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" Profit by this intimation to contra- demned to receive twenty strokes of the dict the falsehood promulgated to the lash. According to the existing law of prejudice of public order, and satisfy the disturbers of public order, she has every one that it is the interest of all suffered the penalty at Perugia on the the powers to sustain the liberty and 9th instant." independence of the supreme Pontiff for the peace of Europe.

At this time the people had refused “ With sentiments of distinguished to consume tobacco which yielded large esteem, I subscribe myself, most rever- revenues to the government. By a deend and illustrious sir, your most affec- cree dated July 30, 1855, Cardinal Antionate servant,

tonelli caused the lash and the cudgel “ G. CARDINAL ANTONELLI,

to be inflicted for all offences on men, “Portici, September 8, 1849."

women, and boys. On the 9th of FebThe original of this letter is found in

ruary, 1851, a Roman named Dreosti the documents referred to previously, and a Frenchwoman named Clarisse vol. i. p. 54. The Chambers, which ha burned Bengal lights in the Italian tribeen convened by the Constitution color, green, white, and red, on the Pingranted to Rome at the accession of

cian hill. They were sentenced to twen Pius IX, were dissolved by proclama- ty years in chains at the galleys. The tion December 7, 1848. On the 18th of French Government interfered on beFebruary, 1849, Cardinal Antonelli ad- half of Clarisse, and she was exiled. dressed to foreign courts a letter grant- On February 17, 1852, four men were ing an amnesty for political offences, condemned for the same offence, one to instituting the Council of Ministers and

two years, one to the galleys for life, the Council of State, and according from and the others, one to five years and the the imperious force of circumstances the other to twenty. The Inquisition estahinstitution of the civil guard, and a new lished a secret court, holding in surveillaw for a decent liberty of the press, lance all persons employed in Church The Pope, in an allocation delivered on and State, the army and the national the day that the French besieged Rome, guard. The accused person never knew had boasted 'of his liberality in grant- the charge, witnesses, judge, or proceeding a constitution to Rome; yet on the ings. On a certain day he received an 12th of September, 1849, by motu pro- order of dismissal, or was put in prison. prio, it was abolished, and the Court es- From the records of this Council of Centablished itself henceforth upon French

sure, as it was called (Documenti, vol. ii. bayonets and broken faith ; even the p. 597–600), we get a few significant deamnesty, spacious as it was, excluded tails. Men are sentenced for lecity ; " for whole classes from participation. Every not feeling properly on political matmember of the Provisional Government, ters; ” “ for having the appearance of of the Triumvirate, of the Republican one rather inclined to novelties;” “ “ for Government, all the chiefs of the mili

being imprudently talkative;" tary corps, all who had ever come under

cause he read the papers with a high any existing penal law, were excluded voice, digressing sometimes, and alterfrom mercy. All who had been trouble

ing bis voice when he read any thing some were included in the fell swoop blackening the Pontifical government of condemnation. A struggle began be- and the priests, and he ridiculed the tween the oppressed people and the King of Naples and Catholic sovegovernment. Every pretext for inflict

reigns;” and lastly, “ because he will ing punishment was eagerly seized. The never be good stuff to cut an employé following item of intelligence is given out of.” in the Giornale di Roma, June 13, 1851: The financial straits of the govern"Maria Biajgi, of the city of Castello,

ment caused Monsignor Galli to coin having been convicted upon the testi

three millions of bronze scudi, with ficmony of sworn witnesses of having in- titious value, in fact the value of real sulted peaceful smokers, has been con- silver, and ordained that fourteen month

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ly payments of taxes should take place tricolor would have been hoisted, and each year. The blight on grapes from the people would have demanded the the aphides produced great trouble and right incidentally, if not directly conscarcity around Rome in 1862; and ceded to them by the Convention of further to add to the painful visitation September. In the weak condition of of Providence, Cardinal Antonelli or- the patriots, and in order to give no dered that the landowners should pay shadow of a pretext for the return of three bundred and fifty thousand scudi, the French, it had been solemnly agreed “to compensate the government for the by the popular representatives to avoid loss of the tax on vintages.” Previous open demonstrations of hostility. to this, in 1855, Cardinal Barberini de- Five days, however, before these arclared that “all grapes, corn, and other rangements were completed, information produce given to parish priests and was received that General Garibaldi had canons as tithes shall be exempt from become disgusted with Mazzini and the taxes, to preserve the rights and privi- Moderates, and contemplated an immeleges of the Church.” From possessing diate rising. Three of the most innothing in 1814, the Church had grown fluential members of the Secret Comrapidly wealthy, and her revenue in 1860 mittee at once repaired to him at Asinawas thirty millions scudi. Out of a lunga. He was put in possession of their population of one hundred and seventy plans, and shown that his hope that a thousand there are thirteen thousand declaration of war would, as in 1848, priests who pay no taxes, and are the attract all the malcontents to his standevourers of the greater part of the dard, was a hopeless fallacy. The Genewealth produced by the people.

ral, howerer, is a man of one idea, and The position of the French in Rome when it thoroughly takes possession of had been an aggravation of other abu- his mind, it is impossible to shake his ses. They were regarded as intruders, obstinacy. He, like the Pope, refuses to destroyers of national liberty. The of- reason, and believes no one can be right ficers regretted their position, and sym- but himself. He mistook the personal pathized far more with the people than esteem evinced for himself for a demonwith the government. They are con- stration of adhesion to his principles. temptuous to the clergy, and speak of Then occurred the rupture between the them with derision as locusts. But the Secret Committee and the illustrious voluntary annexation of the marches to soldier, entirely brought about by his Piedmont under the title of the king- vehement denunciation of their supdom of Italy brought about a discus- posed cowardice, and a determination sion respecting Rome. It was finally to involve the people in blood. One of agreed that the French troops should them said, on leaving him, more in sorvacate the Papal states in September, row than in anger, 1864. The feeling of the French was “ You are fast becoming a greater foe that an immediate insurrection would to Italy than the papalini." ensue. The Pontifical government aug- His words were prophetic. mented its troops and means of defence. Four days later, September 5, 1867, The corps of Zouaves was organized the Italian Ministry were informed of from volunteers of every nationality, the contemplated rising, and Ralazzi animated with a fiery yindictiveness ordered, on his own responsibility, the worthy of crusaders. There was to be arrest of Garibaldi. The General alno intervention on the part of Italy. ways believed, and probably still be

The Romans were to fight their own lieves, that he had been secretly debattles, and decide their own govern- nounced by the Moderates. This is a ment. The Secret Committee had ar- mean and unworthy suspicion. Not a ranged for a plebiscitum to take place single man on the Secret Committee simultaneously in all parts of the Papal but has suffered as much, and done as states. At a given day and hour the much, for the cause of Italian unity as Garibaldi himself. I have accurate in- sacrilege committed by his men. Adformation, that the Italian Government mitting that the Church has betrayed received their warning from the French her trust, and become a cruel tyrant inMinister at Rome, for a special messen- stead of a nursing mother, the wanton ger with despatches for Count Ralazzi desecration of her most holy things arrived only two hours before the order cannot but damage those who do it. I of arrest was issued. The General was could not have believed the following, informed that if he would return to had not Ricciotti Garibaldi recorded it: Caprera, he would be set free. This he consented to do. Meanwhile the parish

“ The church at Monte Rotonde was priest of Asinalunga, an ardent action

a large and handsome one ..and ist, had preached an inflammatory ser

presented a sad scene of devastation.

The holy water stoups had been dashed mon on the text, “ Samson went and

in pieces, the font destroyed, the side caught three hundred foxes, and took chapel in which the Host was reserved firebrands, and turned tail to tail, and had its altar all broken by bayonets. put a firebrand in the midst between The Host had been carried on the point two tails; and when he had set the

of one, and borne in mock procession, brands on fire, he let them go into the

attended by a man holding the sacris

tan's large three-cornered hat stuck standing corn of the Philistines." In

round with candles." the sermon the papalini were compared to the Philistines and Garibaldi to Sam- Garibaldi estimates the number of son. So that it was perfectly easy for arrests caused by his desperate act at an observer to detect the secret tactics ten thousand, which is no exaggeration. of the Party of Action by the injudi- This alone might show how wrong he cious sallies of their adherents. Never- was. But this was not all. The French, theless, although Italian men-of-war reënforced again, held St. Angelo and guarded Garibaldi, he succeeded in the leading posts at Rome. To supply leaving Caprera, and inflicting in hot chassepots and other weapons, and to and blinding fury the most serious pay his soldiers, Cardinal Antonelli has wound to Italian freedom yet inflicted. increased taxation tenfold. Nothing If Napoleon, whom he so unsparingly but their withdrawal can afford an opdenounces, was to blame for the vote portunity to Rome. But this last event of April, 1849, Garibaldi is far more to is by no means improbable. Although blame for the frightful results of his ill- the Premier has an inveterate foe in advised insurrection, which more effec- Monsignor de Merode, Private Almoner tually riveted the chain. Italy was on to His Holiness and possessing his conthe eve of casting it off, we believe for- fidence, the latter is by no means friend

Garibaldi left Caprera October ly to the French. Since the day that 15, 1867, and on the 3d of November General Goyon told him to "consider the battle of Montana was fought. The himself caned,” he has been resentful. fifteen hundred men he commanded The understanding between the Vatican were almost boys, few being over twen- and the Tuileries has never been cordial. ty. Poor fellows! they gave their blood The Pope suspects the Emperor of fosgenerously, intoxicated by the chimeras tering Gallicanism, and frequently comof their leader, But the Pontifical pares the conduct of Napoleon I to Pius troops numbered eight thousand and VII with that of his nephew toward the French four thousand. A chival- himself. “Both," he has said, "tried rous resolve to stand by the misguided to dictate the conduct of the Holy See." General even in what was too evidently The French officers are heartily disgustto all but himself a forlorn hope, in- ed at their continuance in Rome. A duced large numbers of Italians to join commandant on the General's staff said him, and his band increased to four to me,“ We are only a species of jailor.” thousand seven hundred. Certainly The late action of Count Darn may no apologist can excuse the wanton very probably precipitate matters. The

ever.

29

course,

very fact that France opposes the de- mits, the Italian Government fosters all claration of Infallibility will only make manner of reforms. It is only where the Vatican more determined in its the people still feel the evils brought

The reply of Cardinal Anto- about by their ex-tyrants, that there is nelli was to the effect that his whole any discontent. The restoration of the experience forbids the Pope to return lost states Cardinal Antonelli knows, as to the policy which he pursued in the well as any man, is impossible. Nations. first years of his reign, and which was are coming to recognize the great fact used by the Revolution as an instru- in political economy, that the people have ment to overthrow the Pontifical throne; an inherent right to govern themselves. that a liberal policy had always pro- The inhabitants of the ex-Papal states duced deplorable consequences, as was voluntarily chose Italy instead of Rome. seen in the present condition of other The French Government shrewdly countries. Concessions never bring an discerns that the Infallibility practicalelement of force to governments, but, ly destroys Episcopal jurisdiction—that on the contrary, always weaken the one voice will rule and sway every believhands of authority, and open the way ing Romanist. The aggressive spirit of to revolution and anarchy. For the the Papacy is more developed now than Pope to give reforms would, in fact, be at any previous time. With such a for him to give arms to his enemies

weapon, Rome, the declared foe of free against himself; and the agitation governments and personal liberty, bewhich has followed a system of govern- comes a most dangerous antagonist. If, ment in Spain and Austria and in France as so many thousands of Romans deitself offers a sufficient warning against voutly hope, France will withdraw ber such a course. No political reforms are troops, the Secret Committee will again possible till the Holy See is repossessed seek to carry out the peaceable revoluof its lost provinces, and an end is put tion contemplated in 1867. Foreign to the dream of Italian unity. Then it powers will be called on not to interfere may be practicable to devise some mezzo between the Pope and his subjects. All termine, which will enable the Pontifical that these latter demand is a free pleGovernment to follow the counsels of biscitum. This was allowed to Venice France, without laying itself open to the and all the other states of Italy. Forattacks of the Italian revolutionists, or tunately, Spain is no longer the docile endangering those governments which ally of Rome; and, as far as we can shall succeed the Italian monarchy. see, no power would be willing to co

So far the Civitta Cattolico of Febru- erce the Romans in favor of moribund ary 23, 1870, is reporting the official despotism. Then the programme of reply to Count Darn. The Cardinal is Cavour and d'Andrea will be carried open and candid, but he does not see out. The Pope will cease to have any the inexorable logic of Count Darn's temporal jurisdiction. He will become argument. Evil governments, based on Bishop of Rome, and Patriarch of the exactions, oppressive and intolerant, Roman Catholic Church, with possesmust inevitably produce a reaction. sion of the Vatican as a residence, and This the Cardinal anticipates in the with St. Peter's as his cathedral church. case of the Italian monarchy. He inti- The seat of government will be probamates that the dispossessed princes may bly trans, arred to Rome.* The religious “succeed the Italian monarchy." This orders would be disendowed and abolcould only be by a revolution. Now, ished. Priests would be allowed to despite all the mistakes of the Ministry marry. Thus reformed, what might not since the days of Cavour, the people are Rome become in the history of Europe ? wise enough to estimate the mighty Her Campagna might become a smiling difficulties, the growth of ages, against which they have had to contend. As

This was in type before the French-Prussian far as its impoverished exchequer per

war began.

garden under the hands of the agricul- dal of being, as she is now, the ally of turist. Her artistic children might vie a rule that has worse features than the with their ancestors in supplying the slavery which America expended priceworld with geins of art. And, above less millions of lives to obliterate from all, religion would be spared the scan- her soil.

LOTA'S MISSIONARY FIELD.

66

LITTLE Lota Page was to be a mis- portance, when the detested title reapsionary. Every body said so—the every peared, and, like a Mother Cary's chickbodies of her little world, her adopted en, gave token of the coming of a storm. mother, Mrs. Sawyer; Uncle Hardman, A missionary's child,” that was what who controlled the household; the she was; not merely a child in the orteacher of the school she attended; the dinary sense of the word, a thing to be fathers and mothers of half the girls; loved, disciplined, taught, prayed for, last of all Lota herself, who from long rejoiced over; but a special charge, a iteration of the idea had come to re- thing set apart and presided over by a ceive it as a fiat of Fate, from which band of grim though angelic guardians, there was no escaping, and wbich it was who would be quick to remark any sinful even to wish to escape. And yet shortcomings in her training. Rich and the round, dimpled, sparkling thing was lonely, Mrs. Sawyer had been desirous as little like the stuff of which mission- years ago to adopt a little girl ; and aries are generally made as any thing when the ship “Cato" arrived from that can be imagined.

· Bombay with the orphan-daughter of Missionary work held Lota by a dou- the Reverend Mr. Page on board, and ble claim; it was a birthright and a vo- the newspapers made known the melancation, that is, as far as other people can choly particulars of his death and burial "vocate" for a girl. Both parents had at sea, she felt this was the very chance died in the service; one of jungle-fever, she had been looking for. Duty and the other on his way home to America inclination never clasped hands more with his child. His ocean-grave, her

His ocean-grave, her pleasingly. Highly respectable and well mother's quiet resting-place under the known to members of the Board, there palm-trees, were alike unreal and vague was no difficulty in getting possession to Lota's mind. She could never of the little waif whom no one else apvisit either with flowers and tender peared to claim ; and at three years of thoughts as other orphans do; and of age baby Lota was duly established in the brief two years' inotherhood noth- the nursery prepared for her reception ing seemed lest but the baby nickname in the third story, and adorned with with which that mother had softened framed testimonials of membership in the ugly baptismal “ Charlotte." various benevolent societies, pictures of

This poor little keepsake she clung missionary ships and stations, the graves to. Uncle Hardman denounced it as an of Mrs. Judson and Henry Martyn, and unworthy appendage to a “missionary other appropriate devices. A neat bookchild," and wanted his niece to change case contained a select library of meit; but, grieving and sobbing, the little moirs and records, its top surmounted girl so stamped her small foot, clenched by a model of" The Morning Star," and her slight fingers, so vehemently again on the chimney-piece there grinned a and again protested with floods of couple of huge ebony idols of the most tears, “No I no! not Charlotte ; Lota! portentous ugliness. Lota!" that at last they ceased to op

In this home the little one grew and pose her. Lota she remained, except throve. Her education was conducted upon occasions of the most gloomy im- after a severe and rigid system, from

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