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and in due time, say in early June, Dest in the ground, going two feet or the young appear. These are neuters, more into the bank, following a mouseneither male nor female, but workers. hole, and appropriating the nest at the These proceed to build other cells and end of it. I have exhumed them, and fill them with honey, relieving the queen found a mass of comb, filled with honey, of all care but the laying of the eggs. grubs, and young bees, nearly as large This first honey is very delicious, being as a man's double-fist. clear and white, like the clover-honey Then there is a small light-colored in the hive, but of a different flavor. bee, about the same size, that frequently Ordinarily, the quantity found in a nests in barns, building in vacant morsingle nest is very small, scarcely more tices, or in the space above the tenon than a large tablespoonful. One sum- of a brace where the mice have made mer, when a boy, by making it a point, their beds. One sees the bees going in I collected quite a boxful in the comb, and out through the cracks. Rap on making, when pressed out, about a pint the beam or brace, and they set up a of clear honey, and representing the loud buzzing. labor of two or three dozen swarms. Then there is a very rich, aristocratic

Near midsummer the males are hatcb- looking bumble-bee, with broad, glossy ed; these are the stingless, white-faced wings, new yellow waistcoat and new bees of the boys. Their sole function velvety breeches, always looking fresh is to impregnate the female for the next and clean and distinguished—a bee that

The nest is not abandoned till one readily discriminates. I have never the latter part of August, though the found its nest. honey is gone long before that time. The more common yellow-breeched The bees then come out on the warm bees love the mice-nests in old meadowdays, and dart and hover and pursue bottoms, where they are turned up and cach other about the entrance of the plundered by the hay-makers, the boys nest, making a loud, humming noise. especially delighting in the sport and It is at such times that the queen-bee the honey. Sometimes, however, they appears, and is pursued by the males. pay dearly for the fun; for a bee in the

Through September the bumble-bees bonnet is nothing to a bee in the trowlead a roving, homeless life, wallowing sers-leg. A bumble-bee can sting as languidly in thistle-blows, and usually many times as a flea can bite. The passing the night and weathering a se- honey-bee stings but once, and dies, vere storm on the lee-side of one, till leaving his weapon in the flesh; but they finally die from cold and exposure. his larger relative deals stab after stab, The royal scion, in the meantime, has and the helpless youth into whose trowstowed herself away, no one knows sers-leg he has found a lodgment, dances where.

a lively step for a few moments. Emerson's bumble-bee was a philoso- The bumble-bee's usual mode of atpher, as all bumble-bees are, and wore tack, however, is to fly directly for the yellow breeches, which all bumble-bees face and neck; and he gets beneath the do not. There are, indeed, said to be clothing of the pedal extremities only several dozen varieties or species in the when his wings are disabled, and the United States, but, ordinarily, one no- enemy stands unsuspectingly about. tices not more than half a dozen va- The most ferocious of the bumblerieties. Besides the “yellow-breeched," bee tribe, and the terror of the boys, is which is the most common, there is the the large white, or very light-yellow, white-breeched, the black-breeched, and species. It is quick to anger and slow the red-breeched, with modifications of to relent. Indeed, it pursues the moeach. The red-breeched is a small bee, lester with the pertinacity of a bulland quite rare, yet I remember one sea- dog or a colporter. A spectator of son when they were abundant. They the operation of hay-making and haylive in large communities, and usually gathering may have seen a mower pause


in his swath, duck his head once or branch, and, of all bec-kind, are the twice, beat the air about his ears with ugliest customers to deal with. bis rifle; then duck again, lower than The notion among the boys, that if before, and drop his tool and go slink- you throw a stone at the nest, a single ing away, warding off, with his arm or bee will follow its path back and strike a switch of grass, some invisible enemy. the thrower unerringly in the face, is Or the boy, tossing the hay behind the scarcely an exaggeration. It certainly mowers, may be observed to break ranks, is not safe to stand very near and throw and, whipping his head and ears wildly stones at them. The avenging hornet with handfuis of hay, retreat in dis- comes almost with the speed of a bulorder. Presently he pauses, and listens; let; and if you do not stagger from the then goes at it again, more vigorously gross weight of the blow, you certainly than before. This wolf of a bumble- do from its lightning-like suddenness, bee will thus dog him half across the and the sharp pain that accompanies it. field. Knock him down, and, if not Shall I ever forget the huge nest, large seriously injured, he at once gets up as a peck-measure, that some sharp-eyed and comes straight for you, and will traveller discovered a few rods from the not let you go till he is disabled out highway in a piece of woods, and not and out.

far from the paternal farmhouse, and A still more lively and spirited little with what fear and trembling we comedy, however, is enacted in the hay- youngsters used to peep at it from befield, when a hornet's nest is run into neath the underbrush ? No stones were or lain bare by the mowers. There is ever thrown at that nest by us, though a retreat then of all bands in hot haste. our fingers fairly burned, at times, to The movements of a hornet are so much give them a shot; and in the Fall, quicker than those of a bumble-bee, after the leaves had fallen, there hung their aim so much more sure, and their the object of our terror, empty and fornumbers so much greater, that beating lorn, its frail walls destined to be apthem off is of little avail. A precipi propriated ere long by some sportsman tate retreat, and, if pursued, a prostrat- for gun-wadding. ing of yourself upon the ground, your Many more nests of this kind are beface buried in the hay, is the only safe gun than are ever finished, some mishap

After the bees have settled terminating the career of the founder back into their paper-house, a wisp of before any offspring could be had. One straw (if you must dispose of them), sees these little balloon-shaped beginlighted with a match, and suddenly nings stuck around in various places, placed at the entrance, will make short varying in size from an inch to two Tvork of them.

inches in diameter. The yellow-jackets are much more It is curious to note the growth of a cominon than their congeners, the black. hornet's nest. It seems to increase in Scarcely a season passes that the various size as naturally as a squash or pumpfarm occupations do not disclose nu- kin, and about as fast, and apparently merous nests of the former, on the in the same manner, from within, out. ground, in the fence, filling the end of It is seldom that one sees more than a hollow log, fastened to a bush, or two or three hornets at one time crawl. pendant from the peak of the barn; ing about on the outside of the nest, but rare and memorable is the finding and these have the air of surveyors, the nest of the black hornet. In Mary- rather than of builders; the expansion land, I have found them building on a seems to be from within. So it is, and blackberry-bush within a few inches of from without also. And this is the the ground; but in the more northern peculiarity of the hornet as an archiStates, so far as I have observed, they tect: he is constantly tearing down his always build in the woods a large cone- house and building it larger, to accomshaped nest, suspended from some high modate his increasing family. The vital


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part of the best is within, and consists shears. See how quickly he clips out a of one or more tiers of comb full of round piece from the rose-leaf, himself cells, in which the young are liatched the hand and handle to his own tool, and developed. The visible, inverted, and, rolling it up and embracing it cone-shaped nest is merely the tent that with his legs, flies away with it to his shelters this process. As fast as new cell, which is some little round cavity cells are added, the inner walls or lin- an inch or two deep, in a rail, or post, ings of the tent are torn away to make or stump; and which, after being lined more room, and the whole structure re- with these bits of green leaves, is filled cased from without, thus every external with a yellow, salve-like substance, that wall becoming, in its turn, the internal, no doubt contains the egg of the bee, or the lining, with three or four parti- then nicely capped or headed with more tions, arranged about the eighth of an circular bits of leaves, sealed up, and inch apart, between it and the open air. left to its fate.

As the hornet was the first inventor The wasps proper may fairly claim a of paper, so the little “sweat-bee,” that part of my attention (and they usually comes about the laborer in the field, receive it when I meet with their nests), alighting on his sweaty hands and but, on the present occasion, I extend arms, and showing his light buff-col- to them the courtesy which I would ored belly at every move, is undoubted- thankfully receive from them in turn, ly the holder of the original patent on by respectfully giving them the go-by.




where she stood at work, spread a narEIRENE sat by the window, filling a row slip of sky; and, looking up, she basket with cakes and sandwiches, had sometimes seen the peaceful clouds which Sister Goodlove had given to come sailing down the valley, and this her and Tilda to carry to camp-meeting was all that she had known of the sumthe next morning. How she had count- mer. Often, in the languid evenings, ed the days, and longed for the coming she had dropped her book and turned of this camp-meeting morning! If she a wistful face away from Tilda Stade's had analyzed her emotions (which she scrutinizing gaze and wearying voice, never did), she would have discovered and, looking beyond the trees out to that she had scarcely thought of the the serene West, a soft desire had stirred camp-meeting at all as a religious ser- in her heart for something sweeter and vice. Having never attended one, she better than she had ever known-she might have fancied that it would be knew not what. We, who know her pleasant to hear people pray and sing well, know that it was the first mysteriin the open air-only she did not think ous stir of the soul of the girl-woman, of the people at all. She longed for dimly yearning for companionship, for her old friends, the woods, the air, the sympathy, for tenderness, such as had summer sky. From babyhood these never' entered her barren life in Busyhad been ber closest companions, and ville. The summer should have given this was the first year of her life that some holiday to seventeen; it had given had shut her away from them all. From none to her. But going to the woods this low seat, where she sat now, she had for a single day, she thought, would be watched the sunset scarlets glinting a good deal better than nothing. Thus, through the trees of Mr. Mallane's gar- light of heart, at five o'clock the next den. Above the window, in the shop morning, she ascended, with Tilda, into the vehicle of Brother Goodlove, which yonder was the very spot where she rewas to carry his brethren and sisters to

ceived the blessing of sanctificationthe camp-ground for twenty-five cents a where Jesus spoke perfect peace to her person. It was a high, springless wagon, soul.” Taking Eirene's hand, she led with boards laid across for seats, and, her toward a large tent bearing the this morning, was crowded with passen- name of “Busyville” above the door. gers. A number of sisters bore witness They were now fairly on the campto its being a very uncomfortable equi- ground, and Eirene beheld what was to page, by sundry little groans concerning her a most unwonted and picturesque their aching backs. Eirene, sitting at sight. Tiny fires, made from dried one end, where the boughs of the bend- boughs, were crackling in the rear of ing trees brushed her as she passed, every tent; and on these, kettles were thought of nothing but the pleasures boiling and meats were frying. Extemof the ride. The road ran by seques- pore tables, set under the trees, were tered farms and through the woods, all spread with white cloths, garnished the way. The young light shimmered with flowers, and loaded with viands. through the leaves above and around Pretty young sisters in white sun-bonthem; the air was full of soft sounds nets, white aprons,


gay frocks, and of pleasant smells; of the fragrance superintended these tables; while maof resinous branches and juicy ferns trons in close “shakers " and demure crushed beneath the wagon-wheels. Ei- dresses hovered about the fires, guardrene took it in at every pore, and ing the meats and watching the tea-pots grew as glad as the birds singing over and coffee-pots, lest their delicious her head. After a two hours' drive, liquids should run too low to supply they entered a new road cut through the numerous hungry people waiting the woods, and a distinct murmur of for breakfast. The air was full of the human voices reached their ears; and most varied sounds. Birds twittered in then what seemed to Eirene to be an the trees. Girls chattered and laughed extraordinary sight for such a place, with each other, and flirted in a halfgreeted her eyes. Under the trees, all subdued, half-pious way, with the young along the roadside, booths had been brethren, whose plates they piled and erected of green boughs, and under them whose cups they filled ; while the wommen and women seemed to be driving en by the fires talked in low, mysterian astonishing trade in small-beer, gin- ous tones to each other, as women will. gerbread, candies and doughnuts, and From manifold tents issued the sounds other harmless commodities. New-com- of morning devotions. Old hymns and ers were constantly arriving. Wagon- old tunes of every conceivable rhythm loads of the sisters and brethren of the and metre met in mid-air in inextricable church; young men and their “girls,” confusion. In one tent could be heard in buggies, arrayed in their best, nearly the sobs of a sore soul wailing over its all of whom stopped at the stalls to re- sins, amid a Babel of prayers rising to gale themselves with ginger-pop, pea- beaved in its behalf; from another came nuts, and other innocent refreshments. a solitary voice, fervent and sonorous, At last, through the shifting leaves, going up to God in early thanksgiving; Eirene caught glimpses of white tents, while from every direction came choforming a semicircle under the forest- ruses of voices shouting, “ Bless the trees, surrounding an amphitheatre of Lord !” “Glory to God!” The whole rude seats facing a rude pulpit canopied scene bore witness to what it was-a by the boughs of beeches and elms. great religious picnic, in which material Their wagon stopped outside of this in- pleasure and human happiness blended closure. Tilda Stade, hurriedly alight- very largely with spiritual experience. ing, assisted Eirene to do the same, in- The appearance of Tilda Stade on the forming her, at the same time, that this camp-ground was a signal for rejoicing was the “blessed camp-ground, and to the more zealous Christians, for it


was a sure promise of increased zeal in But Brother Viner was also an intellithe prayer-meetings. As they gathered gent man, and perfectly conscious of around to welcome her, Eirene was left the relative fitness of things. How standing alone for a moment; and, could he labor with her concerning her looking about her, saw, for the first soul? How could he appeal to her, time, an individual who had seen her with pathetic tones and tears, to forfrom the first moment of her appear- sake her sins and give her soul to her

It was good Brother Viner, Saviour? How could she regard him standing at the head of the table, evi- solely as a spiritual teacher, now that dently just concluding his breakfast. she had seen him tbere, devouring, with He looked red in the face, and uncom- such gusto, such quantities of food ? fortable, as if the sisters were overfeed- Not but what he thought that he had a ing him that warm morning. He was perfect right to his breakfast—as good literally besieged by women, young and a right to enjoy it as any other manold, each one producing, from her par- but not to such a breakfast. In his ticular basket or from her particular over-fed condition, there was something fire, some viand, hot or cold, setting it incongruous in passing directly from the before her minister, with the exclama- feast to the prayer-meeting, to pray for tion, “Oh, Brother Viner, do taste this; a girl who, in her white frock and innoI made it on purpose for you!” “Oh, cent face, “looked like a lily out with Brother Viner, where's your appetite nature.” At least thus poetically thought gone to? You must eat your break- Brother Viner, notwithstanding Mrs. fast!” Brother Viner did not like to Mallane's account of her wickedness appear ungrateful, and thus kept on still remained in his memory. “Why tasting each dish set before him. It didn't I sit down under a tree, and was a sight to behold them—the dishes make my breakfast from a bowl of of pork and beans, cold ham, succotash, bread and milk, in true pastoral fashomclets, doughnuts, crullers, pies, pre- ion ?” he asked himself in tones of serves, pickles, all heaped up before the self-disgust, his eyes still fixed upon the unfortunate minister. Brother Viner white dress and sun-bonnet. had an excellent appetite, and, at first, At this time Eirene's attention was attacked this conflicting mass of food called away from the young miniswith all the zest of a young and vigor- ter by a rustic young convert, who, in ous stomach; but even he was no proof his new-born spiritual joy, was obliviagainst the ignorant kindness of women ous of breakfast and of all human want. -a kindness that has caused more sour Spying Eirene standing alone, he immestomachs and sour theology than the diately came to the conclusion that she most powerful imagination ever con

a sinner,” and not “a sister;" ceived. Brother Viner looked up from therefore, a proper subject for missionthe mass on his plate, and beheld Eirene ary zeal. He walked up to her, and, looking toward him with wondering without a single preliminary, asked, eyes. He recognized her at once as the “Do you love the Lord ?" innocent-looking little sinner who had Eirene, startled by the abrupt quescaused the prayer-meeting at Sister Mal- tion, saw before her a lank, long-haired lanc's. Here she was on the camp youth, the exact counterpart of Moses ground—the place of all others for her Loplolly. Had that young man of conversion, the most appropriate in peddling propensities concluded to which to reclaim her from the error of study for the Christian ministry? her ways; and what an interesting sub- “Do you love the Lord ?" was the ject! Brother Viner could not help solemn question again propounded to seeing this. He was a young man, and, the wondering girl. like any other young man, could not “I hope I do," was the timid answer. help feeling a more spontaneous inter- “You hope you do!” [In a tone of est in a lovely girl than in an ugly one. deep disgust.] “You hope you do!

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