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nenses Trasimenus subit. Via tantum interest perangusta, V. C. 637. velut ad id ipsum de industria relicto spatio : deinde paullo A.C. 217. latior patescit campus; inde colles assurgunt. Ibi castra in aperto locat, ubi ipse cum Afris modo Hispanisque consideret. Baliares ceteramque levem armaturam post montes circumducit: equites ad ipsas fauces saltus, tumulis apte tegentibus, locat; ut, ubi intrassent Romani, objecto equitatu, clausa omnia lacu ac montibus essent.

Flaminius quum pridie solis occasu ad lacum pervenisset, inexplorato, postero die, vixdum satis certa luce, angustiis superatis, postquam in patentiorem campum pandi agmen coepit, id tantum hostium, quod ex adverso erat, conspexit: ab tergo et super caput decepere insidiæ. Poenus ubi, id quod petierat?, clausum lacu ac montibus et circumfusum suis copiis habuit hostem, signum omnibus dat simul invadendi. Qui ubi, qua cuique proximum fuit, decucurrere, eo magis Romanis subita atque improvisa res fuit, quod orta ex lacu nebula campo, quam montibus, densior sederat, agminaque hostium ex pluribus collibus ipsa inter se satis conspecta, eoque magis pariter decucurrerunt. Romanus clamore prius undique orto, quam satis cerneret, se circumventum esse sensit; et ante in frontem lateraque pugnari cæptum est, quam satis instrueretur acies, aut expediri arma, stringique gladii possent. Consul, perculsis omnibus, 5.

illis

barbarous inscription over a door- and the hills, and surrounded by bis way:

own troops, he gave the signal of

attack to all at the same moment; “ Nonien habet locus his Ossaia, ab ossibus

aud when they ran down by their Quæ dolus Hannibalis fudit, et hasta simul."

several shortest ways, the movement It is reported, and, as at Marathon, was the more sudden and unforeseen believed by the native peasantry, by the Romans, as the mist rising that a sound of clashing shields and from the lake had rested more charging armies is sometimes heard thickly on the plain than on the upon this plain at night. A similar hills; and the divisions of the superstition prevails at Neerwinden, enemy came down with a clear view where the French under Dumourier of each other from the several were defeated, in 1793, by the valleys, and therefore, more simulAustrians under the Prince of Saxe taneously. The Romans perceived Coburg; and at Tewkesbury, where, by the shout that rose all around on the plain still known as “the them, before they could see clearly, bloody field,a numerous force of (i. e. obtain an open view,) that they Lancastrians were massacred. This

were surrounded; and the battle popular belief is beautifully illus- began in front and on the flanks, betrated by Ugo Foscolo in the lines fore their lines could be well formed, on Marathon.

their arms adjusted, or their swords “il navigante,

drawn.Collibus instead of vallibus Che veleggio quel mar sotto l'Eubea,

has been suggested by Lipsius, Vedea per l'ampia oscurita scintlle," &c under the impression that the whole ? Pænus ubi, id quod petierat, space was but one valley.

The “ As soon as the Cartha- name, however, may be applicable ginian had his enemy-as he had to the several recesses and inbeen desiring-shut in by the lake equalities on the sides of the hills.

&c.)

U. C. 637. ipse satis, ut in trepida re', impavidus turbatos ordines, ver-
A.C. 217. tente se quoque ad dissonos clamores, instruit, ut tempus

locusque patitur ; et quacunque adire audirique potest, ad-
hortatur, ac stare et pugnare jubet ; nec enim inde votis
• aut imploratione deum, sed vi ac virtute, evadendum esse.
• Per medias acies ferro viam fieri: et, quo timoris minus
sit, eo minus ferme periculi esse'.' Ceterum præ strepitu
ac tumultu nec consilium nec imperium accipi poterat:
tantumque aberat, ut sua signa atque ordinem et locum
nosceret miles, ut vix ad arma capienda aptandaque pugnæ
competeret animusó: opprimerenturque quidam, onerati
magis his, quam tecti : et erat in tanta caligine major usus
aurium quam oculorum. Ad gemitus vulnerum ictusque
corporum aut armorum, et mixtos strepentium paventium-
que clamores, circumferebant ora oculosque. Alii fugientes 6
pugnantium globo illati hærebant: alios redeuntes in pug-
nam avertebat fugientium agmen. Deinde, ubi in omnes
partes nequicquam impetus capti

, et ab lateribus montes ac lacus, a fronte et ab tergo hostium acies claudebat, apparuitque, nullam, nisi in dextra ferroque, salutis spem esse; tum sibi quisque dux adhortatorque factus ad rem gerendam, et nova de integro pugna exorta est; non illa ordinata? per principes hastatosque ac triarios, nec ut pro signis antesignani, post signa alia pugnaret acies; nec ut in sua legione miles, aut cohorte, aut manipulo esset. Fors conglobat, et animus suus cuique ante aut post pugnandi ordinem dabat : tantusque fuit ardor armorumo, adeo intentus pugnæ animus,

« His

3 Ut in trepidá re.] “ Con- the occasional retreat of these latter, sidering his dangerous position." in order to allow those who stood

4 Viam fieri-esse.Ỉ The pre- behind them to come to the front. sent infinitive implies that these are The Macedonian phalanx was drawn general observations: sc. “ A path up“ sixteen deep;" all armed with can be opened with the sword through the sarissa, which was fourteen ells surrounding ranks;, and the less long; so that five lines of spearfear there is, the less in general heads projected before the first the danger.”

rank. 5 Vix-competeret animus.] "They 8 Animus suus cuique.] had scarcely presence of mind.” own amount of courage determined

6 Alii fugientes &c.] “ Some each man's position for fighting, in were impeded in their flight by the front or in the rear:" pugnandi coming in contact with” &c.

follows ordinem. ? Non illa ordinata &c.]

The 9 Tantusque fuit ardor armorum.] regular arrangement of the Roman “ And so intense was their warlike line of battle is intelligible, as excitement: so bent upon the battle being available only on the sup- were their minds, that the earthposition that they stood in a quin- quake, which overthrew considerable

Such an arrangement would portions of several towns in Italy, have afforded the intervals neces- turned back the rivers from their sary for the use of the weapons of impetuous course, and forced the sea the ranks behind the van, and for into their channels, and rocked

curd.

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ut eum motum terræ, qui multarum urbium Italiæ magnas U. C. 537. partes prostravit, avertitque cursu rapidos amnes, mare A. C. 217. Auminibus invexit, montes lapsu ingenti proruit, nemo pugnantium senserit. Tres ferme horas pugnatum est, et ubique atrociter.

6. Circa consulem tamen acrior infestiorque pugna est. Eum et robora virorum sequebantur, et ipse, quacunque in parte premi ac laborare senserat suos, impigre ferebat opem; insignemque armis et hostes summa vi petebant, et tuebantur cives : donec Insuber eques (Ducario nomen erat) facie quoque noscitans?, Consul, en,' inquit, hic est,' popularibus suis, qui legiones nostras cecidit, agrosque et urbem est depopulatus. Jam ego hanc victimam Manibus peremptorum 'fode civium dabo :' subditisque calcaribus equo, per confertissimam hostium turbam impetum facit: obtruncatoque prius armigero, qui se infesto venienti obviam objecerat, consulem lancea transfixit. Spoliare cupientem triarii objectis scutis arcuere. Magnæ partis fuga inde primum coepit: et jamo nec lacus, nec montes obstabant pavori. Per omnia arta præruptaque* velut cæci evadunt: armaque et viri super alium alii præcipitantur. Pars magna, ubi locus fugæ deest, per prima vada“ paludis in aquam progressi, quoad capitibus humerisque exstare possunt, sese immergunt. Fuere, quos inconsultus pavor nando etiam capessere fugam impulerit. Quæ ubi immensa ac sine spe6 erat, aut deficientibus animis hauriebantur gurgitibus, aut nequicquam fessi vada retro ægerrime repetebant, atque ibi ab ingressis aquam hostium equitibus passim trucidabantur. Sex millia ferme primi agminis, per adversos hostes eruptione impigre facta, ignari omnium, quæ post se agerentur, ex saltu

Et, quum in tumulo quodam constitissent?, cla

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&c.]

meet!

donn mountains with a heavy crash, Omnia arta preruptaque.]
not one of the combatants felt." “Every defile and precipice.'

5. Prima vada.] “The nearest
And such the storm of battle on this day, shallows."
And such the frenzy, whose convulsion blinds
To all save carnage, that, beneath the fray,

6 Quæ ubi immensa ac sine spe An earthquake reeld unheededly away!

“ And when this proved end-
None felt stern Nature rocking at his feet,
And yawning forth a grave for those who lay less and hopeless, they were either
Upon their bucklers for a winding-sheet: overwhelmed in the water, as their
Such the absorbing hate when warring nations
Childe Harold, iv. 63.

courage (or strength) failed; or,

after having in vain exhausted them1 Acrior infestiorque.] “More selves (fessi mid voice), made their fierce and deadly.”

way back with difficulty to the 2 Insuber-facie-noscitans.] Be. shallows, and there they were cause Flaminius had commanded slaughtered indiscriminately by the

gainst them in his former Consul- enemy's cavalry,” &c. ship.

? Et, quum in tumulo quodam Inde primum-jam.] “From constitissent.] “And, though they that moment the rout began, and took up a position on a rising ground, thenceforth,” &c.

as they could only hear the sound of

U. C. 537. morem modo ac sonum armorum audientes, quæ fortuna A. C. 217.

pugnæ esset, neque scire, nec perspicere præ caligine poterant. Inclinata denique re, quum incalescente sole dispulsa nebula aperuisset diem, tum liquida jam luce montes campique perditas res stratamque ostendere foede Romanam aciem. Itaque, ne in conspectos procul immitteretur eques, sublatis raptim signis, quam citatissimo poterant agmine, sese abripuerunt. Postero die, quum super cetera extrema fames etiam instaret, fidem dante Maharbale, qui cum omnibus equestribus copiis nocte consecutus erat, si arma tradidissent, abire cum singulis vestimentis passurum, sese dediderunt. Quæ Punica religione servata fides ab

Hannibale est, atque in vincula omnes conjecit. 7. Hæc est nobilis ad Trasimenum pugna, atque inter

paucas memorata populi Romani clades. Quindecim millia Romanorum in acie cæsa sunt; decem millia, sparsa fuga per omnem Etruriam, diversis itineribus urbem petiere. Mille quingenti hostium in acie, multi postea utrimque ex vulneribus periere. Multiplex cædes utrimque facta traditur ab aliis. Ego', præterquam quod nihil haustum ex vano velim, quo nimis inclinant ferme scribentium animi, Fabium æqualem temporibus hujusce belli potissimum auctorem habui. Hannibal, captivorum qui Latini nominis essent, sine pretio dimissis, Romanis in vincula datis, segregata ex hostium coacervatorum cumulis corpora suorum quum sepeliri jussisset, Flaminii quoque corpus, funeris causa magna cum cura inquisitum, non invenit.

Romæ, ad primum nuntium cladis ejus, cum ingenti terrore ac tumultu concursus in forum populi est factus. Matronæ vagæ per vias?, quæ repens clades allata, quæve voices and clash of arms, they were It is in the delineation of such scenes unable in the darkness to ascertain or as Rome must have presented on this see what was the turn of the battle.” occasion of terror, suspense, and

8 Quæ Punici religione &c.] despair, that Livy always exhibits “But this promise was kept by his power of description to most Hannibal with Punic sincerity,” &c. advantage. The lines and shadows

9 Quindecim millia &c.] The of the following passage are calculation given here by Livy, on skilfully touched and so artistically the authority of Fabius, shews a true, that it seems entitled to some proportion of ten deaths to one against attempt to present it in English: the Romans. The proportion of sc. « The matrons, wandering deaths at Thermopylæ was about through the streets, enquired of all 100 to one against the Persians, the who met them what sudden calamity largest on record.

had been announced, or, what was i Ego.] The position of the the fate of the army. As the pronoun requires a very emphatic multitude, like a crowded assembly, translation: we must say, “I, for my looking to the comitium and the part, in addition to my objection to senate-house, were calling on the any thing drawn from imagination,” magistrates; M. Pomponius the &c.

Prætor, after some delay and a 2 Matrone vage per vias, &c.] short time before sunset, proclaimed,

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fortuna exercitus esset, obvios percunctantur. Et quum U.C. 637. frequentis concionis modo turba in comitium et curiam A.C. 217. versa magistratus vocaret; tandem haud multo ante solis occasum M. Pomponius prætor, Pugna,' inquit, magna 'victi sumus:' et, quanquam nihil certius ex eo auditum est, tamen alius ab alio impleti rumoribus domos referunt, 'consulem cum magna parte copiarum cæsum: superesse

paucos, aut fuga passim per Etruriam sparsos, aut captos ab hoste. Quot casus exercitus victi fuerant, tot in curas dispertiti eorum animi erant, quorum propinqui sub C. Flaminio consule meruerant, ignorantium, quæ cujusque suorum fortuna esset: nec quisquam satis certum habet, quid aut speret aut timeat. Postero, ac deinceps aliquot diebus, ad portas major prope mulierum, quam virorum, multitudo stetit, aut suorum aliquem, aut nuntios de his opperiens : circumfundebanturque obviis sciscitantes; neque avelli, utique ab notis, prius, quam ordine omnia inquisissent, poterant.

Inde varios vultus digredientium ab nuntiis cerneres, ut cuique aut læta aut tristia nuntiabantur: gratulantesque aut consolantes redeuntibus domos circumfusos. Feminarum præcipue et gaudia insignia erant, et luctus. Unam in ipsa porta, sospiti filio repente oblatam, in conspectu ejus exspirasse ferunt; alteram, cui mors filii

com

we have been defeated in a great fore they had exhausted their whole battle.' And although nothing series of questions. Then might more explicit had been heard from be observed the various expressions him: still, full of the news of countenance as they turned away municated from one to another, from their informants, and the groups they severally, brought home the of congratulating or condoling friends intelligence that the consul and a who accompanied them on their reconsiderable portion of the army turn home. Among the women espewere slain; and that a few were cially, joy and sorrow both were still alive, either dispersed in flight strongly marked. One woman, just through Etruria, or prisoners of at the gate, suddenly meeting her the enemy.' As many as had been son coming back in safety, dropped the disasters of the defeated army, dead, it is said, before his eyes; were the various forms of anxiety another, to whom her son's death into which their minds were thrown had been erroneously reported, wbile whose friends had been serving waiting in despair at home, exunder C. Flaminius, not knowing pired under the overpowering joy what might be the fate of their of the first sight of his returi. The several relatives; for none had any Prætors kept the senate in the house thing definite either to hope or for several days from day-break to fear. On the next and several suc- sun-set, deliberating under what ceeding days, a crowd, consisting commander, or by what forces, the more of women than men, stood at victorious Carthaginians could be the gates, expecting either some of checked.” A very similar descriptheir relatives, or some intelligence tion is given of the aspect of the city about them: and they pressed around after the defeat at the Furcæ Cauall who came, with anxious inquiries, dine; with the difference that, on and could not tear themselves away, that occasion, the senate appeared in from acquaintances especially, be- mourning for the national disgrace.

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