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U. C. 537. JAM ver appetebat, quum Hannibal ex hibernis movit, A.C. 217.

et nequicquam ante conatus transcendere Apenninum intolerandis frigoribus, et' cum ingenti periculo moratus ac metu. Galli, quos prædæ populationumque conciverat spes, postquam pro eo, ut ipsi ex alieno agro raperent agerentque, suas terras sedem belli esse, premique utriusque partis exercituum hibernis viderunt; verterunt retro ad Hannibalem ab Romanis odia : petitusque sæpe principum insidiis?, ipsorum inter se fraude, eadem levitate, qua consenserant, consensum indicantium, servatus erat; et, mutando nunc vestem, nunc tegumenta capitis', errore etiam sese ab insidiis munierat. Ceterum hic quoque ei timor causa fuit maturius movendi ex hibernis.

Per idem tempus Cn. Servilius consul Romæ Idibus Martiis magistratum iniit. Ibi quum de republica retulisset, redintegrata in C. Flaminium invidia est. 'Duos se consules creasse, unum habere. Quod enim illi justum • imperium“, quod auspicium' esse ? Magistratus id a domo,

publicis privatisque penatibus, Latinis feriis actis, sacrificio ' in monte perfecto, votis rite in Capitolio nuncupatis, se'cum ferre: nec privatum auspicia sequi, nec sine auspiciis

profectum in externo ea solo nova atque integraố concipere ' posse.' Augebant metum prodigia ex pluribus simul locis nuntiata: in Sicilia militibus aliquot spicula, in Sardinia autem in muro circumeunti vigilias equiti scipionem, quem manu tenuerat, arsisse, et litora crebris ignibus fulsisse, et scuta duo sanguine sudasse, et milites quosdam ictos fulminibus, et solis orbem minui visum : et Præneste ardentes lapides? coelo cecidisse : et Arpis parmas in cælo visas, pugnantemque cum luna solem 8: et Capenæ duas interdiu lunas ortas!: et aquas Cæretes sanguine mixtas fluxisse; fontemque ipsum Herculis cruentis manasse sparsum inaculis : et in Antiati metentibus cruentas in corbem spicas cecidisse: et Faleriis cælum findi velut magno hiatu visum ; U.C. 637. quaque patuerit, ingens lumen effulsisse : sortes sua sponte A. C. 217. attenuatas, unamque excidisse, ita scriptam : MAVORS TELUM SUUM CONCUTIT : et per idem tempus Romæ signum Martis Appia via ad simulacra luporum sudasse : et Capuæ speciem coeli ardentis fuisse, lunæque inter imbrem cadentis. Inde minoribus etiam dictu prodigiis fides habita : capras lanatas quibusdam factas, et gallinam in marem, gallum in feminam sese vertisse. His, sicut erant nuntiata, expositis, auctoribusque in curiam introductis, consul de religione Patres consuluit. Decretum, ut ea prodigia, partim majoribus hostiis, partim lactentibus, procurarentur: et uti supplicatio per triduum ad omnia pulvinaria haberetur. Cetera, quum decemviri libros inspexissent, ut ita fierent, quemadmodum cordi esse divis, carminibus præfarentur. Decemvirorum monitu decretum est, Jovi primum donum fulmen aureum pondo quinquaginta fieret ; Junoni Minervæque ex argento dona darentur; et Junoni Reginæ in Aventino, Junonique Sospitæ Lanuvii majoribus hostiis sacrificaretur; matronæque, pecunia collata, quantum conferre cuique commodum esset, donum Junoni Reginæ in Aventinum ferrent, lectisterniumque fieret; quin et ut libertinæ et ipsæ, unde Feroniæ donum daretur, pecuniam pro facultatibus suis conferrent. Hæc ubi facta, decemviri Ardeæ in foro majoribus hostiis sacrificarunt. Postremo Decembri jam mense ad ædem Saturni Romæ immolatum est, lectisterniumque imperatum, (et eum lectum senatores straverunt) et convivium publicum ; ac per urbem Saturnalia diem ac noctem clamatum, populusque eum diem festum habere ac servare in perpetuum jussus.

1 Et nequicquam-et.] “Having 4 Justum imperium.] “ Legitibeen frustrated in his previous at- mate authority." tempt to cross the Apennines, by the 5 Auspicium.] “Right of diviexcessive cold; at the same time nation.” that his delay involved considerable 6 Nova atque integra.] “New and danger and apprehension.”

unprejudiced. ? Petitusque sæpe principum in- · Ardentes lapides.] Drakenborch sidiis, &c.] “And, though frequently reads lampadas; but the change is assailed by the treachery of the unnecessary. princes, was saved by their mutual 8 Pugnantemque cum lund solem.] disloyalty, as they betrayed their This merely implies that the sun conspiracy with the same capricious- and moon were both visible above ness with which they had combined.” the horizon.

3 Tegumenta capitis.] These were 9 Duas interdiu lunas ortas.] sc. wigs, of which he had a great num- When, at new moun, a full moon is ber, suited to different ages and com- made visible by the reflexion of the plexions.

earth's light.

>

Dum consul placandis Romæ diis habendoque delectu? 2. dat operam, Hannibal, profectus ex hibernis, quia jam Flaminium consulem Arretium pervenisse fama erat, quum aliud longius, ceterum commodius, ostenderetur iter, propiorem viam per paludem petit, qua fluvius Arnus per eos dies: solito magis inundaverat. Hispanos et Afros, (id omne veterani erat robur exercitus) admixtis ipsorum impedimentis, necubi consistere coactis necessaria ad usus dees

| Feronia.] She was the tutelary for many classical associations. In deity of the libertiuæ; and had a the immediate neighbourhood stood temple and grove about three miles the Tuscan villa of the younger Pliny, from Anxur.

near Tifernum (città di Castello), Habendoque delectu.] Other and now stands Arezzo, the birtheditions read trahendo, i. e.“ post- place of Petrarch, and of Guido poning the levy,” in order of course Î' Aretino, who invented the scale of to embarrass Flaminius.

musical notes now in use. Near it 3 Per eos dies.) “At that season.” also is the celebrated Vallombrosa ; The valley of the Arno is memorable and still nearer, Florence.

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U.C. 637. sent, primos ire jussit: sequi Gallos, ut id agminis medium A. C. 217. esset; novissimos ire equites: Magonem inde cum expe

ditis Numidis cogere agmen, maxime Gailos, si tædio laboris longæque viæ (ut est mollis ad talia gens) dilaberentur aut subsisterent, cohibentem. Primi, qua modo præirent duces, per præaltas fluvii ac profundas* voragines, hausti pæne limo immergentesque se, tamen signa sequebantur. Galli neque sustinere se prolapsis, neque assurgere ex voraginibus poterant; aut corpora animis, aut animos spe sustinebant: alii fessa ægre trahentes membra; alii, ubi semel victis tædio animis procubuissent, inter jumenta, et ipsa jacentia passim, morientes: maximeque omnium vigiliæ conficiebant, per quatriduum jam et tres noctes toleratæ. Quum, omnia obtinentibus aquis, nihil, ubi in sicco fessa sternerent corpora, inveniri posset, cumulatis in aquas sarcinis insuper incumbebant. Jumentorum itinere toto? prostratorum passim acervi tantum, quod exstaret aquas, quærentibus ad quietem parvi temporis necessarium cubile dabant. Ipse Hannibal, æger oculis ex verna primum intemperie variante calores frigoraque, elephanto, qui unus superfuerat, quo altius ab aqua exstaret, vectus; vigiliis tandem et nocturno humore palustrique coelo gravante caput, et quia medendi nec locus nec tempus erat, alteros

oculo capitur. 3. Multis hominibus jumentisque fode amissis, quum tan

dem de paludibus emersisset, ubi primum in sicco potuit, castra locat: certumque per præmissos exploratores habuit, exercitum Romanum circa Arretii monia esse. Consulis deinde consilia atque animum, et situm regionum, itineraque, et copias ad commeatus expediendos, et cetera, quæ cognosse in rem erat, summa omnia cum cura' inquirendo exsequebatur. Regio erat in primis Italiæ fertilis", Etrusci campi, qui Fæsulas inter Arretiumque jacent, frumenti ac U.C. 537. pecoris et omnium copia rerum opulenti. Consul ferox ab A. C. 217. consulatu priore, et non modo legum ac Patrum majestatis, sed ne deorum quidem satis metuens. Hanc insitam ingenio? ejus temeritatem fortuna prospero civilibus bellicisque rebus successu aluerat. Itaque satis apparebat', nec deos nec homines consulentem, ferociter omnia ac præpropere acturum. Quoque pronior esset in vitia sua, agitare eum atque irritare Ponus parat: et, læva relicto hoste, Fæsulas petens, medio Etruriæ agro prædatum profectus, quantam maximam vastitatem potest, cædibus incendiisque consuli procul ostendit. Flaminius, qui ne quieto quidem hostes ipse quieturus erat, tum vero, postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri agique vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, per mediam jam Italiam vagari Ponum, atque, obsistente nullo, ad ipsa Romana mænia ire oppugnanda; ceteris omnibus in consilio salutaria magis, quam speciosa®, suadentibus, collegam exspectandum, ut conjunctis exercitibus,

4 Præaltas-profundas.] These a surface above the water to those epithets differ in signifying, the for- who sought a resting place indismer, “rising to a high level,” and pensable to a few moments' repose." the latter, “ extending far down- 8 Tantum, quod exstaret aqua.] wards." We may translate by the May be also taken after quærentibus : terms “full” and “ deep."

thus, “ to those who sought merely 5 Sustinere se prolapsi.] “Keep some resting place above the water;" themselves from falling.” For aut that is, who were satisfied with all corporar &c. aut, Crevier reads, neque else, if the surface were only dry. -neque. It is more probable, how- 9 Summá omnia cum cura, &c.] ever, that Livy wrote haud &c. haud. “All this he fully and carefully in

6 Omnia obtinentibus aquis.] All vestigated;" literally, “ persisted in the rivers in this part of Italy are inquiring,” &c. flooded in winter, and almost alto- i Regio erat in primis Italiæ gether disappear in summer. fertilis, &c.] These Etrurian plains,

7 Jumentorum itinere toto, &c.] enclosed by two chains of hills, and The heaps of cattle, lying along the intersected by the river Chinna or whole line of march, alone afforded Clanis, form the val d'Arno, as cele

communi animo consilioque rem gererent; interim equi'tatu auxiliisque levium armorum ab effusa prædandi li'centia hostem cohibendum;' iratus se ex consilio proripuit, signumque simul itineris pugnæque proposuit. 'Quin imo • Arretii ante moenia sedeamus,' inquit: hic enim patria et penates sunt. Hannibal emissus e manibus perpopuletur Italiam, vastandoque et urendo omnia ad Romana monia perveniat; nec ante nos hinc moverimus, quam, sicut olim Camillum ab Veiis?, C. Flaminium ab Arretio Patres acciverint.' Hæc simul increpans, quum ocius signa convelli juberet, et ipse in equum insiluisset, equus repente corruit, consulemque lapsum super caput effudit.

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brated in modern times for beauty transactions."
and fertility, as the vale of Tempe 3 Satis apparebat.] “ It was quite
among the ancients. Fæsulæ (Fie evident."
sole) was originally, as was also * Medio Etruriæ agro prædatum,]
Arretium, one of the twelve Etrurian i. e. (in) medio agro.
cities; and after the submission of 5 Qui ne quieto quidem hoste, &c.]
the whole confederacy to Rome,

“Who would not have remained
colonized by Sylla. It existed in quiet even during the repose of the
considerable prosperity until the com- enemy.”
mencement of the eleventh century, 6 Šalutaria magis, quam speciosa.]
when it was destroyed

a war with

“Rather beneficial than imposing.' Florence. It is now a comparatively ? Sicut olim Camillum ab Veiis, deserted, but still beautiful, village. &c.] There is probably a twofold Standing on an eminence, it com- meaning in this allusion to Camillus. mands a view of Florence and the In the first place, the Government valley.

at home is charged with a habitual 2 Hanc insitam ingenio, &c.] insensibility to the value of its gene“This constitutional imprudence cir- rals: and secondly, but less directly, cumstances had encouraged by the Flaminius compares himself with the favourable results of civil and military conqueror of Veii.

U.C. 537. Territis omnibus, qui circa erant, velut fædo omine incipiA.C. 217. endæ rei, insuper nuntiatur, signum, omni vi moliente

signifero, convelli nequire. Conversus ad nuntium, Num literas quoque, inquit, 'ab senatu affers, quæ me rem

gerere vetent? Abi, nuntia, signum effodiant, si ad con'vellendum manus præ metu obtorpuerint.' Incedere inde agmen coepit; primoribus, super quam quod dissenserant'a consilio, territis etiam duplici prodigio; milite in vulgus læto ferocia ducis, quum spem magis ipsam, quam causam

spei, intueretur. 4. Hannibal, quod agri est inter Cortonam urbem Trasime

numque lacum, omni clade belli pervastat, quo magis iram
hosti ad vindicandas sociorum injurias acuat.
venerant ad loca insidiis nata, ubi maxime' montes Corto-

Et jam per

8 Num literas quoque, &c.] An had no sooner cleared the pass at allusion to his recall by the Senate Borghetto, which he did before dayon a former occasion.

break in the morning (vixdum satis 9 Super quam quod dissenserant, certâ luce), in his anxiety to attack &c.] • In addition to the fact of the enemy whom he saw in front, their having disapproved of” (to than he was informed, by the shout their previous dissent from) “his rising all around him, that he was plans.'

on his

entrapped: tbe lake was i Uli maxime.] “ Just at the right; the main body of the enemy point where,” &c. The place chosen in front, on a rising ground toward by Hannibal for this engagement Torricelli; the light troops occupying was the plain, (about six miles long, the Gualandra hills on the left; and by four miles in breadth,) enclosed the cavalry closing up the pass on on one side by the lake, and on the the rear. While the Romans, thus other by a semicircular wall of hemmed in, were endeavouring to mountains (the Gualandra), to which form a line of battle, a thick mist, the only entrances were narrow de- rising from the water, darkened the files at each extremity, lying be- whole scene, and brought on inextween the water and a precipice, tricable confusion. The battle lasted and very closely resembling the pass about three hours; and the return of Caudium. On the banks of the of sunshine shewed the ground, lake, which is about ten miles long especially toward the hills near and seven wide, there stand at pre- Borghetto, covered with the bodies sent three modern villages, Torricelli, of the Romans, and the lake stained Passignano, and Borghetto. The with their blood. One of the two road from Torricelli winds along the streamlets that flow from the hills, bank to Passignano, which is si- and which nearly bisects the plain, tuated at one defile; and at the is still known by the name Sanguiother end of the plain, where the netto, or Fossa del sangue. It is mountains project upon the lake, supposed to run by the spot where stands Borghetto It was in the Flamivius fell, and to have on centre of the plain, so enclosed, that day rolled a stream of blood to that Hannibal encamped with his the lake. On an eminence over the African and Spanish troops. The road, near Borghetto, the ruins of a Baleares and other light infantry castle are still called “the tower of were distributed through the re- Hannibal;" and a small village in cesses of the mountains; and the the neighbourhood, where human cavalry ordered to occupy the defile bones are frequently dug up, has as soon as the Romans should have received the name Ossaja, the origin passed through it. The Consul of which is recorded in the following

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