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U. C. 637. sent, primos ire jussit: sequi Gallos, ut id agminis medium A. C. 217. esset; novissimos ire equites: Magonem inde cum expe
ditis Numidis cogere agmen, maxime Gailos, si tædio laboris longæque viæ (ut est mollis ad talia gens) dilaberentur aut subsisterent, cohibentem. Primi, qua modo præirent duces, per præaltas fluvii ac profundas voragines, hausti pæne limo immergentesque se, tamen signa sequebantur. Galli neque sustinere se prolapsis, neque assurgere ex voraginibus poterant; aut corpora animis, aut animos spe sustinebant: alii fessa ægre trahentes membra ; alii, ubi semel victis tædio animis procubuissent, inter jumenta, et ipsa jacentia passim, morientes: maximeque omnium vigiliæ conficiebant, per quatriduum jam et tres noctes toleratæ. Quum, omnia obtinentibus aquis, nihil, ubi in sicco fessa sternerent corpora, inveniri posset, cumulatis in aquas sarcinis insuper incumbebant. Jumentorum itinere toto? prostratorum passim acervi tantum, quod exstaret aquas, quærentibus ad quietem parvi temporis necessarium cubile dabant. Ipse Hannibal, æger oculis ex verna primum intemperie variante calores frigoraque, elephanto, qui unus superfuerat, quo altius ab aqua exstaret, vectus; vigiliis tandem et nocturno humore palustrique coelo gravante caput, et quia medendi nec locus nec tempus erat, alteros
oculo capitur. 3. Multis hominibus jumentisque fæde amissis, quum tan
dem de paludibus emersisset, ubi primum in sicco potuit, castra locat: certumque per præmissos exploratores habuit, exercitum Romanum circa Arretii monia esse. Consulis deinde consilia atque animum, et situm regionum, itineraque, et copias ad commeatus expediendos, et cetera, quæ cognosse in rem erat, summa omnia cum cura' inquirendo exsequebatur. Regio erat in primis Italiæ fertilis', Etrusci
4 Præaltas-profundas.] These a surface above the water to those epithets differ in signifying, the for- who sought a resting place indismer, “rising to a high level,” and pensable to a few moments’ repose." the latter, “extending far down- 8 Tantum, quod exstaret aquá.] wards."
We may translate by the May be also taken after quærentibus : terms “full” and “deep."
thus, “to those who sought merely 5 Sustinere se prolapsi.] “Keep some resting place above the water;" themselves from falling.” For aut that is, who were satisfied with all corporr &c. aut, Crevier reads, neque else, if the surface were only dry. -neque. It is more probable, how- 9 Summá omnia cum cura, &c.] ever, that Livy wrote haud &c. haud. “All this he fully and carefully in
6 Omnia obtinentibus aquis.] All vestigated;" literally, “persisted in the rivers in this part of Italy are inquiring,” &c. flooded in winter, and almost alto- i Regio erat in primis Italiæ gether disappear in summer.
fertilis, &c.] These Etrurian plains, ? Jumentorum itinere toto, &c.] enclosed by two chains of hills, and “The heaps of cattle, lying along the intersected by the river Chiana or whole line of march, alone afforded Clanis, form the val d'Arno, as cele
campi, qui Fæsulas inter Arretiumque jacent, frumenti ac U.C. 537. pecoris et omnium copia rerum opulenti. Consul ferox ab A. C. 217. consulatu priore, et non modo legum ac Patrum majestatis, sed ne deorum quidem satis metuens. Hanc insitam ingenio? ejus temeritatem fortuna prospero civilibus bellicisque rebus successu aluerat. Itaque satis apparebat', nec deos nec homines consulentem, ferociter omnia ac præpropere acturum. Quoque pronior esset in vitia sua, agitare eum atque irritare Pænus parat: et, læva relicto hoste, Fæsulas petens, medio Etruriæ agro prædatum profectus, quantam maximam vastitatem potest, cædibus incendiisque consuli procul ostendit. Flaminius, qui ne quieto quidem hostes ipse quieturus erat, tum vero, postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri agique vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, per mediam jam Italiam vagari Pænum, atque, obsistente nullo, ad ipsa Romana mænia ire oppugnanda; ceteris omnibus in consilio salutaria magis, quam speciosa, suadentibus, collegam exspectandum, ut conjunctis exercitibus, communi animo consilioque rem gererent; interim equi
tatu auxiliisque levium armorum ab effusa prædandi li'centia hostem cohibendum;' iratus se ex consilio proripuit, signumque simul itineris pugnæque proposuit. Quin imo
• Arretii ante mænia sedeamus, inquit: hic enim patria et penates sunt. Hannibal emissus e manibus perpopuletur Italiam, vastandoque et urendo omnia ad Romana monia perveniat; nec ante nos hinc moverimus, quam, sicut olim Camillum ab Veiis?, C. Flaminium ab Arretio Patres acciverint.' Hæc simul increpans, quum ocius signa convelli juberet, et ipse in equum insiluisset, equus repente corruit, consulemque lapsum super caput effudit.
brated in modern times for beauty transactions."
“Who would not have remained
6 Šalutaria magis, quam speciosa.] when it was destroyed in a war with “Rather beneficial than imposing.' Florence. It is now a comparatively ? Sicut olim Camillum ab Voiis, deserted, but still beautiful, village. &c.] There is probably a twofold Standing on an eminence, it com- meaning in this allusion to Camillus. mands a view of Florence and the In the first place, the Government valley.
at home is charged with a habitual Hanc insitam ingenio, &c.] insensibility to the value of its gene“This constitutional imprudence cir- rals: and secondly, but less directly, cumstances had encouraged by the Flaminius compares himself with the favourable results of civil and military conqueror of Veii.
U.C. 537. Territis omnibus, qui circa erant, velut fædo omine incipiA.C. 217. endæ rei, insuper nuntiatur, signum, omni vi moliente
signifero, convelli nequire. Conversus ad nuntium, 'Num
literas quoque, inquit, ab senatu affers, quæ me rem 'gerere vetent? Abi, nuntia, signum effodiant, si ad convellendum manus præ metu obtorpuerint.' Incedere inde agmen cæpit; primoribus, super quam quod dissenserant' a consilio, territis etiam duplici prodigio; milite in vulgus læto ferocia ducis, quum spem magis ipsam, quam causam
spei, intueretur. 4. Hannibal, quod agri est inter Cortonam urbem Trasime
numque lacum, omni clade belli pervastat, quo magis iram
Et jam per
8 Num literas quoque, &c.] An had no sooner cleared the pass at allusion to his recall by the Senate Borghetto, which he did before dayon a former occasion.
break in the morning (vixdum satis 9 Super quam quod dissenserant, certâ luce), in his anxiety to attack &c.] “ In addition to the fact of the enemy whom he saw in front, their having disapproved of” (to than he was informed, by the shout their previous dissent from) “his rising all around him, that he was plans."
entrapped: tbe lake was on his i Uli maxime.] “ Just at the right; the main body of the enemy point where,” &c. The place chosen in front, on a rising ground toward by Hannibal for this engagement Torricelli; the light troops occupying was the plain, (about six miles long, the Gualandra hills on the left; and by four miles in breadth,) enclosed the cavalry closing up the pass on on one side by the lake, and on the the rear. While the Romans, thus other by a semicircular wall of hemmed in, were endeavouring to mountains (the Gualandra), to which form a line of battle, a thick mist, the only entrances were narrow de- rising from the water, darkened the files at each extremity, lying be- whole scene, and brought on inextween the water and a precipice, tricable confusion. The battle lasted and very closely resembling the pass about three hours; and the return of Caudium. On the banks of the of sunshine shewed the ground, lake, which is about ten miles long especially toward the hills near and seven wide, there stand at pre- Borghetto, covered with the bodies sent three modern villages, Torricelli, of the Romans, and the lake stained Passignano, and Borghetto. The with their blood. One of the two road from Torricelli winds along the streamlets that flow from the hills, bank to Passignano, which is si- and which nearly bisects the plain, tuated at one defile; and at the is still known by the name Sanguiother end of the plain, where the netto, or Fossa del sangue.
It is mountains project upon the lake, supposed to run by the spot where stands Borghetto It was in the Flamivius fell, and to have on centre of the plain, so enclosed, that day rolled a stream of blood to that Hannibal encamped with his the lake. On an eminence over the African and Spanish troops. The road, near Borghetto, the ruins of a Baleares and other light infantry castle are still called “the tower of were distributed through the re- Hannibal;" and a small village in cesses of the mountains; and the the neighbourhood, where human cavalry ordered to occupy the defile bones are frequently dug up, has as soon as the Romans should have received the name Ossaja, the origin passed through it. The Consul of which is recorded in the following
nenses Trasimenus subit. Via tantum interest perangusta, V. C. 537. velut ad id ipsum de industria relicto spatio: deinde paullo A. C. 217. latior patescit campus ; inde colles assurgunt. Ibi castra in aperto locat, ubi ipse cum Afris modo Hispanisque consideret. Baliares ceteramque levem armaturam post montes circumducit: equites ad ipsas fauces saltus, tumulis apte tegentibus, locat; ut, ubi intrassent Romani, objecto equitatu, clausa omnia lacu ac montibus essent.
Flaminius quum pridie solis occasu ad lacum pervenisset, inexplorato, postero die, vixdum satis certa luce, angustiis superatis, postquam in patentiorem campum pandi agmen cæpit, id tantum hostium, quod ex adverso erat, conspexit: ab tergo et super caput decepere insidiæ. Ponus ubi, id quod petierat?, clausum lacu ac montibus et circumfusum suis copiis habuit hostem, signum omnibus dat simul invadendi. Qui ubi, qua cuique proximum fuit, decucurrere, eo magis Romanis subita atque improvisa res fuit, quod orta ex lacu nebula campo, quam montibus, densior sederat, agminaque hostium ex pluribus collibus ipsa inter se satis conspecta, eoque magis pariter decucurrerunt. Romanus clamore prius undique orto, quam satis cerneret, se circumventum esse sensit; et ante in frontem lateraque pugnari cæptum est, quam satis instrueretur acies, aut expediri arma, stringique gladii possent. Consul, perculsis omnibus,
barbarous inscription over a door- and the hills, and surrounded by bis way:
own troops, he gave the signal of “Nonien habet locus his Ossaia, ab ossibus
attack to all at the same moment;
aud when they ran down by their Quæ dolus Hannibalis fudit, et hasta simul.” several shortest ways, the movement It is reported, and, as at Marathon,
was the more sudden and unforeseen believed by the native peasantry, by the Romans, as the mist rising that a sound of clashing shields and from the lake had rested more charging armies is sometimes heard thickly on the plain than on the upon this plain at night. A similar hills; and the divisions of the superstition prevails at Neerwinden, enemy came down with a clear view where the French under Dumourier of each other from the several were defeated, in 1793, by the valleys, and therefore, more simulAustrians under the Prince of Saxe taneously: The Romans perceived Coburg; and at Tewkesbury, where, by the shout that rose all around on the plain still known as “the them, before they could see clearly, bloody field,” a numerous force of (i. e. obtain an open view,) that they Lancastrians were massacred. This
were surrounded; and the battle popular belief is beautifully illus- began in front and on the flanks, betrated by Ugo Foscolo in the lines fore their lines could be well formed, on Marathon
their arms adjusted, or their swords
drawn.” Collibus instead of vallibus “il navigante, Che veleggio quel mar sotto l'Eubea,
has been suggested by Lipsius, Vedea per l'ampia oscurita scintlle,” &c. under the impression that the whole
2 Ponus ubi, id quod petierat, space was but one valley. The &c.]
as the Cartha- name, however, may be applicable ginian had his enemy-as he had
to the several recesses and inbeen desiring-shut in by the lake equalities on the sides of the hills.
“ As soon
U. C. 537. ipse satis, ut in trepida re', impavidus turbatos ordines, verA.C. 217. tente se quoque ad dissonos clamores, instruit, ut tempus
locusque patitur; et quacunque adire audirique potest, adhortatur, ac stare et pugnare jubet; nec enim inde votis
aut imploratione deum, sed vi ac virtute, evadendum esse. • Per medias acies ferro viam fieri: et, quo timoris minus ‘sit, eo minus ferme periculi esse .' Ceterum præ strepitu ac tumultu nec consilium nec imperium accipi poterat: tantumque aberat, ut sua signa atque ordinem et locum nosceret miles, ut vix ad arma capienda aptandaque pugnæ competeret animusó: opprimerenturque quidam, onerati magis his, quam tecti : et erat in tanta caligine major usus aurium quam oculorum. Ad gemitus vulnerum ictusque corporum aut armorum, et mixtos strepentium paventiumque clamores, circumferebant ora oculosque. Alii fugientes pugnantium globo illati hærebant: alios redeuntes in pugnam avertebat fugientium agmen. Deinde, ubi in omnes partes nequicquam impetus capti, et ab lateribus montes ac lacus, a fronte et ab tergo hostium acies claudebat, apparuitque, nullam, nisi in dextra ferroque, salutis spem esse; tum sibi quisque dux adhortatorque factus ad rem gerendam, et nova de integro pugna exorta est; non illa ordinata? per principes hastatosque ac triarios, nec ut pro signis antesignani, post signa alia pugnaret acies; nec ut in sua legione miles, aut cohorte, aut manipulo esset. Fors conglobat, et
, animus suus cuiques ante aut post pugnandi ordinem dabat : tantusque fuit ardor armorumo, adeo intentus pugnæ animus,
3 Ut in trepidá re.] “ Con- the occasional retreat of these latter, sidering his dangerous position.” in order to allow those who stood
4 Viam fieri:—esse. The pre- behind them to come to the front. sent infinitive implies that these are The Macedonian phalanx was drawn general observations: sc.“ A path up “sixteen deep;" all armed with can be opened with the sword through the sarissa, which was fourteen ells surrounding ranks; and the less long; so that five lines of spearfear there is, the less in general heads projected before the first the danger.”
“ His had scarcely presence of mind.” own amount of courage determined
6 Alii fugientes &c.] “ Some each man's position for fighting, in were impeded in their flight by the front or in the rear:" pugnandi coming in contact with” &c.
follows ordinem. ? Non illa ordinata &c.]
The 9 Tantusque fuit ardor armorum.] regular arrangement of the Roman “ And so intense was their warlike line of battle is intelligible, as excitement: so bent upon the battle being available only on the sup- were their minds, that the earthposition that they stood in a quin- quake, which overthrew considerable cunx. Such an arrangement would portions of several towns in Italy, have afforded the intervals neces- turned back the rivers from their sary for the use of the weapons of impetuous course, and forced the sea the ranks behind the van, and for into their channels, and rocked