points brought forward in the and Lopez and Orcas Islands on the correspondence; but we must add a east, and they would fain persuade us few words concerning the military oc- into accepting it, though plainly not ancupation of San Juan, which caused swering the requirements of the treaty, the incorporation in this report of the and though its acceptance would imply whole of Senate Document of Jan. 30, that neither party was right in the con1860, setting forth the causes and results troversy. As introductory to proposing of General Scott's visit to Puget's Sound this solution (which should be unsatisin 1859. This covers seventy-four pages factory to either party), Lord Russell of Document No. 29. The joint occupa- said, “No settlement of the question tion was established by General Scott, will be accepted by Her Majesty's Govafter General Harney had, without a ernment which does not provide for the particle of authority, attempted to em- Island of San Juan being reserved to broil the two nations, not on the main the British Crown." So, forsooth, the question of the boundary-line, but on only possible solution of the San Juan
Question which could be made must be couver's Island, Newfoundland, Cape our surrender of San Juan !
Breton. We have read with great satisfaction To these should be added India, Burthe reply of Mr. Cass, in his letter of mah, Australia, British Columbia, and 20th Oct., 1859, to Mr. Dallas, in which the Canadas; but these acquisitions are he says: “If this declaration is to be continental, and belong not to the class insisted on, it must terminate the nego- of commanding military and naval potiation at its threshold, because this sitions to which we have referred. It Government can permit itself to enter is true that in some of these countries, into no discussion with that of Great as in India, it is claimed that England Britain, or any other power, except upon seeks only commercial ascendancy and terms of perfect equality.”
not territorial additions ; but the disOn the 12th Dec., 1857, Mr. Camp- tinction is a very refined one, and, pracbell applied to Captain Prevost for a tically, India is British territory. full copy of his instructions. Not until Now, however ready we are to rejoice the 22d Feb., 1859, did Lord Malmes- that the British power, the Anglo-Saxon bury, then in the foreign office, furnish race, and the English language should Mr. Dallas a copy of that portion of be extended to such regions as Austhe instructions, by which it appeared tralia and New Zealand, yet it will not that, on the 20th Dec., 1856, the British be wise for statesmen or diplomatists to commissioner, in his original instruc- forget or ignore this appetite of the tions, was directed to insist on an “in- British Lion to absorb commanding termediate channel ; ” and, if he could military positions whenever the chance not obtain the adoption of that, must is offered. We wish the utmost success propose to refer the question back to to every legitimate scheme for the prosthe respective governments. The same perity of those dominions. The mothscheme is again indicated in August, erland has an irresistible claim on our 1859, by Lord Russell. And we ven- kindred sympathies when she promotes ture to say that a persistent effort, on the spread of civilization and Christianthe part of England, to obtain the same ity, upon which subject it was right “intermediate channel,” is discernible and natural for Mr. Reverdy Johnson to throughout the recent negotiations with descant. Kossuth was in the habit of the Hon. Reverdy Johnson.
often saying, "the solidarity of nations," It will not be out of place here to - meaning that all nations are bound make a reference to the steady policy together with mutual responsibility, of Great Britain to acquire all over the each for all,” with joint interest and globe commanding positions - capes, fellowship; or are, in sailor phrase, "all headlands, and harbors, which may con- on the same bottom,” to use the extrol the commerce of the world. It is pressive words of Dr. Trench. It is true that the wars with Napoleon led to true that our common humanity“makes the acquirement of many of them, as in the whole world kin;" that the best the case of Malta and Mauritius. Thus rivalry and highest ambition should the maritime ascendancy of England be to do the utmost to advance the was only promoted by those wars, early welfare and improvement of the whole in this century, giving cause and op- human family; but while we would portunity for the seizure of important freely admit that we are susceptible to positions.
all the enkindling emotions which such Without any very thorough search cosmopolitan views excite, it is, in pracfor such a list, we will name Aden, Sin- tical life, necessary to treat nations and gapore, Ceylon, Hong Kong, Cape of governments as we find them. There Good Hope, Falkland Islands, St. He is deep wisdom as well as great pathos lena, Sierra Leone, Heligoland, the in that passage of the farewell address Channel Islands, New Zealand, the of Washington, in which he was forced West Indian Islands, Bermuda, Van- to a like conclusion: “It will be wor
thy of a free, enlightened, and, at no This brings us to allude to the treaty distant period, a great nation, to give now before the Senate, negotiated by to mankind the magnanimous and too Mr. Reverdy Johnson, which proposes novel example of a people always guided to submit this question to arbitration, by an exalted justice and benevolence. the President of the Swiss ConfederaThe experiment, at least, is tion to be the arbiter.
“All correrecommended by every sentiment which spondence, documents, maps, surveys, ennobles human nature. Alas! is it to &c., relating to the subject, shall be be rendered impossible by its vices ?” placed at his disposal within twelve
From Mr. Bancroft's letter of the 29th months after the ratification of the March, 1847, to Mr. Buchanan, it should treaty. The referee is to endeavor to seem that he, at that early date, had deduce the precise line of boundary intimations that the Hudson's Bay Com- from the words of the treaty of 1846 ; pary wished to get some of the islands but, if unable to do so, he is at liberty in the Archipelago de Haro. The first to determine upon some line which will, development of the claim occurred in his opinion, furnish an equitable sowhen our tax-gatherers levied a tax on lution of the difficulty, and be the nearsome sheep of the Hudson's Bay Com- est approximation that can be made to pany, on San Juan Island, in 1855. an accurate construction thereof." His The Company attempted to evade the " decision to be final and conclusive, payment of said tax, and the sheriff of and carried into immediate effect." Washington Territory seized some of At the last session of Congress, the the sheep, and sold them to meet the Senate, we think, wisely declined to tax,
ratify this treaty. It is said that an In 1858, Dickens, in the “ Household able speech against it was made by the Words," said that the Government of Hon. Jacob N. Howard, Senator from Great Britain should “make of one of Michigan.* We hope that, when the these islands a second Cronstadt, thus Senate again assembles, this treaty will securing, as with a padlock, her posses- be definitely rejected. We believe that sions on the Pacific coast." A "second the whole scope and effect of the proMalta” would have been a more appro- vision above quoted would be to invite priate name for San Juan than a second and lead to a compromise channel, and Cronstadt. It is a commanding posi- there are ample reasons why any such tion, like Malta, but does not command result should be resisted. We believe the channel. Neither Malta nor Gib- that, if Mr. Sumner had seriously taken raltar command the channels in their hold of this question, he would have vicinity, but they are favorably situated found at least equal ground for the reto assist in guarding commercial inter- jection of this treaty as for that reests. Such is the situation of San Juan specting the Alabama claims. Whatever Island, as ably set forth by General respect we may have for the motives of Totten. It is not needed by England, Mr. Reverdy Johnson, it is apparent which has Esquimalt opposite, as we that, in the negotiation of this treaty, have above explained. Esquimalt, in- he was insensibly led to the use of deed, has been for twelve years a large phraseology calculated to prejudice our naval station for the British navy, and claims in this boundary question. We they need no other or better in that re- believe that it can be settled without gion. But we do need San Juan Island arbitration, and that the British Gorand the Archipelago de Haro, as an off- ernment will yield to us the Canal de set to the preponderant and threatening Haro as the boundary. vicinity of Vancouver's Island. And
Since writing the above we have seen the the completion of the Northern Pacific
speech of Senator Howard, the injunction of seRailroad to Puget's Sound will make crecy having been removed. It is a full and forci. this fact every day more and more evi
ble argument against the ratification of the treaty.
It presents many of the points we have given above dent to our people.
in favor of our claims in this controversy.
Our people have been averse to arbi- pravity ; it only requires a wholesomo trations ever since an attempt was made, recurrence to poor human nature as it thirty years ago, to settle the Northeast- is, and to the spirit of encroachment ern Boundary Question by its submis- which powerful nations too often adopt, sion to the arbitration of the King of to place us on our guard. the Netherlands. It was time wasted ; This is a claim concerning which Mr. for, as he attempted to decide nothing, Bancroft, in his letter of the 15th June, but proposed to run a line half-way be- 1858, to Mr. Campbell, said, " It should tween the two, “splitting the differ- be met at the outset as one too preposence,” our Government (which had re- terous to be entertained.” Again, “The served that privilege) refused to consent Hudson's Bay Company may naturally to his proposition.
enough covet the group of islands east It is asking a great deal of us to pro- of that channel, but the desire, which pose to submit such a question as our can never amount to a claim, should not Northwestern Boundary to arbitration. be listened to for a moment." Our claims are of so clear and positive Diplomacy has examples in which a a character that it must be very hard claimant, whose side is weakest, whose for one familiar with them to consent cause is unsubstantial, finally gets a slice to such a process. And we do not by mere perseverance, by the mere prowonder that the people of Washington cess of raising the smoke of contest. · Territory have sent the protest against It will readily be seen that such results arbitration, presented to the Senate on would not be very satisfactory and the 19th Jan., 1869, by Senator Corbett statesmanlike, and would not promote
We wish to speak with entire re- the cause of permanent peace. The respect of the British Government, which fined civilization of the age would seek seems desirous to close up the topics of an adjustment founded on justice, and difference between the two Govern- not one of a hollow character--a Banments. But it does not require a re- quo's ghost to haunt the diplomacy of membrance of the doctrine of total de- the future.
Mad with power that wakes our wonder, swift with clatter, clash, and thunder,
How this grasping iyrant Science chains earth's mighty struggling lions,
APARTMENT HOUSES PRACTICALLY CONSIDERED.
The Apartment-House question has been met. The first statement is ontrue long been a favorite topic for discussion in every respect, and we say this upon with the press of this country; and now experimental knowledge of the house in that the desires of the community for question. The building erected by Mr. such buildings have been gratified to Stuyvesant in East Eighteenth-street, some extent, and are likely to be to a New York, was intended for a first-class much greater extent, it will be well to house, and would rank as such according give some serious thought to the subject to César Daly's classification, so far as in its practical aspects. This is all the space and convenience are concerned ; more necessary, because, on the comple- though perhaps it would not, so far as tion of the first house of this kind in its inside finish and appointments are New York, the experiment has been concerned. But it is superior in many pronounced a failure by at least one respects to any house of its kind in the daily paper, which has said that the ac- city of Paris, and altogether better adapcommodations were “poor and dear,” ted to the necessities of New York life. and that the demand of the “middle As compared with its manifest advantaclass” for comfortable and convenient ges, its shortcomings are but slight. We apartments at reasonable rents had not lave reason to believe that the tenants,