Immagini della pagina
PDF
ePub

tandam habebat. Ferox rapidusque in consiliis, ac lingua U. C. 537. immodicus, primo inter paucos, dein propalam in vulgus,

A.C.217. pro cunctatore segnemo, pro cauto timidum, affingens vicina virtutibus vitia, compellabat: premendoque superiorem (quæ pessima ars? nimis prosperis multorum successibus cervit) sese extollebat. Hannibal ex Hirpinis in Samnium transit: Beneventa

13. num depopulatur agrum: Telesiam urbem? capit: irritat etiam de industria ducem, si forte accensum tot indignitatibus cladibusque sociorum detrahere ad æquum certamen possit? Inter multitudinem sociorum Italici generis, qui ad Trasimenum capti ab Hannibale dimissique fuerant, tres Campani equites erant, multis jam tum illecti donis promissisque Hannibalis ad conciliandos popularium ani

Hi nuntiantes, si in Campaniam exercitum admovisset, Capuæ potiendæ copiam fore, quum res major, quam auctores, esset, dubium Hannibalem, alternisque fidentem ac diffidentem, tamen, ut Campanos ex Samnio peteret, moverunt; monitus, ut etiam atque etiam promissa rebus affirmarent, jussosque, cum pluribus et aliquibus principum redire ad se, dimisit. Ipse imperat duci, ut se in agrum Casinatem ducat: edoctus a peritis regionum, si eum saltum occupasset', exitum Romano ad opem ferendam sociis interclusurum. Sed Punicum abhorrens ab Latinorum nominum prolatione, pro Casino Casilinum dux ut acciperet, fecit; aversusque ab suo itinere, per Allifanum, Calatinumque, et Calenum agrum, in campum Stellatem descendit : ubi quum montibus fluminibusque clausam regionem circumspexisset, vocatum ducem percunctatur, ubi terrarum esset? Quum is Casilini eo die mansurum eum

mos.

9 Pro cunctatore segnem &c.] xvi. of the 26th book. The city is Apathetic instead of deliberate, described by Cicero (Rull. ii.), as timorous instead of circumspect.' having exceeded Rome in magni

| Que pessima ars &c.] " The ficence. Its ruins, which are but most unprincipled (vicious) policy shapeless masses, though extending that ever grew from inordinate suc- over a considerable space, are about cess in many instances."

two miles distant from the modern 2 Telesiam urbem.] Memorable town, which was built in the ninth as the birthplace of the celebrated century, on the site of the ancient Caius Pontius, who conducted the Casilinum. Having recovered its second and third Samnite wars against destruction by the Romans, ancient Rome, and has been called by histo- Capua was finally destroyed in the rians, the Samnite Hannibal. With reign of Honorius, by Genseric, king much injustice too, for Pontius was a of the Vandals. philosopher and a gentleman.

5 Si eum saltum occupasset, &c.] 3 Si' forte-possit.] “ On the “Having learned from persons acchance of being able (of succeeding quainted with the locality, that, if he in)” &c.

took possession of that pass, he would * Capuæ.] The tragical circum- intercept the Roman from bringing stances of the punishment of Capua assistance to his allies.” are detailed in chapters xiv. xv. and

U.C.537. dixisset, tum demum cognitus est error, et Casinum longe A.C. 217. inde alia regione esse 6: virgisque cæso duce, et ad reliquo

rum terrorem in crucem sublato, castris communitis, Maharbalem cum equitibus in agrum Falernum prædatum dimisit. Usque ad aquas Sinuessanas? populatio ea pervenit. Ingentem cladem, fugam tamen terroremque latius, Numidæ fecerunt. Nec tamen is terror, quum omnia bello flagrarent, fide socios dimovit: videlicet quia justo et moderato regebantur imperio ; nec abnuebant, quod

unum vinculum fidei est, melioribus parere. 14. Ut vero ad Vulturnum flumen 8 castra sunt posita, exure

baturque amoenissimus Italize ager, villæque passim incendiis fumabant, per juga Massici montis Fabio ducente, tum prope de integro seditio accensa. Quieverant enim per paucos dies ; quia, quum celerius solito ductum agmen fuisset, festinari ad prohibendam populationibus Campaniam crediderant. Ut vero in extrema juga! Massici montis ventum est, hostesque sub oculis erant, Falerni agri colonorumque Sinuessæi tecta urentes, nec ulla erat mentio pugnæ, 'Spectatumne huc, inquit Minucius, 'ut rem fruendam oculis, sociorum cædes et incendia, venimus? Nec, si nullius alterius nos, ne civium quidem horum pudet, quos Sinuessam colonos patres nostri miserunt, ut .ab Samnite hoste tuta hæc ora esset: quam nunc non • vicinus Samnis urit, sed Pænus advena, ab extremis orbis terrarum terminis, nostra cunctatione et socordia, jam huc progressus. Tantum, pro ! degeneramus a parentibus nostris, ut, præter quam oram? illi Punicas vagari classes,

[ocr errors]

6 Casinum longè inde alia regione of Capua, which Cicero calls ager esse.] The road to Casinum, which orbis terræ pulcherrimus, (Rull. ii. lay on the via Latina, was nearly 28.): a panegyric repeated here by due north, passing behind, and to Livy, the east of, Mons Callicula. Instead 9 In extrema juga.] “The end of of advancing to that position, where the ridge.” The mountain termihe would have diverted the attention nated at Sinuessa, descending nearly of Fabius from Campania, his guide due south from the point where it led him to the left, across to Casili- formed an angle with Mons Callicula. num, which, as it lay near Capua, he Between the two mountains lay the naturally supposed to be the place Falernus ager. intended.

i Colonorumque Sinuessa. It ? Aquas Sinuessanas.)

" The

was during the third Samnite war baths or hot wells of Sinuessa,” fre- that colonies were planted at Sinuquented in the Augustan age by Ro- essa and Minturnæ, to protect Camman invalids. (Sinuessa tepens, Sil. pania from the periodical incursions Ital. viii. 529.) It was originally of the enemy. named Sinope.

2 Ut, præter quam oram, &c.] 8 Vullurnum flumen.] (Now the “That the shore along which they Voltorno) flowed within about two considered it a disgrace to their miles and a half of ancient Capua, to government (an insult to their sovewhich the river originally gave its reignty) that Carthaginian fleets name. It intersected the Campagna should cruise, we now behold infested

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

dedecus esse imperii sui duxerint, eam nos nunc plenam U.C. 537. hostium Numidarumque ac Maurorum jam factam videa- A. C. 217. mus? Qui modo, Saguntum oppugnari indignando: non homines tantum, sed fodera et deos, ciebamus, scandentem monia Romanæ coloniæ Hannibalem lenti specta'mus. Fumus ex incendiis villarum agrorumque in oculos atque ora venit; strepunt aures clamoribus plorantium sociorum, sæpius nos, quam deorum invocantium opem.

Nos hic pecorum modo per æstivos saltus deviasque calles • 'exercitum ducimus, conditio nubibus silvisque. Si hoc 'modo peragrando cacumina saltusque M. Furius recipere 'a Gallis urbem voluisset, quo hic novus Camillus, nobis

dictator unicus in rebus affectis quæsitus, Italiam ab Hannibale

recuperare parat, Gallorum Roma esset: quam vereor, ne, sic cunctantibus nobis, Hannibali ac Poenis toties servaverint majores nostri. Sed vir, ac vere Roma'nus, quo die, dictatorem eum ex auctoritate Patrum jus

suque populi dictum, Veios allatum est, quum esset satis 'altum Janiculum, ubi sedens prospectaret hostem, descen. dit in æquum : atque illo ipso die media in urbe, qua 'nunc busia Gallica sunt, et postero die citra Gabios cecidit

Gallorum legiones. Quid ? post multos annos, quum ad * Furculas Caudinas ab Samnite hoste sub jugum missi sumus, utrum tandem L. Papirius Cursor? juga Samnii perlustrando, an Luceriam premendo obsidendoque, , et * lacessendo victorem hostem, depulsum ab Romanis cervicibus jugum superbo Samniti imposuit? Modo C. Lu' tatio quæ alia res, quam celeritas, victoriam dedit? quod postero die, quam hostem vidit, classem gravem com

6

3

by an enemy, and appropriated by Dictator, fought with and defeated Moors and Numidians.

the Samnites. In the year following, Saguntum oppugnari indignando.] the Consuls Calvinus and Posthu“In our indignation (resentment) mius sustained the notorious defeat at the assault of Saguntum.” at the Caudine pass; and, when the

4 Fumus ex incendiis, &c.] The Senate ignored their capitulation, Falernian plain lay immediately to were surrendered to the Samnites, the south of the Massic hills, which at the suggestion of Posthumius overlooked all Campania as far as himself. Pontius, the Samnite geneMons Tifata.

ral, refused to accept and set them 5. Per æstivos saltus deviasque at liberty; and the succeeding Concalles.] The first of these adjectives suls, Publilius and Papirius, retamay signify either“sunny,” as lying liated the defeat and the ignominious on the southern face of the mountain; ceremony hy which it had been sigor, “shady,” i.e. such as one resorts nalized. Fabius, the present Dicto in summer. “Sunny (or shady) tator, had taken an active part in defiles, and unfrequented paths." that war, having been Master of

6 Conditi.] (Mid. voice,)“ hiding Horse to Papirius; and, subseourselves.'

quently, Lieutenant to his own son, 7 L. Papirius Cursor.] This Fabius Guryes. general had in the first instance, as

U. C. 537. 'meatibus& impeditam suomet ipsam instrumento atque apA: C. 217. • paratu, oppressit. Stultitia est, sedendo aut votis debel

‘lari credere posse. Armari copias oportet, deducendas in ‘ æquum, ut vir cum viro congrediaris. Audendo atque 'agendo res Romana crevit, non his segnibus consiliis, quæ timidi cauta vocant.' Hæc velut concionanti Minucio circumfundebatur tribunorum equitumque Romanorum multitudo, et ad aures quoque militum dicta ferocia volvebantur: ac, si militaris suffragii res esset, haud dubie fere

bant', Minucium Fabio duci prælaturos. 15.

Fabius pariter', in suos haud minus quam in hostes intentus, prius ab illis invictum' animum præstat. Quanquam probe scit', non in castris modo suis, sed jam etiam Romæ infamem suam cunctationem esse, obstinatus tamen eodem consiliorum tenore æstatis reliquum extraxit: ut Hannibal, destitutus ab spe summopere petiti certaminis, jam hibernis locum circumspectaret: quia ea regio* præsentis erat copiæ, non perpetuæ, arbusta vineæque, et consita omnia magis amonis, quam necessariis fructibus. Hæc per exploratores relata Fabio. Quum satis sciret, per easdem angustias, quibus intraverat Falernum agrum, rediturum”, Calliculam montem et Casilinum occupat modicis præsidiis; quæ urbs, Vulturno flumine dirempta, Falernum ac Campanum agros dividit : ipse jugis iisdem exercitum reducit, misso exploratum cum quadringentis equitibus sociorum L. Hostilio Mancino. Qui ex turba juvenum audientium sæpe ferociter concionantem magistrum equitum, progressus primo U. c. 537. exploratoris modo, ut ex tuto specularetur hostem, ubi A.C. 217. vagos passim per vicos Numidas vidit, per occasionem etiam paucos occidit. Extemplo occupatus certamine est animus?, excideruntque præcepta dictatoris; qui, quantum tuto posset, progressum prius recipere sese jusserat, quam in conspectum hostium veniret. Numidæ, alii atque aliio occursantes refugientesque, ad castra prope ipsum cum fatigatione equorum atque hominum pertraxere. Inde Carthalo, penes quem summa equestri imperii erat, concitatis equis invectus, quum prius, quam ad conjectum' teli veniret, avertisset hostem, quinque millia ferme continenti cursu secutus est fugientes. Mancinus, postquam nec hostem desistere sequi, nec spem vidit effugiendi esse, cohortatus suos in proelium rediit, omni parte virium impar. Itaque ipse, et delecti equitum, circumventi occiduntur: ceteri effuso rursus cursu Cales primum, inde prope inviis callibus ad dictatorem perfugerunt.

8 Classem gravem commeatibus.] not perennial plenty-shrubs and “ Laden (freighted or encumbered) vines, and a general plantation of with provisions.” This was the fleet delicacies, rather than of indispensin which Hanno was bringing pro- able crops." visions to the Carthaginian army at 5 Per easdem angustias-redituEryx. The phrase gravis commenti- rum.] Hannibal, as stated above, bus will be found in quite a different entered this plain through the territory sense (and different syntax) in l. vii. of Alifæ, where he had first diverged

from his intended route (suo itinere), 9 Haud dubiè ferebant.] “They and then through the plains of Cales. plainly (unequivocally) intimated," This pass (Angustia) lay between &c.

the end of Mons Callicula and Mons i Pariter. ] “At the same time.” Tifata; and if all exit on the north,

2 Prius ab illis (sc. suis) invic- by the coast, were intercepted, he tum, &c.] Against the former in could only return the same way, or the first instance,” i. e. in order to be contrive a passage over Callicula, as proof against the enemy, it was neces- he eventually succeeded in doing ; sary that he should first successfully vid ad Casilinum obsessá, because the resist his own people.

road through Casilinum, along the 3 Probè scit.] * There is a force bank of the Vulturnus, was oband beauty in this use of the present structed. tense, which cannot be conveyed in 6 Qui ex turbá, &c.] “ And he,” English: we may say, “ though he (nom, to occidit)" having been one was, all the while, fully aware,” &c. of the multitude who habitually list

4 Quia ea regio, &c.] “ Bécause ened to the presumptuous harangues that district was one of temporary of the Master of Horse.”

37.

Eo forte die Minucius se conjunxerat Fabio, missus ad firmandum præsidio saltum, qui super Tarracinam, in artas coactus fauces", imminet mari, ne, immunito Appiæ limite, Pænus pervenire in agrum Romanum posset. Conjunctis exercitibus dictator ac magister equitum castra in viam deferunt, qua Hannibal ducturus erat. Duo inde millia hostes aberant. Postero die Poni, quod viæ inter bina 16. castra erat, agmine complevere. Quum Romani sub ipso constitissent vallo, haud dubie æquiore loco o successit tamen Pænus cum expeditis equitibus, atque ad lacessendum hostem carptimo et procursando recipiendoque sese

7 Occupatus-animus.]“Thoughts Rome, he would attempt this route, were engrossed,” &c.

which was facilitated by the Appian 8 Excideruntque.] “ Were for- road, running along the coast down gotten;" literally, “ dropped from to Sinuessa, and passing between the his mind.” A similar use of egonna end of Mons Massicus and the sea. obalvel supplies an analogy. Hence the necessity of guarding

9 Alii atque alii.] “In different that road. “To prevent his making and successive parties.”

his way into the Roman territory, ? Quum prius, quam ad conjectum (which he might effect,) if the line

“After turning the enemy, of the Appian road were left unbefore he came within javelin range, guarded.”. followed their flight in an unbroken 4 Æquiore loco.] “On more adpursuit of nearly five miles.”

vantageous ground," sc. for the Ro2 Prope inviis callibus.] “Through mans, who had kept possession of almost impenetrable passes.' the heights, and were apparently

3 Super Tarracinam, in artas co- encamped on the southern slope of actus fauces.] This pass, (the Lau- the Massic hills. tulæ Angustiæ, now Portello,) lay 5 Pænus cum expeditis equitibus.] farther up, on the road to Rome, in Observe the transition in syntax. Latium, and immediately inside the Ponus taken singly agrees with Promontory of Circeii, now Circello. successit; with the ablative it forms It was probable, that, if Hannibal a nom. plural to pugnavere. had any intention of approaching 6 Carptim.] “At intervals, in

&c.]

« IndietroContinua »