« IndietroContinua »
by a twist of the bolt there placed, have been known to free waste-water pipes and so save the visit of a plumber when some trifling obstruction lay in the elbow under the kitchen sink. Except to draw large nails, they serve all the purposes of the larger pincers. The latter may be distinguished by the round form of the pinching end. They take what may be described as a cutting hold, and are devised to close under the head of a nail. Pliers, having longer, wedge-shaped ends, which are milled on the inside, take a flat hold, their first purpose being to hold and twist wire. They are usually made with a wire-cutting arrangement in the side, in which picture-wire may be inserted and cut off cleanly at any given point. They cost from twenty to thirty cents each, but in the matter of wire-cutting alone, so often necessary in the house, they are a real economy. The fine edges of scissors, which, in the absence from the tool-box of the wonderful little pliers, so often are caught up hastily to clip some bit of wire, are at once blunted and ruined. Wire nails, now sold at very cheap rates, already have practically superseded the square nails. When not sunk into the wood they may be drawn out with pincers, and the hole filled in with a good filler and painted over as in the case of sunken screws. In country places putty is most commonly resorted to for such filling purposes; but, as it may not always be found at the local dealer's, the tool-box should contain the ingredients for making it. These are common whitening and linseed oil, which must be blended patiently until a proper consistency is reached. A little only should be made at a time, though this may be kept soft for several days by adding oil.
AS A RULE THE SAW IS NOT OF TEN USED. A useful, indeed a necessary article for the tool-box is an inelastic rule by which measurements may be taken. A regular carpenter's rule is not essential, but a fixed, unstretchable one is. A careful use of such a rule will make the perfect spacing of ornamental tacks an easy matter, especially if the places for these be first marked out with an awl. Even in the use of plain nails, as, for example, in the putting up of the plainest picture-moulding, the good workman observes an order and spacing, and, in this instance, as in the matter of tool selection, it will always be found an economy to go to the practical carpenter, “consider his ways, and be wise.”
families are legion who would make a rush for the first ocean steamer on which they could secure berths, if it were not for the baby. Many parents long to show their wee one to beloved kindred over the sea. And especially is this true of the father whose family all live in the old country. But, alas ! his greatest treasure is his greatest barrier. Other parents are fond of travel, and would like to give their older children the polish and the eclat which presumably come from foreign schools and life abroad. And still others enjoy the lazy rest on the ocean steamer or need the tone which is only secured by a long sea voyage. But what is to be done with the baby? To take the child with them and ignore all possible happenings is a foolish solution of the problem, because crossing the ocean, even at the most favorable season, they cannot be sure of avoiding lurches, rollings, heavings, and draughty exposures. And the alternative, to leave the infant at home in charge of the most competent nurse would cause pitiful anxiety when thousands of miles separated mother and child. This would be found to be a serious matter to combat. The following easy way in which an infant may safely travel over even the longest ocean voyage, must, therefore, make a forceful appeal: Buy a strong, light-weight basket, about two and a half feet in length, one and a quarter feet in width, and a foot or more in depth. Pad such a basket securely with the softest cotton batting, over which a soft sheet of wadding is tacked in place, or a thick fleecy piece of Canton flannel. This done, cover the padding neatly with a soft, firm, pink or blue silk; or cover with French chintz having a rosebud pattern running over it. As the basket would be continuously exposed to a damp atmosphere, the chintz would prove most enduring. The basket could be edged with silk or other cords, such as the upholsterer would advise as the
o | "Hose who ought to know say that the
proper vogue in color and in weight, or it could be edged with quilted ribbon or a fall of firm lace, or finished very simply with a tight band of the same material as the lining neatly edging the basket. In such a case fasten a rosette at each corner. In this basket the infant may be laid in much the same manner as he is put to bed, only with a warm hood on his head. The basket should have handles on either side, of such character that the nurse can easily grasp and carry the child by means of them. Or she should be able to press one of the handles close to her side while she has a firm hold of the other, in case she needs the freedom of one hand. A basket of this kind may be put directly on the deck, or in a steamer chair, and by means of blankets and other baby belongings the infant will be as warm and cozy as can be. Infants are apt to sleep a great deal, especially in the sea air, and because of the basket they do not need to be disturbed to be put to bed. As the basket is deep, they will not fall out of it, not even when the ship pitches. And because the basket is sufficiently padded their tender skin will not be bruised, nor will the rolling or other motion of the vessel act otherwise than as the rocking of a cradle. When landing, if the incline is very steep, as it often is, give the baby in the basket to your trusty steward and arrange with him to carry the basket down to the dock. Then there need be no fear because of a misstep in the excitement. Also, if it is after dark, or stormy, the steward's arms are more practised, as well as steadier, than are the nurse's. Those who are accustomed to land from an ocean liner know that nine-tenths of the passengers will go up at once to London, or wherever their destination may be, and this often necessitates hours of travel in a sleeper, and not infrequently in a crowded condition. Therefore, again the question, What is to be done with the baby? This time the answer is easy. Put the
basket on the floor of the railway carriage. Protect it with a shawl—or a rug, if this protection seems wiser—and remember the What cares he? Oversea or overland the baby goes just as contentedly, only provided his immediate surroundings are familiar.
baby will be as happy as a king. To him outside conditions do not matter; he is in
BY BEATRICE HANSCOM
Tommy Carew's got the wonderflist things:
'N' a kite like a dragon, 'ith red-'n'-green wings,
'N' a pony to drive in the cunnin'est cart;
'At he allus can have-'at’s the wonderflist part—
Guess his Pa never thinks he can come home at night
'N' Tommy 'ull yell, just as soon's he's in sight:
Pa says he's a broker: 'at's funniest, 'cause
If brokers can mend things, wisht 'at's what Pa was,
It's wicked to Envy. Learnt 'at in a text,
'N' Hatred 'n' Malice come right along next,
So of course 'twould be wrong to want other folks' toys,
'At he could be made in Two little boys,
the surroundings to which he is accustomed and will travel one mile or a thousand.
may be developed in Hardanger lace, if once the first principles of making it
are learned. It is one of the most satisfactory productions of the needle that have been in vogue for many years. It is inexpensive, very durable, can be easily made, and, unlike most needlework, improves with washing. Another great advantage, and one that makes it worth while to devote time and thought to the execution and design, is that it cannot, satisfactorily, be reproduced by machinery. Attempts have been made at cheap reproduction, but they have been failures inasmuch as they bear no relation to the hand-work in either design or reproduction.
For collars and cuffs, bands for the fronts of shirt-waists, or for shirt-waist suits, linen étamine is the best material to use for Hardanger work. It varies in price from fifty cents to two dollars a yard. Most of the Hardanger-trimmed linen suits that are marked from fifty to one hundred dollars, according to the work on them, are made of white linen étamine that retails at sixty cents a yard. It is thirty inches wide, and a quarter of a yard will make four cuffs and three collars. There are three other things needed besides the étamine—a dull-pointed needle, a few skeins, of medium mercerized cotton, which comes for the purpose, and a spool of medium thread.
A collar of some simple design is good to begin with, though time and material are apt to be saved for the beginner if she will practise making the little squares and diamonds on a sampler in order to become familiar with counting the threads, which is the most important part. One mistake will spoil a design, the beauty of which depends almost entirely upon symmetrical precision.
AN endless variety of original designs
Etamine frays easily on account of its loose weave, and before beginning all pieces to be worked upon should have the cut edges overcast. The value of the pointless needle consists in its not splitting the threads, which would make accuracy impossible.
To make the collar shown in the third illustration, start by getting the linen band the correct length and width. The edge can be finished in hem-stitching, or, as the edge is finished, by drawing two threads, and leaving two, and then drawing two more. The pattern is made by putting the needle under two threads and throwing the thread over the needle as for a buttonhole-stitch. This is continued back and forth from the upper to the lower line.
With a sharp pair of embroidery scissors, begin at the lower left-hand corner and cut four threads in each direction, forming a complete square. To the right count four threads and leave them. The next four cutout, forming a second square. Directly over each of these two squares make three squares, which must be separated by four threads. The cross is then made by cutting two squares on either side of the four middle squares. Threading a needle with the mercerized cotton, begin at the left-hand upper corner and, taking up four threads, overhand the outside edges of the six squares forming the cross, allowing four stitches to a square. The cross-bars are made with the tapestry stitch. Thread the needle with linen thread, and after securing it firmly to the linen, put the needle under two of the threads that form the bars and bring it up through the centre. Then take up the other two threads, each time bringing the needle up through the centre. There is a little knack in making these bars firm and straight that comes with a little
practice. The little lace effect in the centres of the four middle crosses is made by putting the needle through the side of the bar and crossing the thread over once, and then going to the next bar. Great care must be taken to get the crosses an equal distance apart and an equal distance from the line of hem-stitching. For a collar it is usually safe to allow four threads from the bottom. The triangle is made by an overhand stitch. The same design is shown in the upper right corner of this page and on page 714, with the addition of other designs. This design is used as a fragment of the other designs, showing how the same motif may be introduced and entirely change the effect. The pointed band on page 716 is a shoulderstrap and depicts a very simple and effective pattern for a shirt-waist suit. A complete suit trimmed with Hardanger-work has collars and cuffs, front pleat, shoulder-straps, and front breadth of skirt. For the collar, the drawings, as in the shoulder-straps, might be made two squares narrower; the shoulderstraps and the front pleat and cuffs should be the same width, and the front breadth should be cut by a very narrow pattern, and the Hardanger design should be made twice as wide as that used on the waist. Enlarging the diamond in a design like this leaves an open space in the middle which can be filled in by a cross like the one shown in the first design described. It might also be improved by making the diamonds three or even four squares deep instead of two. A few of the new shirt-waists made in the most exclusive shops have the Hardanger lace made in patterns on the linen after the manner of Mexican drawn - work. A very pretty waist can be made by having two strips starting from the shoulders and sloping to the waist in both back and front. The openwork design shown is exquisite for this purpose. It can be made any width, from one square deep, and is the richest and most
SAMPLES OF FINE HARDANGER-WORK.
lacey of all the designs. It is also the most expensive pattern used on any of the handmade dresses. The squares are cut exactly the same as in No. 1, the only difference being that, instead of cutting four and leaving four, as in the first, you cut eight and leave eight. When bound together with the tapestry stitch the eight threads make two bars instead of one. These are slightly separated by the little lace stitch. This design is used to good effect on some of the little imported jackets. Instead of using linen, the work has been done on wool canvas and worked in floss silk. This material is particularly adaptable for Hardanger, as the squares are already made, and there is nothing to do but to weave the threads together and fill in the tiny middle squares with a cross-stitch. Some most beautiful effects can be had by making Hardanger in colors. If the over