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1. See-'st thou the clouds so fleet-ing? O, with them I hold my way.
a - lone de-lay me, And my darling far a - way? O thou cloud in heavenly
arch - es! Hide not soon thy splendor dear! Have I oft-en with thee wandered,
Some of the finest of the German heaven !” says Körner in a letter, " it songs are sung in praise of the Father- was a moment in which this consecraland; the following, which is one of tion to death impelled every breast and the very best and noblest, is charged when every heart beat heroically.” The with a fervent, indignant, menacing, poet-soldier was killed in a charge of sad, but finally triumphant patriotism, the Lützow Cavalry, August 20, 1813, and belongs, certainly in its words and just before which, while they were restpossibly in its music, to an order of ing in a wood, he wrote his last poem, song which sprung from the German the famous “Sword-song," and struggles against French invasion. actually engaged in reading it to a
The words of this song are by Theo- friend when the signal for the attack dore Körner, a German poet who gave
was made." his life for the Fatherland. On the up- He was buried underneath a noble rising of the Germans for the brief con- oak—a tree much loved by him and test which ended at Waterloo, Körner celebrated in his verse : hastened to join the army. He devoted
“ Thou native oak, thou German tree, his moments of leisure to the composi
Fit emblem, too, of German worth! tion of war-songs; and many of his
Type of a nation brave and free,
And worthy of their native earth.” songs took their form from the simple melodies of his country. He also ex- It is said that he had frequently deerted himself to find melodies suited to posited verses in this same oak, comthe stirring and patriotic songs of oth- posed by him while campaigning in the ers. He joined the famous Lützow's vicinity. The oak and the grave underFree-corps, and took with them in a neath it are walled in, and a cast-iron village church the oath to
monument celebrates the illustrious wealth nor life for the cause of man- dead. The inclosure also contains anothkind, their country, and religion. “By er grave, that of Körner's sister, who
dar - ing word—I'll speak it bold-ly out, I'll speak it bold-ly out.
time is ill, the world is vile; The no- blest men, a
The earth be
a yawn-ing grave For strength and freedom's star. Yet cour-age! when foul
Want of space has compelled the plies some very beautiful sacred songs omission of many details and examples from its folk-melodies. Here is one most so that we have said nothing about the happily wedded to the words, which we comic and convivial folk-songs, or the have translated without rhyme, in order student and Burschenschaft songs, and to preserve as literally as possible the other kinds. We cannot omit, however, strength and beauty of the original. For to give a sample of the sacred songs of a similar reason, we give the beautiful this people's-music. Luther was the first harmony, somewhat reduced, which acto introduce metrical psalmody into the companies it in the “ Deutsches Liederchurch service, and his Fatherland sup- lexicon” of August Härtel :
preach-es the bless-ings Which God us doth give, Which God
us doth give.
German song has not been silent since the breaking out of the present war. It has poured forth much stirring devotion to the Fatherland, and many lyrics which are said to have won great admiration. The following lines refer to Körner triumphantly. They are from a song entitled 1813-1870, published in the Main Zeitung, as translated for N. Y. Evening Post : "Rouse up, my soul, the reddening fires aro flar.
ing!" High beats the heart; the hand the sword swung
And Körner's songs with victory still reward
us; Deutsch we are yet, in truth, with heart and
THE TRUE CAUSE OF THE FRENCH-PRUSSIAN WAR.
The cause commonly assigned for the of the question will ever be popular present war is the Hohenzollern candi- with the majority of our people. But dature, but there are few Frenchmen the opinion of the majority is not necand Germans who regard it as the real essarily always a just opinion, and it one. It has become quite apparent that behooves us to study caresully both this candidacy served only as a pretext, sides of the question before deciding and that the real motive which prompt- on its mertis. ed Napoleon III to declare war against There can be no doubt that the war Prussia was his and the French people's is—or must we say has been ?-popular in jealousy of Prussia.
both France and Germany. CorresponEver since Sadowa, and more or less dents from both countries agreed' in before that memorable event, the French stating that the spectacle presented by press has been busy fostering in the the people of both countries could only French people feelings of aversion and be compared to the uprising of our own enmity to Prussia. Writers of first-class people at the fall of Sumter in 1861. It ability did not disdain to represent is further certain that the German peoPrussia as the enemy of liberal progress ple have not the slightest doubt as to in Europe, and as the especial antago- France being responsible for the war. nist of French civilization. Writers of They felt intensely indignant, and their less ability and coarser tastes excited patriotic efforts were all the more enerthe populace by recalling to their minds getic for being strengthened by the conthe wars of 1813–'15, in which Prussia sciousness of acting in self-defence only. played such a conspicuous part. Prus- So great was the indignation in Gersia, it was said, is the most aggressive many at the conduct of France, that all power in Europe. Her ambition is internal strifes were set aside for the boundless, and her conscience wide. time being, and all energies turned to She established her power on gold and the war. The declaration of war by cannon; she grew by treachery, war, France has thus resulted in gaining for and conquest, and holds her ill-gotten Germany that unity which France has possessions by sheer force. Silesia and been so very anxious to prevent. Poland, in the eighteenth century, As regards the French, it seems at Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse, first sight strange that they should have &c., in the present, were alleged in evi- become so excited at the prospect of dence of the charges made, while a war, which certainly must be accompamere reference to the left bank of the nied with heavy, sacrifices for them. Rhine, part of which belongs to Prus- Did they really believe themselves sia, sufficed to remove all doubts from threatened by Prussia, and therefore the French mind as to the validity of justified in precipitating a war that these charges.
would have come sooner or later in any These views of the French press and case? This is, indeed, the view enterpeople have been adopted to some ex- tained by the leaders of the French peotent by American writers, and many are ple; and if it was a correct one, our trying their best to make Americans sympathies should, perhaps, not be look at the matter as Frenchmen do. given to Prussia, but to France. Let us
Thus far the sympathies of the Ameri- see what reasons France had for accuscan people have been so largely with ing Prussia of hostile intentions against Prussia, that there seems to be little her. reason to suppose that the French view In order to become thoroughly satisfied that the Hohenzollern candi- sia, Belgium, Holland, or the Bavarian dacy served only as a pretext, but Palatinate, any more than to claim any was by no means the real cause of territory on the right bank of the the war, one should carefully study Rhine. Surely, it is not fair that the the tone of the French press ever French should hold Prussia alone resince Sadowa in reference to the Ger- sponsible for thwarting what France man question. In 1866 Thiers declared believes to be her legitimate aspirain the French Chamber that the success tions and designs; but there is, maniof Prussia was the disgrace of France. festly, a very strong reason for them so To prevent the union of North and to do. If Prussia would yield, either South Germany at all hazards bas since from complacency or from weakness, beep the avowed object of French di- France would not have much to fear plomacy. The victory of Sadowa the from the other powers. But Prussia French regarded as a national disaster, would not yield, and she was constantly and some, for instance the “Gaulois,” increasing her strength. This explains went so far as to call it an insult to why the French so obstinately opposed France. The military treaties between the union of Germany under the ausPrussia and the South German states pices of Prussia. With Germany united were regarded as another insult. The under so energetic and active a governfirmness of Prussia in opposing the pro- ment as that of Prussia, France would posed acquisition of Luxembourg by stand but a very poor chance for the France was a third. In order to under- realization of her dreams of annexastand why this latter affair was consid- tion,-ground enough to make Prussia ered as equally threatening and insult- unpopular in France and to attract on ing to France as the first two, it must her all the indignation of a people be borne in mind that it is generally thwarted in its traditional hopes and understood in France that Belgium aspirations. We believe that the foremust eventually become a part of going is an exact statement of the case France. But if Prussia would not let as far as France is concerned ; and if even Luxembourg go to France, and any one should doubt the correctness was ready to risk a war on that ac- of what we have said, let him study the count, how much less could France ex- writings of all the prominent Frenchpect her rival to be a silent spectator men who have ever touched on this subwhen the time for annexing Belgium ject. If he reads carefully and criticalshould come ?
ly, he will become satisfied as to the enThe French people cite Strabo in tire correctness of our view of the proof that the Rhine is the natural matter. western frontier of Gaul. They all have Knowing the feelings of the French read enough of their own history to in reference to Prussia, we need not know that under the first Napoleon the wonder to see Frenchmen accuse her of left bank of the Rhine had been con- many things that apparently concern quered and annexed by France. The Prussia and Germany alone, and not at idea that the countries lying west of all France, Let us examine the French the Rhine belong by right to France is charges against Prussia. In the first no less firinly rooted in the convictions place, the case of Schleswig-Holstein is of the French people than the belief pointed out. That Prussia deprived that it is Prussia alone which stands in Denmark of this province and finally the way of France getting back what annexed it, may or may not have been she considers her rightful property. an act of arbitrary power; but how it
Unfortunately for France, not only could be considered a threat against Prussia, but England, Russia, and cer- France does not appear. All Germany tainly Belgium and Holland, utterly had decided that Schleswig-Holstein, deny that the French nation has a right having been German territory from time to claim the Rhenish province of Prus- immemorial, should be reunited with