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rope as the gold-panic of September 80 as to make the fine color of the wood last. Scores of conflicting accounts of it conspicuous. have gone the rounds of the continental
The Paris Conservatory of Music newspapers, and several journals of high has had a gift of 120,000 francs, the incharacter have taken the pains to pre- come to be used at fixed periods as a pare detailed histories of it, in its causes prize for the best complete opera, both and consequences as well as its daily words and music. Just at this time a progress. Perhaps the most careful of letter from Richard Wagner is published, these accounts is that in the Journal des declaring that he will never write for Economistes, for July; but the most the lyric stage again ; apparently bepopular sketch of gold-gambling in New cause “his Meistersinger” has been York is that given by Europa, No. 25, hissed so much and criticized so severely. for 1870. The readers of these articles But bis“ Walkyre” was then about to are able to see clearly, what is so com- be presented in Munich, before the court pletely hidden from many of the very of his royal patron and friend; for the men who have these scenes before their first time, and his “ Lohengrin
was in eyes, that the fundamental weakness of rehearsal at the Italiens in Paris; perour financial system is in the long sus- haps their reception may encourage him pension of specie payments; and that, to produce more of the "music of the so long as our currency is fluctuating in future.” If not, some of the American value, the national credit can never be compliments to the Rienzi overture, as secure.
given here so often and so well last winThe most careful biography of ter, must be sent out to him. Washington Irving yet written now ap
Europe is far behind the United pears, strange to say not in America, States in the opportunities afforded to whose literature he almost founded, nor women for medical study and practice. in England which he loved, nor in Spain In Edinburgh the Council of the Univerwhich he celebrated and served, but in sity voted down Professor Mason's proGermany—and in Germany, a country position to admit students on the same and a language which Irving knew and conditions without regard to sex, by 58 valued less than he certainly would bave to 47. Iu Vienna a Russian Jewess, done, had he lived later,
In two com
who applied for admission to clinical pact volumes (Washington Irving, Ein lectures, has been rejected, and it is deLebens and Characterbild, von Adolf clared that women are ex-officio unaoLaun; Berlin, R. Oppenheim), Herr ceptable as students; and in Munich the Laun gives the results of an affectionate minister of public instruction formally and intelligent study of his subject in all announces that matriculation at the Uniits aspects, and succeeds in presenting a versity of Bavaria is conditioned upon remarkably interesting and correct pic- the male sex of the applicant. London ture of the great diplomatist, traveller, seems to be the only place where the and master of English style.
question is much discussed, but there it The sculptor, Wendler, has just is admitted that the women have the completed, for the old St. Mary's church best of the argument, and that the in Dantzig, an altar, the work of two claims of Drs. Elizabeth Blackwell and busy years, which has been exhibited Miss Garrett had not been arswered, that and greatly approved in Berlin. It is the medical profession is peculiarly a said to compare favorably with the for- work for their sex. In Paris, however, mer well-known altar in this church their right to learn all they can, and to built by Michael Schwartz three hundred do all the good they can, is not disputed. years ago, to which it bears a general The state of religion in Germany resemblance. It is nearly seventy feet is a subject much talked and written of, high, carved in massive oak, supporting but really little understood; and two figures of Christ, the principal apostles strangely different but equally interesting and the evangelists, and richly gilt, yet works, which have just appeared concerning it, are full of novel and instruc- points of doctrine and practice; not imtive matter. “Religious Thought in plying that he must needs be a wise or Germany, by the Times' Correspondent good man in himself. It thus adds little at Berlin," (London, Tinsley Bros.), is to the logical difficulties of the Roman a reprint of a remarkable series of letters Catholic position for its controversialin the London Times, picturing with ists, while vasily increasing the dignity much effect the general skepticism of and glory with which “the vicegerent the thinking people, and the materials of God upon earth” will be regarded by for a superstitions reaction among the ig- the priest ridden masses of unquestion. norant. · Religious Life in Germany ing believers. during the War of Independence, in a A recent number (96) of the series of historical and biographical series of Lectures on Natural Science, sketches," by William Baur, minister in issued by Messrs. Virchow and HoltzenHamburg (authorized translation, 2 vols., dorff, of which we have before spoken London, Strahan), contains earnest and as the most valuable presentation of the carefully studied lives of some of the outlines of science for popular reading most remarkable characters of the be- ever published in any language, contains ginning of the century, Heinrich von a discussion of the skulls of men and of Stein, Fichte, Arndt, lleffens, Schleier- apes (über Menschen und Affenschädel), macher, Von Holberg, and others; so by Dr. Rudolf Virchow; perhaps the told as to depict the effects of practical highest authority in general anatomy in faith, under the most opposite theoret- the world. He controverts the too rapid ical beliefs and the most varied circum- conclusions of Karl Vogt and Häckel, stances. The reader of both books will who have thought it easy to point out conclude that the last balf-century has the exact nature and manner of the ranmade terrible havoc with religious ten- sition, by natural selection, from the dencies and forms among the Germans. ape-brain to that of man; and, while not
The formal proclamati n of the disputing the general theory of the dedogma of papal infallibility was delayed scent of man from lower forms of being, until it had ceased to exite watchful at- he shows that the differences between tention from the press and the public, monkeys and men are too wide, and orr the Franco-Prussian war having en
ignorance of any intermediate forms too grossed all thoughts. But it may yet complete, to enable any plausible zooloprove to have been a more important gical pedigree to be worked out for us. event in universal history than the nom
A very curious work is in prepaination of a Hohenzollern to Isabella's ration by Mr. Mitford, the Secretary of throne, or Benedetti's insult to King the British Legation in Japan; a collecWilliam. It seems likely to be followed tion of the best original novels of the at once by the repeal of the Austrian Japanese language, with illustrations by concordat, and the withdrawal of Napo- native artists. The appetite for stories leon's troops from Rome; that is, by the of civilized life seems to be nearly sated virtual abandonment, by the strongest among habitual novel-readers, but liere Catholic governments in Europe, of the is something really new. papacy. Already it has given occasion
The French and English are reto a flood of pamphlets and newspaper joicing over discoveries of extensive discussions, upon doctrinal ond historical beds of good mineral coal in Algeria and questions connected with it, none of Bengal. At Laghmat, in the French which, however, upon either side, have possessions in Africa, a bed has been any permanent value, either literary or opened which promises to supply all ecclesiastical. The dogma itself, in its Algiers and southern France with fuel; official form, merely makes the Pope the while at Midnapur, within seventy miles supreme doctrinal oracle and judge in his of Calcutta, some well-diggers have Church, when he pronounces formally, struck a bed of excellent coal, from and in the name of the Church, upon which it is hoped that the British
steamers in the trade to India and to achievements to change the face of the Australia can be supplied. But neither world, is illustrated by the alarm into formation has been sufficiently explored which many Frenchmen have fallen, at to make its extent or value certain. the prospect that a railway will soon be
The famous prison of the Con- built from Germany through Switzerciergerie in Paris is undergoing recon- land into Italy, by way of the St. struction. The court in which the mas
The North German sacres of September took place, and the Federal Assembly has authorized the larger court, are already destroyed, and Government to give a large sum for all the cells in which prisoners awaited this project; and it is said that Italy the summons to the guillotine are to be
and Switzerland are eager to carry it removed, except the one in which the out, in the hope of diverting to this Queen Marie Antoinette spent her last route the travel and the most valuable days; this will be preserved just as she part of the traffic between India and left it, as a memorial of her. Foreign the East, on one hand, and England journals revive curious and touching de- and all northern Europe on the other. scriptions of the scenes of the Revolu- A glance at the map will show how it tion within its walls; the most complete is conceivable that, in this way, Venice of which is the narrative of Count Ben- or Genoa or Naples might one day beguot, who had the rare good fortune to come the capital of the Mediterranean esca pe the guillotine, and to be released
commerce, in place of Marseilles. after a long imprisonment in 1794, and
A very doubtful discovery is who was afterwards a minister both of
that reported by Heinrich Schliemann, Napoleon and of Louis XVIII.
from the village of Eiplak, or New Ilium. The journals of the two hemi. He has been excavating in the plain of spheres are filled with memorials of Troy, and has discovered, several feet Charles Dickens, perhaps the most suc- under ground, the foundations of a cessful author the human race has yet large building, which, he asserts, is produced. He has reached more readers doubtless Priam's palace, in which Hecin his lifetime, and made a deeper and tor sacrificed to Zeus; and the thick better impression upon them, than any walls of the citadel of Priam, “the other writer of any age; and his fame, crown of Troas," in which, as the secwhich grew steadily until his death, is ond Iliad reports, the goddess Iris apleft by him in its full splendor. Critics peared to Hector. waste their time in attempting to define
Dr. F. W. Ebeling has written his place and rank in literature, while the reading world is sorrowing over his
an unsatisfactory biography of Count
Von Beust, in two considerable volumes grave. He may have little in common with the few great creators and guides sively of his Saxon life and services, and
(Leipsic, Wöller), treating almost excluof thought, who, one in many ages, lay
diplomatically withholding what every the corner-stones of human culture-the Homers, Platos, Shakespeares—and his body wants most to know—the true hisactive influence, unlike theirs in its rap- his administration. It is, of course,
tory of the Austrian Government during id growth, may be unlike theirs, too, in
written under Von Beust's own superits short duration ; but the work he has done for this generation will cause it to vision, in this case giving the author give better brains and hearts to its chil. peculiar facilities for concealment and
reserye. dren, and to their remotest descendants, until he finds his place among the high
- Russia, as described in most reest of the
cent books—and there are legions of “ Many men, whose names on carth are dark,
them which profess to describe it,-is a But whose transmitted effluence cannot die, sort of barbarous imitation of Parisian So long as flame outlives its parent spark." society in an Icelandic climate. But
The power of great economic “ Aus Russland's Vergangenheit, von Wilhelm Pierson” (Leipzig, Duncker & titute of many of the most common and Humboldt), gives the results of long useful books in the English and German observation and study of the people, languages, while most of its resources before they were invaded by European are wholly urused, for want of the necesculture, and thus forms a curious and sary means of access to them-such as sometimes startling picture of their catalogues, attendants, &c. It is hoped customs, manufactures, fashions, modes that all this will now be reformed as of labor and thought. It is sometimes fast as possible. imagined, by ill-informed people, that Professor Mategazza, the Italian Russia and the United States are to chemist, has made an elaborate series share the world's great future between of researches into the origin and effects them; but a little wholesome truth
of ozone in the atmosphere. He conabout the Muscovites will satisfy Ameri- firms the belief that its presence is decans that, socially, politically, and mor- structive of malaria, and protects against ally, it is well to keep at the other end infectious disease. He finds that odorof Christendom from them.
ous flowers throw off ozone in amounts Dr. David Strauss, author of the proportioned to the strength of their “Life of Jesus," has finished a work on odors; and recommends that such flowVoltaire, intended to be a critical esti- ers be placed in houses where there is mate of his position in literature and any reason to fear the existence of mahis services to modern thought, which laria. is looked for in Germany with deep in- The doctrine, first put forth last terest by all classes. There is much in winter by Professor Coryville Thompwhich the writer resembles his subject, son, that the formation of chalk-rock, though Strauss is almost as superior to and the deposit in it of organic fossils, Voltaire in sincerity, truthfulness, criti- have gone on continuously from the cal depth, and logical exactness, as he early part of the tertiary epoch until is inferior in wit, fire, and versatility. now, in the North Atlantic Ocean, has
The geographer Kiepert has been heartily embraced by many of the spent the Spring months in Palestine, leading geologists and naturalists of making researches and measurements Europe. “We may be said to be still which promise important corrections in living in the cretaceous epoch," says the maps of that country. He has made Dr. Thompson; and Dr. Carpenter apsome interesting discoveries, chiefly new proves the statement, and declares that identifications of places named in sacred “ the idea is one which must exert so history, and reports the country free important an influence on the future from disturbance, and the weather fa- course of geological inquiry, that its invorable to his work.
troduction will be one of the landmarks A new department is organizing in the history of the science." Certainin the French Ministry--that of " Let- ly it seems utterly to overthrow, if adters, Sciences, and the Fine Arts.” The mitted, all conclusions whaterer as to control of the Imperial Institute, the chronology, founded on the nature and Imperial Library, and the other Gov- succession of rocks, and to leave the ernment libraries, and the general inter- geologists nothing on which to build up ests of literature, science, and art, are to a record of the past except the progresbe under its protection, and it will have sive changes of organic life. power to grant subsidies for scientific It is now twenty-seven years and geographical explorations, and for since Hermann Burmeister first pubthe publication of contributions to his- lished his “ History of Creation," and tory. The Imperial Library of Paris, in successive editions he has improved the noblest in the world, has hitherto it by his own careful studies, as well as been under the nominal care of the De- by the results of other investigators, partment of Instruction, and has been until it may be regarded as the best, as so wretchedly neglected, that it is des- it certainly is, to untechnical readers, the most intelligible, general account of this planet has a varied surface, which what is known of animated nature. may be made up of land and water; Professor Burmeister is free from the that it has an atmosphere, of unknown prejudices of all schools, from the nar- density and composition, which conrowness of some specialists, and from tains something like watery vapor, and hasty devotion to unestablished theo- throws down, in winter, heavy masses ries; but he fairly states the evidence of something like snow; and that its in favor of the views to which the sci- cold winters and changes of climate, entific world now leans, without dis- though far inore severe than ours, may guising their difficulties or their un- possibly be so tempered by atmospheric solved problems. The changes which influences as not at once to destroy all the earth has undergone in condition such life as we know. When we consider and temperature, with their causes, the how very slight a change in the compoorigin of life, the succession of organ- sition of the atmosphere, as, for examisms, and the relations of species to one ple, either an increase or a deficiency in another, are among the subjects which the amount of carbonic acid, would dehe discusses, with such sobriety and ful- stroy vegetable and animal life ; or how, ness of knowledge, that some of the in the absence of the moon—and Mars leading European critics rank his recent has none the ocean would become eighth edition with Humboldt's “Cos- stagnant, or how quickly every living mos” in importance. A French trans- thing would perish, even on the earth, lation of this work, by M. E. Maupas, were it removed as far from the sun as has just appeared (Paris, F. Savy), and Mars is, or any of a score of other nice will bring it within reach of many to balances between destructive powers, whom the German original is inaccessi- which are essential to the habitability ble. Now that a host of English works of the earth, Mr. Proctor's scientific aron various branches of the same subject guments appear of little value. It is are claiming attention, many of them really the theological argument from misleading or worthless, it is to be hoped final causes alone on which the book that this standard and authoritative rests—assuming that the worlds were treatise will be translated.
created for a purpose, and, unable to We cannot call any thing of Mr. conceive of any worthy purpose but as Richard A. Proctor's either worthless or the scene of life, the author concludes misleading, without qualification ; but that this must be their raison d'étre. his new work, “ Other Worlds than This reasoning recurs on every page; Ours; the Plurality of Worlds Studied but, good or bad, it has nothing to do under the Light of Recent Scientific with science. Researches ” (London, Longmans, Green One of the most entertaining & Co.), is certainly disappointing. Mr. books of the year is “A Series of LetProctor thinks that recent discoveries ters of the First Earl of Malmesbury, in astronomy have gone very far to his Family and Friends, from 1745 to prove that some of the other planets are 1820,” edited by his grandson, the inhabited by living beings, if not by Right Honorable the Earl of Malmesintelligent observers of the skies, and bury, G. O. B. (2 vols., London, Benthe devotes a volume of more than three ley). The first Earl was the son of Mr. hundred pages to setting them forth in James Harris, the author of the once this point of view. His presentation famous “Hermes,” or Principles of Uniof them, though excessively diffuse, is versal Grammar, and therefore the grandoften interesting, but he makes out no nephew of the great Lord Shaftesbury, case. It is of Mars that he thinks his of the “ Characteristics." He was an point best proved, and he enthusias- Oxford boy, of Fox's set; entered the tically discusses “ Mars, the miniature diplomatic service at Madrid in 1767, of our earth ; " but the established and, from that time until his death, in facts on which he relies are simply that 1820, was intimately acquainted with