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• dedecus esse imperii sui duxerint, eam nos nunc plenam U.C. 637. 'hostium Numidarumque ac Maurorum jam factam videa- A.C. 217. *mus? Qui modo, Saguntum oppugnari indignandonon ' homines tantum, sed fædera et deos, ciebamus, scanden• tem mænia Romanæ coloniæ Hannibalem lenti specta

Fumus ex incendiis villarum agrorumque in oculos atque ora venit; strepunt aures clamoribus plorantium

sociorum, sæpius nos, quam deorum invocantium opem. • Nos hic pecorum modo per æstivos saltus deviasque calles 'exercitum ducimus, conditié nubibus silvisque. Si hoc

modo peragrando cacumina saltusque M. Furius recipere 'a Gallis urbem voluisset, quo hic novus Camillus, nobis • dictator unicus in rebus affectis quæsitus, Italiam ab Hannibale recuperare parat, Gallorum Roma esset: quam vereor, ne, sic cunctantibus nobis, Hannibali ac Poenis 'toties servaverint majores nostri. Sed vir, ac vere Romanus, quo die, dictatorem eum ex auctoritate Patrum jussuque populi dictum, Veios allatum est, quum esset satis 'altum Janiculum, ubi sedens prospectaret hostem, descen' dit in æquum : atque illo ipso die media in urbe, qua ' nunc busta Gallica sunt, et postero die citra Gabios cecidit • Gallorum legiones. Quid ? post multos annos, quum ad Furculas Caudinas ab Samnite hoste sub jugum missi ' sumus, utrum tandem L. Papirius Cursor' juga Samnii 'perlustrando, an Luceriam premendo obsidendoque, . et * Iacessendo victorem hostem, depulsum ab Romanis cervi'cibus jugum superbo Samniti imposuit ? Modo C. Lutatio quæ alia res, quam celeritas, victoriam dedit ? quod postero die, quam hostem vidit, classem gravem com

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by an enemy, and appropriated by Dictator, fought with and defeated Moors and Numidians.”

the Samnites. In the year following, 3 Saguntum oppugnari indignando.] the Consuls Calvinus and Posthu“In our indignation (resentment) mius sustained the notorious defeat at the assault of Saguntum.” at the Caudine pass; and, when the

4 Fumus ex incendiis, &c.] The Senate ignored their capitulation, Falernian plain lay immediately to were surrendered to the

Samnites, the south of the Massic hills, which at the suggestion of Posthumius overlooked all Campania as far as himself. Pontius, the Samnite geneMons Tifata.

ral, refused to accept and set them 5. Per æstivos saltus deviasque at liberty; and the succeeding Con. calles.] The first of these adjectives suls, Publilius and Papirius, retamay signify either“ sunuy," as lying liated the defeat and the ignominious on the southern face of the mountain; ceremony hy which it had been sigor, "shady,” i.e. such as one resorts nalized. Fabius, the present Dicto in summer. “Sunny (or shady) tator, had taken an active part in defiles, and unfrequented paths." that war, having been Master of

6 Conditi.) (Mid. voice,)“ hiding Horse to Papirius; and, subseourselves.”

quently, Lieutenant to his own son, 7 L. Papirius Cursor.] This Fabius Gurges. general had in the first instance, as

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U. C. 637. 'meatibus impeditam suomet ipsam instrumento atque apA; C. 217.6

paratu, oppressit. Stultitia est, sedendo aut votis debellari credere posse. Armari copias oportet, deducendas in æquum, ut vir cum viro congrediaris. Audendo atque agendo res Romana crevit, non his segnibus consiliis, quæ timidi cauta vocant.' Hæc velut concionanti Minucio circumfundebatur tribunorum equitumque Romanorum multitudo, et ad aures quoque militum dicta ferocia volvebantur: ac, si militaris suffragii res esset, haud dubie fere

banto, Minucium Fabio duci prælaturos. 15,

Fabius pariter', in suos haud minus quam in hostes intentus, prius ab illis invictum animum præstat. Quanquam probe scit', non in castris modo suis, sed jam etiam Romæ infamem suam cunctationem esse, obstinatus tamen eodem consiliorum tenore æstatis reliquum extraxit: ut Hannibal, destitutus ab spe summopere petiti certaminis, jam hibernis locum circumspectaret: quia ea regio* præsentis erat copiæ, non perpetuæ, arbusta vineæque, et consita omnia magis amonis, quam necessariis fructibus. Hæc per exploratores relata Fabio. Quum satis sciret, per easdem angustias, quibus intraverat Falernum agrum, rediturum”, Calliculam montem et Casilinum occupat modicis præsidiis; quæ urbs, Vulturno flumine dirempta, Falernum ac Campanum agros dividit: ipse jugis iisdem exercitum reducit, misso exploratum cum quadringentis equitibus sociorum L. Hostilio Mancino. Qui ex turba juvenum audientium sæpe fero

8 Classem gravem commeatibus.] not perennial plenty-shrubs and “ Laden (freighted or encumbered) vines, and a general plantation of with provisions.” This was the fleet delicacies, rather than of indispensin which Hanno was bringing pro- able crops." visions to the Carthaginian army at 5 Per easdem angustias-redituEryx. The phrase gravis commenti- rum.] Hannibal, as stated above, bus will be found in quite a different entered this plain through the territory sense (and different syntax) in l. vii. of Alifæ, where he had first diverged 37.

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from his intended route (suo itinere), 9 Haud dubiè ferebant.). “They and then through the plains of Cales. plainly (unequivocally) intimated, This pass (Angustia) lay between &c.

the end of Mons Callicula and Mons i Pariter.] “At the same time.” Tifata; and if all exit on the north,

2 Prius ab illis (sc. suis) invic- by the coast, were intercepted, he tum, &c.] “Against the former in could only return the same way, or the first instance,” i. e. in order to be contrive a passage over Callicula, as proof against the enemy, it was neces- he eventually succeeded in doing; sary that he should first successfully vid ad Casilinum obsessá, because the resist his own people.

road through Casilinum, along the 3 Probè scit.] There is a force bank of the Vulturnus, was oband beauty in this use of the present structed. tense, which cannot be conveyed in 6 Qui ex turbá, &c.] “ And he," English: we may say, “ though he (nom. to occidit)“ having been one was, all the while, fully aware, &c. of the multitude who habitually list

4 Quia ea regio, &c.] “Because ened to the presumptuous harangues that district was one of temporary of the Master of Horse.”

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citer concionantem magistrum equitum, progressus primo U. C. 537. exploratoris modo, ut ex tuto specularetur hostem, ubi A. C. 217. vagos passim per vicos Numidas vidit, per occasionem etiam paucos occidit. Extemplo occupatus certamine est animus?, excideruntque præcepta dictatoris ; qui, quantum tuto posset, progressum prius recipere sese jusserat, quam in conspectum hostium veniret. Numidæ, alii atque alii' occursantes refugientesque, ad castra prope ipsum cum fatigatione equorum atque hominum pertraxere. Inde Carthalo, penes quem summa equestri imperii erat, concitatis equis invectus, quum prius, quam ad conjectum' teli veniret, avertisset hostem, quinque millia ferme continenti cursu secutus est fugientes. Mancinus, postquam nec hostem desistere sequi, nec spem vidit effugiendi esse, cohortatus suos in prælium rediit, omni parte virium impar. Itaque ipse, et delecti equitum, circumventi occiduntur: ceteri effuso rursus cursu Cales primum, inde prope inviis callibus ad dictatorem perfugerunt.

Eo forte die Minucius se conjunxerat Fabio, missus ad firmandum præsidio saltum, qui super Tarracinam, in artas coactus fauces, imminet mari, ne, immunito Appiæ limite, Pænus pervenire in agrum Romanum posset. Conjunctis exercitibus dictator ac magister equitum castra in viam deferunt, qua Hannibal ducturus erat. Duo inde millia hostes aberant. Postero die Poni, quod viæ inter bina

16. castra erat, agmine complevere. Quum Romani sub ipso constitissent vallo, haud dubie æquiore loco* successit tamen Pænus cum expeditis equitibus', atque ad lacessendum hostem carptim 6 et procursando recipiendoque sese

? Occupatus-animus.]“Thoughts Rome, he would attempt this route, were engrossed,” &c.

which was facilitated by the Appian 8 Excideruntque.] “ Were for- road, running along the coast down gotten;" literally, dropped from to Sinuessa, and passing between the his mind.” A similar use of our end of Mons Massicus and the sea. σθαίνειν supplies an analogy. Hence the necessity of guarding

9 Alii atque alii.] “ In different that road. “To prevent his making and successive parties."

his way into the Roman territory, ? Quum prius, quam ad conjectum (which he might effect,) if the line

"After turning the enemy, of the Appian road were left unbefore he came within javelin range, guarded.” followed their flight in an unbroken 4 Æquiore loco.) “On more adpursuit of nearly five miles.”

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vantageous ground,” sc. for the Ro2 Prope inviis callibus.]“ Through mans, who had kept possession of almost impenetrable passes.” the heights, and were apparently

3 Super Tarracinam, in artas co- encamped on the southern slope of actus fauces. This pass, (the Lau- the Massic hills. tulæ Angustiæ, now Portello,) lay 5 Pænus cum expeditis equitibus.] farther up, on the road to Rome, in Observe the transition in syntax. Latium, and immediately inside the Ponus taken singly agrees with Promontory of Circeii, now Circello. successit ; with the ablative it forms It was probable, that, if Hannibal plural to pugnavere. had any intention of approaching

6 Carptim.) “At intervals, in

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U. c. 537. pugnavere. Restitit suo loco Romana acies. Lenta pugna? A. U. 217. et ex dictatoris magis, quam Hannibalis, fuit voluntate.

Ducenti ab Romanis, octingenti hostium cecidere.

Inclusus inde videri Hannibal, via ad Casilinum obsessa: quum Capua et Samnium, et tantum ab tergo divitum sociorum Romanis commeatus subveheret; Ponus contra inter Formiana saxa ac Literni arenas' stagnaque perhorrida situ hibernaturus esset?. Nec Hannibalem fefellit, suis se artibus peti. Itaque, quum per Casilinum evadere non posset, petendique montes et jugum Calliculæ superandum esset; necubi Romanus inclusum vallibus agmen aggrederetur, ludibrium oculorum?, specie terribile, ad frustrandum hostem commentus, principio noctis furtim succedere ad montes statuit. Fallacis consilii talis apparatus fuit. Faces undique ex agris collectæ, fascesque virgarum atque arida sarmenta' præligantur cornibus boum, quos domitos indomitosque multos inter ceteram agrestem prædam agebat. Ad duo millia ferme boum effecta : Hasdrubalique negotium datum, ut primis tenebris noctis id armentum accensis

cornibus ad montes ageret; maxime, si posset", super saltus 17. ab hoste insessos. Primis tenebris silentio mota castra;

boves aliquanto ante signa acti. Ubi ad radices montium viasque angustas ventum est, signum extemplo datur, ut accensis cornibus armenta in adversos concitentur montes. Et metus ipse relucentis flammæ ex capite, calorque, jam ad vivum, ad imaque cornuum adveniens, velut stimulatos

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detail;" literally, “by snatches, in 9 Literni arenas, &c.] Liternum fits and starts,” &c.

lay farther down on the coast, toward 7 Lenta pugna.)

« The engage

Cumæ and Baiæ. The marshes ment was slow," (inanimate, cau- were those of Minturnæ at the mouth tious.)

of the Liris (Garigliano); the same 8. Inclusus inde videri Hannibal.) in which Marius afterward con“Now found himself hemmed in;" cealed himself. i. e. he could neither leave his posi- 1 Hibernaturus esset.] Depends tion by the Appian road on the north, on quum. nor through the valley on the east; 3 Ludibrium oculorum.] “ An and some passage over the hills optical illusion.' to his original position at Alifæ, 3 Sarmenta.] The prunings of must be effected either by force trees, especially of vines. or address. In fact, the posi- 4 Maximè, si posset.) “And partion into which Fabius had 'now ticularly, if possible. It is not brought Hannibal was precisely simi- mentioned by Livy, that before comlar to that of the Romans on the mencing this movement, Hannibal plain of the Thrasymene, between put 5000 prisoners to death, to prethe lake and the Gualadra hills. The vent their turning upon their guards, pass of Tarracina secured the Appian and rejoining their countrymen road, Casilinum closed up the rear. against him. The Vulturnus, from Casilinum to 5 In adversos— montes.] “ Up the the sea, stopped the way to the mountain." south; and the colony of Cales on 6 Ad vivum, ad imaque cornuum the east intercepted the outlet from &c.] “ Penetrating to the quick the plain by the Latin road.

and the roots of the horns."

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furore agebat boves. Quo repente discursu, haud secus U.C.537. quam silvis montibusque accensis, omnia circum virgulta A. C. 217. ardere: capitumque irrita quassatio?, excitans flammam, hominum passim discurrentium speciem præbebat. Qui ad transitum saltus insidendum locati erant, ubi in summis montibus ac super se quosdam ignes conspexerunt, circumventos se esse rati, præsidio excessere : quâ minime densæ micabant flammæ, velut tutissimum iter, petentes summa montium juga, tamen in quosdam boves palatos ab suis gregibus inciderunt. Et primo, quum procul cernerent, veluti flammas spirantium miraculo attoniti constiterunt: deinde, ut bumana apparuit fraus", tum vero insidias rati esse, dum majore metu concitant se in fugam, levi quoque armaturæ hostium incurrere. Ceterum nox æquato timoreo neutros pugnam incipientes: ad lucem tenuit. Interea, toto agmine Hannibal transducto per saltum, et quibusdam in ipso saltu hostium oppressis, in agro Allifano posuit castra.

Hunc tumultum sensit Fabius. Ceterum et insidias esse 18. ratus, et ab nocturno utique: abhorrens certamine, suos munimentis tenuit. Luce prima sub jugo montis proelium fuit; quo interclusam ab suis levem armaturam facile (etenim numero aliquantum præstabant) Romani superassent, nisi Hispanorum cohors, ad id ipsum remissa ab Hannibale, prævenisset. Ea assuetior montibus, et ad concursandum inter saxa rupesque aptior ac levior, quum velocitate corporum, tum armorum habitu, campestrem hostem, gravem armis statariumque, pugnæ generes facile elusit. Ita haudquaquam pari certamine digressi, Hispani fere omnes incolumes, Romani, aliquot suis amissis, in castra contenderunt.

Fabius quoque movit castra: transgressusque saltum super Allifas, loco alto ac munito consedit. Tum, per

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? Capitumque irrita quassatio.] Mons Callicula. The country was “ And the ineffectual tossing of open, and he was at liberty either their heads, while it fanned the to move to the north, or to return fire, presented the appearance of to his old quarters in Apulia. men running wildly to and fro." 3 Nocturno utique.]“ By night

8 Ut humana "apparuit fraus.] especially.” " When the artifice of man became 4 Sub jugo montis.] This was at evident."

the western or Campanian side of 9 Nox æquato timore.] “ The the mountains, which Fabius had darkness, by assimilating their not yet left: and to which the

Spanish cohort was “sent back.” 1 Neutros pugnam incipientes.] 5 Pugnæ genere.] “The peculiar Must be resolved, in translation, nature of their assault.” A guerilla into utrosque pugnam incipere no- is elsewhere forcibly described by lentes, or some such paraphrase. Livy, as `hostis levis et velox et

2 In agro Allifano.] He was repentinus, qui nullum usquam now in Samnium again. This terri. tempus, nullum locum quietum aut tory lay at the eastern side of securum esse sineret.'

fears.”

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