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U. C. 537. falso nuntiata erat, mæstam sedentem domi, ad primum A. C. 217.

conspectum redeuntis filii gaudio nimio exanimatam. Senatum prætores per dies aliquot ab orto usque ad occidentem solem in curia retinent, consultantes, quonam duce,

aut quibus copiis, resisti victoribus Panis posset. 8.

Priusquam satis certa: consilia essent, repens alia nuntiatur clades: quattuor millia equitum, cum C. Centenio proprætore* missa ad collegam ab Servilio consule, in Umbria, quo post pugnam ad Trasimenum auditam averterant iter, ab Hannibale circumventa. Ejus rei fama varie homines affecit. Pars, occupatis majore ægritudine animis, levem, ex comparatione priorum, ducere recentem equitum jacturam: pars non id, quod acciderat', per se æstimare, sed, ut in affecto corpore quamvis levis causa magis, quam valido gravior, sentiretur; ita tum ægræ et affectæ civitati quodcunque adversi inciderit, non rerum magnitudine, sed viribus extenuatis, quæ nihil, quod aggravaret, pati possent, æstimandum esse. Itaque ad remedium, desideratum nec adhibitum, dictatorem dicendum, civitas confugit: et quia et consul aberat, a quo uno dici posse videbatur; nec per occupatam armis Punicis Italiam facile erat aut nuntium, aut literas mitti; nec? dictatorem populus creare poterat, quod nunquam ante eam diem factum erat: prodictatorem populus creavit Q. Fabium Maximum®, et magistrum equitum M. Minucium Rufum. Hisque negotium ab senatu datum, ut muros turresque urbis firmarent, et præsidia disponerent, quibus locis videretur, pontesque rescinderent fluminum: ad penates pro urbe dimicandum

esse, quando Italiam tueri nequissent. 9. Hannibal recto itinere per Umbriam usque ad Spoletumo venit. Inde, quum perpopulato agro urbem oppugnare U.C. 637. adortus esset, cum magna cæde suorum repulsus, conjectans

3 Priusquam satis certa, &c.] last preceding Dictatorship had been “ Before their plans could be well that of Atilius Calatinus, who had defined.”

superseded the Consul A. Claudius 4 Proprætore.] “ With the au- Pulcher, in the first Punic war, and thority of commander.” Centenius was the first Dictator who com. had never been a Prætor.

manded out of Italy. 5 Pars non id, quod acciderat, &c.] ? Nec per occupatam &c.- nec.] “ Some estimated what had hap- These compound negatives, following pened not on its own merits, but et, must be resolved in translation that as an influence however slight into “and—not." is felt more sensibly in a disordered 8 Q. Fabium Maximum.] This frame, than one more powerful in a cognomen was not a military title, state of health; so, whatever hap- having been acquired by Fabius in pened to the state in its present his censorship for his services to the weak and shaken condition, should aristocratic party in the revision of be regarded not with reference to the city tribes, (see lib. ix. 46.) by its actual importance; but to its ex- the separation and consolidation of hausted strength, which was now the libertini. beyond the endurance of further 9 Spoletum.] The repulse of Hanoppression.”

nibal from the walls of Spoleto is still Ô Remedium, jam diu &c.] The commemorated by local tradition, and an inscription over the arch of been Dictator on a former occasion an ancient gate, which is still called (five years previously, according to Porta di Annibale.

A. C. 217. ex unius coloniæ haud nimis prospere tentatæ viribus, quanta moles Romanæ urbis esset, in agrum Picenum avertit iter, non copia solum omnis generis frugum abundantem, sed refertum præda, quam effuse avidi atque egentes rapiebant. Ibi per dies aliquot stativa habita : refectusque miles, hibernis itineribus ac palustri via prcelioque, magis ad eventum secundo, quam levi aut facili, affectus. Ubi satis quieti datum, præda ac populationibus magis, quam otio aut requie, gaudentibus, profectus Prætutianum Hadrianumque agrum', Marsos inde Marrucinosque et Pelignos devastat, circaque Arpos et Luceriam proximam Apuliæ regionem. Cn. Servilius consul, levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis, et uno oppido ignobili expugnato, postqua de collegæ exercitusque cæde audivit, jam mcenibus patriæ metuens, ne abesset in discrimine extremo, ad urbem iter intendit. Q. Fabius Maximus dictator iterum, quo die magistratum iniit, vocato senatu, ab diis orsus, quum edocuisset Patres, plus negligentia cærimoniarum auspiciorumque, quam temeritate atque inscitia, peccatum a C. Flaminio consule esse, quæque piacula irædeum essent, ipsos deos consulendos esse ; pervicit, ut, quod non ferme decernitur, nisi quum tætra prodigia nuntiata sunt, decemviri libros Sibyllinos adire juberentur. Qui, inspectis fatalibus libris, retulerunt Patribus, quod ejus belli causa votum • Marti foret, id non rite factum, de integro atque amplius ' faciendum esse: et Jovi ludos magnos, et ædes Veneri Erycinæ ac Menti vovendas esse, et supplicationem lectisterniumque habendum, et ver sacrum vovendum, si bellatum prospere esset, resque publica in eodem, quo ante bellum 'fuisset, statu permansisset.' Senatus, quoniam Fabium belli cura occupatura esset, M. Æmilium prætorem, ex collegii pontificum sententia, omnia ea ut mature fiant, curare jubet. His senatusconsultis perfectis, L. Cornelius 10. Lentulus pontifex maximus, consulente collegio prætorum,

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some authorities) with C. Flaminius 1 Prætutianum Hadrianumque as master of the horse: but only for agrum &c.] Not venturing to ap- the purpose of an election. proach the city, even after his re- 3 Quæque piacula iræ &c.] This peated successes in the north, Han- genitive may be regarded as governed nibal passed across to the eastern either by piacula or essent: sc. either side of Italy, plundering and de- “ what were the proper atonements vastating as he went, until he bad under the Divine displeasure; or, marched considerably to the south what atonements were suited to of Rome, on the opposite coast. (demanded by) the anger of Hea

? Dictator iterum.] Fabius had

ven.

A.C. 217.

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U. C. 537. omnium primum populum consulendum de vere sacro cen

set: injussu populi voveri non posse. Rogatus in hæc verba populus, Velitis jubeatisne* hoc sic fieri? si respublica

populi Romani Quiritium ad quinquennium proximum, sicut velim eam, salva servata erit hisce duellis; (quod duellum populo Romano cum Carthaginiensi est, quæque duella cum Gallis sunt, qui cis Alpes sunt) datum donum 'duit populus Romanus Quiritium, quod ver attulerit ex 'suillo, oviilo, caprino, bovillo grege, quæque profana erunt, 'Jovi fieri, ex qua die senatus populusque jusserit. Qui ' faciet, quando volet, quaque lege volet, facito : quo modo 'faxit, probe factum esto. Si id moritur, quod fieri oportebit, profanum esto, neque scelus esto. Si quis rumpet occidetve insciens, ne fraus esto. Si quis clepsit, ne populo 'scelus esto, neve cui cleptum erit. Si atro die faxit 'insciens, probe factum esto. Si nocte sive luce, si servus 'sive liber faxit, probe factum esto. Si antidea senatus populusque jusserit fieri, ac faxit, eo populus solutus, liber esto.' Ejusdem rei causa ludi magni voti æris trecentis triginta tribus millibus, trecentis triginta tribus, triente: præterea bubus Jovi trecentis, multis aliis divis bubus albis, atque ceteris hostiis. Votis rite nuncupatis, supplicatio edicta: supplicatumque iere cum conjugibus ac liberis non urbana multitudo tantum, sed agrestium etiam, quos in aliqua sua fortuna publicæ quoque contingebat cura. Tum lectisternium per triduum habitum, decemviris sacrorum curantibus. Sex pulvinaria in .conspectu fuere: Jovi ac Jūnoni unum:

alterum Neptuno ac Minervæ; tertium Marti ac Veneri ; quartum Apollini ac Dianæ; quintum Vulcano ac Vestæ; sextum Mercurio ac Cereri. Tum ædes votæ. Veneri Erycinæ ædem Q. Fabius Maximus dictator vovit; quia ita ex fatalibus libris editum erat, ut is voveret, cujus maximum imperium in civitate esset. Menti

ædem T. Otacilius prætor vovit. 11. Ita rebus divinis peractis, tum de bello reque de publica

dictator retulit, quibus quotve legionibus victori-hosti obviam eundum esse Patres censerent. Decretum, 'ut ab

4 Velitis jubeatisne.) The old animos.It must be almost superLatini, of which the following formula fluous to observe, that the phrases salis a specimen, belongs most probably va servataduellumdonum duitto the æra of the renaissance after faxit-scelus estoclepsitcleptum the destruction of the city by the antidea (antea), belong to an age Gauls. Livy says, (lib. vi. 1.) that long previous to that, when the landuring the search for any public guage was polished and harmonized documents that might have escaped by Cicero and his contemporaries. the conflagration, all those relating 5 In aliqua sud fortuna.) “To to religious ceremonies were sup- whom under any personal circumpressed by the pontifices. Ut reli- stances the condition of the state (pub. gione obstrictos haberent multitudinis fortunæ) was a matter of anxiety."

· Cn. Servilio consule exercitum acciperet: scriberet præ- U.C. 537. ‘terea ex civibus sociisque, quantum equitum ac peditum A.C. 217. videretur: cetera omnia ageret faceretque, ut e republica • duceret. Fabius duas se legiones adjecturum ad Servilianum exercitum dixit. His, per magistrum equitum scriptis, Tibur diem ad conveniendum edixit. Edictoque proposito, ut quibus oppida castellaque immunita essent, uti in loca tuta commigrarent; ex agris quoque demigrarent omnes regionis ejus, qua iturus Hannibal esset, tectis prius incensis ac frugibus corruptis, ne cujus rei copia esseto; ipse, via Flaminia' profectus obviam consuli exercituique, quum ad Tiberim circa Ocriculum prospexisset agmen, consulemque cum equitibus ad se prodeuntem, viatorem misit, qui consuli nuntiaret, ut sine lictoribus ad dictatorem veniret. Qui quum dicto paruisset, congressusque eorum ingentem speciem dictaturæ apud cives sociosque, vetustate jam prope oblitos ejus imperii, fecisset 8 ; literæ ab urbe allatæ sunt, naves onerarias, commeatum ab Ostia in Hispaniam ad exercitum portantes, a classe Punica circa portum Cosanum captas esse. Itaque extemplo consul Ostiam proficisci jussus, navibusque, quæ ad urbem Romanam aut Ostiæ essent, completis milite ac navalibus sociis, persequi hostium classem, ac litora Italiæ tutari. Magna vis hominum conscripta Romæ erat: libertini etiam, quibus liberi essent', et ætas militaris, in verba juraverant. Ex hoc urbano exercitu, qui minores quinque et triginta annis erant, in naves impositi: alii, ut urbi præsiderent, relicti.

Dictator, exercitu consulis accepto a Fulvio Flacco legato, per agrum Sabinum Tibur, quo diem ad conveniendum edixerat novis militibus, venit: inde Præneste', ac transversis limitibus in viam Latinam est egressus; unde, itineribus summa cum cura exploratis, ad hostem ducit; nullo loco, nisi quantum necessitas cogeret, fortunæ se

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6 Ne cujus rei copia esset.] “So seaports of Etruria. that there should be no supplies of i Quibus liberi essent.] Because any sort,” or, “ so as to leave no- these, in the absence of real prothing in his power.” Copia signi- perty, would constitute a pledge of fies abundance” in the primary, and fidelity to the state, and create an opportunity in a secondary sense. interest in its preservation.

Via Flaminid.] This road 2 Preneste.] Now Palestrina, had been constructed, four years about 25 miles from Rome. previously, from Rome to Ariminum, In order to meet Hannibal, the (190 English miles,) by the same Dictator was obliged to march to Flaminius who fell at the Thrasy. the south-east. The scene of the mene. He was at that time Censor. manœuvres between the two com

8 Ingentem speciem fecisset.] manders was the Falernian plain, Presented an imposing display." lying between the mountains Mas

9 Portum Cosanum.] One of the sicus and Callicula.

ac

U. C. 637. commissurus. Quo primum die haud procul Arpis in con-
A.C. 217. spectu hostium posuit castra, nullo mora facta, quin Pænus

educeret in aciem, copiamque pugnandi faceret: sed ubi
quieta omnia apud hostes, nec castra ullo tumultu mota
videt; increpans quidem, victos tandem quoque Martios
animos Romanis, debellatumque, et concessum propalam
de virtute ac gloria esse, in castra rediit: ceterum tacita
cura animum incensus, quod cum duce, haudquaquam
Flaminio Sempronioque simili, futura sibi res esset;
tum demum edocti malis Romani parem Hannibali ducem
quæsissent. Et prudentiam quidem, non vim“, dictatoris
extemplo timuit. Constantiam haud dum expertus, agitare
ac tentare animum movendo crebro castra, populandoque
in oculis ejus agros sociorum, cæpit. Et modo citato
agmine e conspectu abibat, modo repente, in aliquo flexu
viæ, si excipere degressum in æquum posset, occultus
subsistebat. Fabius per loca alta agmen ducebat, modico
ab hoste intervallo, ut neque omitteret eumo, neque con-
grederetur. Castris, nisi quantum usus necessario cogeret,
tenebatur miles. Pabulum et ligna nec pauci petebant,
nec passim. Equitum levisque armaturæ statio, composita
instructaque in subitos tumultus, et suo militi tuta omnia,
et infesta effusis hostium populatoribus præbebat. Neque
universo periculo? summa rerum committebatur: et parva
momenta levium certaminum ex tuto cæptorum, finitimo
receptu, assuefaciebant territum pristinis cladibus militem,
minus jam tandem aut virtutis aut fortunæ poenitere suæ.
Sed non Hannibalem magis infestum tam sanis consiliis
habebat, quam magistrum equitum: qui nihil aliud, quam
quod impar erat imperios, moræ ad rempublicam præcipi-

&c.]

3 Debellatumque, et concessum &c.] meet him.” " That resistance was over, and all 7 Neque universo periculo &c.] claim to valour and glory confessedly The copula in neque appears to join abandoned.” Observe the antithesis this to the preceding sentence. of quidem and cæterum.

“ The general safety, however, was 4 Prudentiam quidem, non vim never hazarded in a decisive trial;

“It was the judgment, not while the partial influences of slight the strength, of the Dictator, which skirmishes, safely undertaken, and he at once began to fear-not having with a convenient means of retreat, as yet proved his firmness, he pro- accustomed the soldiers, daunted by ceeded to provoke and tempt his their past misfortunes, to feel, at patience,” &c.

length, less dissatisfied with their 5 Modo repente.) “ He would power or their success. sometimes take a position, unseen, 8 Quod impar erat imperio.] The upon some angle of the road, on the Emperor Napoleon I.used to say, that chance of being able (si posset) to one incompetent commander was betsurprise him as he descended to the ter than two skilful generals of equal

authority. This is true of every re6 Ut neque omitteret eum.] “So sponsibility in which measures must as neither to lose sight of him, nor be modified by circumstances.

plain.”

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