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A.C. 217.

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U.C. 537. omnium primum populum consulendum de vere sacro cen

set: injussu populi voveri non posse. Rogatus in hæc verba populus, ' Velitis jubeatisne hoc sic fieri? si respublica populi Romani Quiritium ad quinquennium proximum, sicut velim eam, salva servata erit hisce duellis ; (quod duellum populo Romano cum Carthaginiensi est, quæque duella cum Gallis sunt, qui cis Alpes sunt) datum donum duit populus Romanus Quiritium, quod ver attulerit ex 'suillo, oviilo, caprino, bovillo grege, quæque profana erunt,

Jovi fieri, ex qua die senatus populusque jusserit. Qui ' faciet, quando volet, quaque lege volet, facito : quo modo • . faxit, probe factum esto. Si id moritur, quod fieri opor• tebit, profanum esto, neque scelus esto. Si quis rumpet * occidetve insciens, ne fraus esto. Si quis clepsit, ne populo 'scelus esto, neve cui cleptum erit. Si atro die faxit

insciens, probe factum esto. Si nocte sive luce, si servus • sive liber faxit, probe factum esto. Si antidea senatus 'populusque jusserit fieri, ac faxit, eo populus solutus, liber ' esto.' Ejusdem rei causa ludi magni voti æris trecentis triginta tribus millibus, trecentis triginta tribus, triente : præterea bubus Jovi trecentis, multis aliis divis bubus albis, atque ceteris hostiis. Votis rite nuncupatis, supplicatio edicta : supplicatumque iere cum conjugibus ac liberis non urbana multitudo tantum, sed agrestium etiam, quos in aliqua sua fortuna publicæ quoque contingebat cura. Tum lectisternium per triduum habitum, decemviris sacrorum curantibus. Sex pulvinaria in .conspectu fuere: Jovi ac Jánoni unum: alterum Neptuno ac Minervæ; tertium Marti ac Veneri ; quartum Apollini ac Dianæ; quintum Vulcano ac Vesta sextum Mercurio ac Cereri. Tum ædes votæ. Veneri Erycinæ ædem Q. Fabius Maximus dictator vovit; quia ita ex fatalibus libris editum erat, ut is voveret, cujus maximum imperium in civitate esset. Menti

ædem T. Otacilius prætor vovit. 11. Ita rebus divinis peractis, tum de bello reque de publica

dictator retulit, quibus quotve legionibus victori-hosti obviam eundum esse Patres censerent. Decretum, 'ut ab

4 Velitis jubeatisne.] The old animos." It must be almost superLatini, of which the following formula fluous to observe, that the phrases salis a specimen, belongs most probably va servataduellumdonum duitto the æra of the renaissance after faxit-scelus esto-clepsit-cleptum the destruction of the city by the antidea (antea), belong to an age Gauls. Livy says, (lib. vi. 1.) that long previous to that, when the landuring the search for any public guage was polished and harmonized documents that might have escaped by Cicero and his contemporaries. the conflagration, all those relating 5 In aliqua sud fortuna.) “To to religious ceremonies were sup- whom under any personal circumpressed by the pontifices. Ut reli- stances the condition of the state (pub. gione obstrictos haberent multitudinis fortunæ ) was a matter of anxiety.”

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· Cn. Servilio consule exercitum acciperet: scriberet præ- U.C. 537. 'terea ex civibus sociisque, quantum equitum ac peditum A. C. 217. 'videretur: cetera omnia ageret faceretque, ut e republica

duceret.' Fabius duas se legiones adjecturum ad Servilianum exercitum dixit. His, per magistrum equitum scriptis, Tibur diem ad conveniendum edixit. Edictoque proposito, ut quibus oppida castellaque immunita essent, uti in loca tuta commigrarent; ex agris quoque demigrarent omnes regionis ejus, qua iturus Hannibal esset, tectis prius incensis ac frugibus corruptis, ne cujus rei copia esseto; ipse, via Flaminia? profectus obviam consuli exercituique, quum ad Tiberim circa Ocriculum prospexisset agmen, consulemque cum equitibus ad se prodeuntem, viatorem misit, qui consuli nuntiaret, ut sine lictoribus ad dictatorem veniret. Qui quum dicto paruisset, congressusque eorum ingentem speciem dictaturæ apud cives sociosque, vetustate jam prope oblitos ejus imperii, fecissets ; literæ ab urbe allatæ sunt, naves onerarias, commeatum ab Ostia in Hispaniam ad exercitum portantes, a classe Punica circa portum Cosanum captas esse. Itaque extemplo consul Ostiam proficisci jussus, navibusque, quæ ad urbem Romanam aut Ostiæ essent, completis milite ac navalibus sociis, persequi hostium classem, ac litora Italiæ tutari. Magna vis hominum conscripta Romæ erat: libertini etiam, quibus liberi essent', et ætas militaris, in verba juraverant. Ex hoc urbano exercitu, qui minores quinque et triginta annis erant, in naves impositi: alii, ut urbi præsiderent, relicti.

Dictator, exercitu consulis accepto a Fulvio Flacco le- 12. gato, per agrum Sabinum Tibur, quo diem ad conveniendum edixerat novis militibus, venit: inde Præneste, ac transversis limitibus in viam Latinam est egressus; unde, itineribus summa cum cura exploratis, ad hostem ducit; nullo loco, nisi quantum necessitas cogeret, fortunæ se

6 Ne cujus rei copia esset.] “So seaports of Etruria. that there should be no supplies of i Quibus liberi essent.] Because any sort,” or, so as to leave no- these, in the absence of real prothing in his power.” Copia signi- perty, would constitute a pledge of fies abundance” in the primary, and fidelity to the state, and create an opportunity' in a secondary sense. interest in its preservation. ***Via Flaminia.] This road

2 Præneste.] Now Palestrina, had been constructed, four years about 25 miles from Rome. previously, from Rome to Ariminum, In order to meet Hannibal, the (190 English miles,) by the same Dictator was obliged to march to Flaminius who fell at the Thrasy. the south-east. The scene of the mene. He was at that time Censor. manoeuvres between the two com

8 Ingentem speciem fecisset.] manders was the Falernian plain, Presented an imposing display. lying between the mountains Mas

9 Portum Cosanum] One of the sicus and Callicula.

A.C.217.

ac

U.C. 637. commissurus. Quo primum die haud procul Arpis in con

spectu hostium posuit castra, nullo mora facta, quin Pænus
educeret in aciem, copiamque pugnandi faceret: sed ubi
quieta omnia apud hostes, nec castra ullo tumultu mota
videt; increpans quidem, victos tandem quoque Martios
animos Romanis, debellatumque, et concessum’ propalam
de virtute ac gloria esse, in castra rediit: ceterum tacita
cura animum incensus, quod cum duce, haudquaquam
Flaminio Sempronioque simili, futura sibi res esset;
tum demum edocti malis Romani parem Hannibali ducem
quæsissent. Et prudentiam quidem, non vim“, dictatoris
extemplo timuit. Constantiam haud dum expertus, agitare
ac tentare animum movendo crebro castra, populandoque
in oculis ejus agros sociorum, cæpit.

Et modo citato agmine e conspectu abibat, modo repente in aliquo flexu viæ, si excipere degressum in æquum posset, occultus subsistebat. Fabius per loca alta agmen ducebat, modico ab hoste intervallo, ut neque omitteret eumo, neque congrederetur. Castris, nisi quantum usus necessario cogeret, tenebatur miles. Pabulum et ligna nec pauci petebant, nec passim. Equitum levisque armaturæ statio, composita instructaque in subitos tumultus, et suo militi tuta omnia, et infesta effusis hostium populatoribus præbebat. Neque universo periculo? summa rerum committebatur: et parva momenta levium certaminum ex tuto coeptorum, finitimo receptu, assuefaciebant territum pristinis cladibus militem, minus jam tandem aut virtutis aut fortunæ pænitere suæ. Sed non Hannibalem magis infestum tam sanis consiliis habebat, quam magistrum equitum: qui nihil aliud, quam quod impar erat imperios, moræ ad rempublicam præcipi

3 Debellatumque, et concessum &c.] meet him.” «« That resistance was over, and all ? Neque universo periculo &c.] claim to valour and glory confessedly The copula in neque appears to join abandoned.” Observe the antithesis this to the preceding sentence. of quidem and cæterum.

“ The general safety, however, was 4 Prudentiam quidem, non vim never hazarded in a decisive trial; &c.] “ It was the judgment, not while the partial influences of slight the strength, of the Dictator, which skirmishes, safely undertaken, and he at once began to fear-not having with a convenient means of retreat, as yet proved his firmness, he pro- accustomed the soldiers, daunted by ceeded to provoke and tempt his their past misfortunes, to feel, at patience,” &c.

length, less dissatisfied with their 5 Modo repente.)

“ He would power or their success. sometimes take a position, unseen, 8 Quod impar erat imperio.] The upon some angle of the road, on the Emperor Napoleon I.used to say, that chance of being able (si posset) to one incompetent commander was betsurprise him as he descended to the ter than two skilful generals of equal plain.”

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authority. This is true of every re6 Ut neque omitteret eum.] “ So sponsibility in which measures must as neither to lose sight of him, nor be modified by circumstances.

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tandam habebat. Ferox rapidusque in consiliis, ac lingua U. C. 537. immodicus, primo inter paucos, dein propalam in vulgus, A.C. 217. pro cunctatore segnemo, pro cauto timidum, affingens vicina virtutibus vitia, compellabat: premendoque superiorem (quæ pessima ars' nimis prosperis multorum successibus cervit) sese extollebat.

Hannibal ex Hirpinis in Samnium transit: Beneventa- 13. num depopulatur agrum: Telesiam urbem” capit: irritat etiam de industria ducem, si forte accensum tot indignitatibus cladibusque sociorum detrahere ad æquum certamen possit. Inter multitudinem sociorum Italici generis, qui ad Trasimenum capti ab Hannibale dimissique fuerant, tres Campani equites erant, multis jam tum illecti donis promissisque Hannibalis ad conciliandos popularium ani

Hi nuntiantes, si in Campaniam exercitum admovisset, Capuæ potiendæ copiam fore, quum res major, quam auctores, esset, dubium Hannibalem, alternisque fidentem ac diffidentem, tamen, ut Campanos ex Samnio peteret, moverunt; monitos, ut etiam atque etiam promissa rebus affirmarent, jussosque, cum pluribus et aliquibus principum redire ad se, dimisit. Ipse imperat duci, ut se in agrum Casinatem ducat: edoctus a peritis regionum, si eum saltum occupassets, exitum Romano ad opem ferendam sociis interclusurum. Sed Punicum abhorrens ab Latinorum nominum prolatione, pro Casino Casilinum dux ut acciperet, fecit; aversusque ab suo itinere, per Allifanum, Calatinumque, et Calenum agrum, in campum Stellatem descendit: ubi quum montibus fluminibusque clausam regionem circumspexisset, vocatum ducem percunctatur, ubi terrarum esset ? Quum is Casilini eo die mansurum eum

9 Pro cunctatore segnem &c.] xvi. of the 26th book. The city is Apathetic instead of deliberate, described by Cicero (Rull. ii.), as timorons instead of circumspect.” having exceeded Rome in magni

I Que pessima ars &c.] " The ficence. Its ruins, which are but most unprincipled (vicious) policy shapeless masses, though extending that ever grew from inordinate suc- over a considerable space, are about cess in many instances."

two miles distant from the modern 2 Telesiam urbem.] Memorable town, which was built in the ninth as the birthplace of the celebrated century, on the site of the ancient Caius Pontius, who conducted the Casilinum. Having recovered its second and third Samnite wars against destruction by the Romans, ancient Rome, and has been called by histo- Capua was finally destroyed in the rians, the Samnite Hannibal. With reign of Honorius, by Genseric, king much injustice too, for Pontius was a of the Vandals. philosopher and a gentleman.

5 Si eum saltum occupasset, &c.] 3 Si forte-possit.] “ On the “Having learned from persons acchance of being able (of succeeding quainted with the locality, that, if he in)” &c.

took possession of that pass, he would á Capuæ.] The tragical circum- intercept the Roman from bringing stances of the punishment of Capua assistance to his allies.” are detailed in chapters xiv. xv. and

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U. C. 537. dixisset, tum demum cognitus est error, et Casinum longe A.C. 217. inde alia regione esse6: virgisque cæso duce, et ad reliquo

rum terrorem in crucem sublato, castris communitis, Maharbalem cum equitibus in agrum Falernum prædatum dimisit. Usque ad aquas Sinuessanas? populatio ea pervenit. Ingentem cladem, fugam tamen terroremque latius, Numidæ fecerunt. Nec tamen is terror, quum omnia bello flagrarent, fide socios dimovit: videlicet quia justo et moderato regebantur imperio ; nec abnuebant, quod

unum vinculum fidei est, melioribus parere. 14. Ut vero ad Vulturnum flumen 8 castra sunt posita, exure

baturque amænissimus Italize ager, villæque passim incendiis fumabant, per juga Massici montis Fabio ducente, tum prope de integro seditio accensa. Quieverant enim per paucos dies; quia, quum celerius solito ductum agmen fuisset, festinari ad prohibendam populationibus Campaniam crediderant. Ut vero in extrema jugao Massici montis ventum est, hostesque sub oculis erant, Falerni agri colonorumque Sinuessæi tecta urentes, nec ulla erat mentio pugnæ, 'Spectatumne huc,' inquit Minucius, ut rem fruendam oculis, sociorum cædes et incendia, venimus? • Nec, si nullius alterius nos, ne civium quidem horum pudet, quos Sinuessam colonos patres nostri miserunt, ut ab Samnite hoste tuta hæc ora esset: quam nunc non vicinus Samnis urit, sed Penus advena, ab extremis orbis terrarum terminis, nostra cunctatione et socordia, jam huc progressus. Tantum, pro ! degeneramus a parentibus nostris, ut, præter quam oram? illi Punicas vagari classes,

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6 Casinum longè inde alia regione of Capua, which Cicero calls ager esse.] The road to Casinum, which orbis terræ pulcherrimus, (Rull. ii. lay on the via Latina, was nearly 28.): a panegyric repeated here by due north, passing behind, and to Livy. the east of, Mons Callicula. Instead 9 In extrema juga.] “The end of of advancing to that position, where the ridge.” The mountain termihe would have diverted the attention nated at Sinuessa, descending nearly of Fabius from Campania, his guide due south from the point where it led him to the left, across to Casili- formed an angle with Mons Callicula. num, which, as it lay near Capua, he Between the two mountains lay the naturally supposed to be the place Falernus ager. intended.

1 Colonorumque Sinuessa.) It ? Aquas Sinuessanas.] "The

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was during the third Samnite war baths or hot wells of Sinuessa,” fre- that colonies were planted at Sinuquented in the Augustan age by Ro- essa and Minturnæ, to protect Camman invalids. (Sinuessa tepens, Sil. pania from the periodical incursions Ital. viii. 529.) It was originally of the enemy. named Sinope.

2 Ut, præter quam oram, &c.] 8 Vullurnum flumen.] (Now the “That the shore along which they Voltorno) flowed within about two considered it a disgrace to their miles and a half of ancient Capua, to government (an insult to their sovewhich the river originally gave its reignty) that Carthaginian fleets name. It intersected the Campagna should cruise, we now behold infested

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