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U.C. 537. Samnium Romam 6 se petere simulans, Hannibal usque in
A.C. 217. Pelignos populabundus rediit. Fabius medius inter hos-

tium agmen urbemque Romam jugis ducebat: nec absi-
stens, nec congrediens. Ex Pelignis Pænus flexit iter,
retroque Apuliam repetens, Geronium pervenit, urbem
metu, quia collapsa ruinis pars monium erat, ab suis de-
sertam. Dictator in Larinate agro? castra communiit. Inde
sacrorum causa Romam revocatus, non imperio modo, sed
consilios etiam, ac prope precibus agens cum magistro equi-
tum,'ut plus consilio, quam fortunæ, confidat: et se potius
ducem, quam Sempronium Flaminiumque, imitetur. Ne
' nihil actum censeret', extracta prope æstate per ludifica-
tionem hostis. Medicos quoque plus interdum quiete,
quam movendo atque agendo, proficere. Haud parvam
rem esse, ab toties victore hoste vinci desisse, et ab con-
tinuis cladibus respirasse.' Hæc nequicquam præmonito

magistro equitum, Romam est profectus. 19.

Principio æstatis, qua hæc gerebantur, in Hispania quoque terra marique coeptum bellum est. Hasdrubal ad eum navium numerum, quem a fratre instructum paratumque acceperat, decem adjecit: quadraginta navium classem Himilconi tradidit: atque ita Carthagine profectus navibus prope terram, exercitum in litore ducebat, paratus confligere, quacunque parte copiarum hostis occurrisset. Cn. Scipioni, postquam movisse ex hibernis hostem audivit, primo idem consiliis fuit: deinde, minus terra, propter ingentem famam novorum auxiliorum, concurrere ausus, delecto milite ad naves imposito, quinque et triginta navium classe ire obviam hosti pergit. Altero ab Tarracone dies

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6 Per Samnium Romam &c.] 9 Ne nihil actum censeret &c.] His march to Rome should have " He must not

suppose

that no
been north west from Alifæ: the object had been effected, when
direction of the Peligni was more nearly the whole summer had been
nearly due north. Mediis inter spent in disappointing the enemy.".
hostium agmen urbemque jugis. 1 Quiete, quam movendo &c.]
These hills formed a part of the “More by repose than by excitement
range of the Apennines. Crossing and active remedies."
these, he descended into the Pelig- 2 Carthagine. sc. Carthagena.
nian plain by Sulmo, and taking a 3 Idem consilii.] Of this elegant
large amount of plunder with him, idiom, it must be remarked that it
passed across to his former position is not identical with idem consilium,
at Arpi.

which would signify “ the same
7 Dictator in Larinate agro &c.] policy;" but signifies more correctly,
This was the position from which is the same principle of policy.”
he had watched Hannibal during 4 Milite ad naves.] i. e. milite
his former sojourn in the same classico. What would call
neighbourhood.

“ marines.” Compare the analogous
8 Non imperio modo, sed consilio phrase servos ad remum. (1. xxxiv. 6.)
&c.) “In a tone not of authority 5 Altero ab Tarracone die.) “On
merely, but of advice and almost of the day following his departure from
entreaty."

Tarraco," i. e. " on the second day

we

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ad stationem, decem millia passuum distantem ab ostio Iberi U.C. 537. amnis, pervenit. Inde duæ Massiliensium speculatoriæ 6 A. C. 217. præmissæ retulerunt, classem Punicam stare in ostio fluminis, castraque in ripa posita. Itaque, ut improvidos incautosque universo simul offuso terrore opprimeret, sublatis ancoris ad hostem vadit. Multas et locis altis positas turres? Hispania habet, quibus et speculis et propugnaculis adversus latrones utuntur. Inde: primo, conspectis hostium navibus, datum signum Hasdrubali est; tumultusque prius in terra et castris, quam ad mare et ad naves, est ortus, nondum aut pulsu remorumo strepituque alio nautico exaudito, aut aperientibus classem promontoriis : quum repente eques, alius super alium ab Hasdrubale missus, vagos in litore quietosque in tentoriis suis, nihil minus quam hostem aut prælium eo die exspectantes, conscendere naves propere atque arma capere jubet: classem Romanam jam haud procul portu esse. Hæc equites dimissi passim imperabant. Mox Hasdrubal ipse cum omni exercitu aderat : varioque omnia tumultu strepunt, ruentibus in naves simul remigibus militibusque, fugientium magis e terra, quam in pugnam euntium modo.

Vixdum omnes conscenderant, quum alii, resolutis oris', in ancoras evehuntur: alii, ne quid teneat, ancoralia incidunt: raptimque omnia præpropere agendo, militum apparatu nautica ministeria impediuntur, trepidatione nautarum capere et aptare arma miles prohibetur. Et jam Romanus non appropinquabat modo, sed direxerat etiam in pugnam naves. Itaque non ab hoste et proelio magis Poni, quam suomet ipsi tumultu turbati, tentata verius pugna, quam inita, in fugam averterunt clas

Et quum adversi amnis os lato agmine ac tam multis

sem.

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(day's journey) from T. devtepaîos among the Romans by the name
èk Tappdkwvos. (Polyb. iii. 95.) « ad Turres.
6 Dua-speculatorie.] (sc. naves.)

8 Inde.] “ From (or, by means
? Multas et locis altis-turres &c.] of) these (towers).”
In many other ancient countries, ŷ Nondum aut pulsu remorum
castles of this description, from each &c.] “ Before the dip of an oar or
of which two others were always any other sound from the fleet was
visible, formed chains of communi. heard, or the headlands disclosed
cation, along which intelligence the ships.”
could be communicated, by day or

1 Resolutis oris. ] “ Shipping night, almost with the speed of their halsers."

Ore

the electricity. Their use is beauti- ropes attached to land. When these fully illustrated by the description, were detached, evehuntur in ancoras, in the Agamemnon of Æschylus, “they swung un their anchors.” of the news of the capture of Troy The cables hy which these were flashing its way round the shores held, were called ancoralia. of the Hellespont. The sites of 2 Adversi amnis os. ]

" The those Spanish castles, now gene- channel of the descending river” rally in ruins, were designated i. e. flowing down against them.

were

6

U. C. 537. simul venientibus haud sane intrabile esset, in litus passim A.C. 217. naves egerunt: atque alii vadis, alii sicco litore excepti,

partim armati, partim inermes, ad instructam per litus 20.

aciem suorum perfugere. Duæ tamen primo concursu captæ erant Punicæ naves, quattuor suppressæ. Romani, quanquam terra hostium erat, armatamque aciem toto prætentam in litore cernebant, haud cunctanter insecuti trepidam hostium classem, naves omnes, quæ non aut perfregerant“ proras litore illisas, aut carinas fixerant vadis, religatas puppibus in altum extraxere: ad quinque et viginti naves ex quadraginta cepere.

Neque id pulcherrimum ejus victoriæ fuit, sed quod una levi pugna toto ejus oræ mari potiti erant. Itaque ad Honoscam classe provecti, exscensione ab navibus in terram facta, quum urbem vi cepissent, captamque diripuissent, Carthaginem inde petunt: atque, omnem agrum circa depopulati, postremo tecta quoque conjuncta muro portisque incenderunt. Inde jam præda gravis ad Longunticam pervenit classis : ubi vis magna sparti ad rem nauticam congesta ab Hasdrubale. Quod satis in usum fuit, sublato, ceterum omne incensum est. Nec continentis modo projectas oras prætervecta, sed in Ebusum insulam transmissum. Ubi urbe, quæ caput insulæ est, biduum nequicquam summo labore oppugnata, ubi in spem irritam frustra teri tempus animadversum est, ad populationem agri versi, direptis aliquot incensisque vicis, majore, quam ex continenti, præda parta, quum in naves se recepissent, ex Baliaribus insulis legati pacem petentes ad Scipionem venerunt. Inde flexa retro classis, reditumque in citeriora provinciæ; quo omnium populorum, qui cis Iberum incolunt, multorum et ultimæ Hispaniæ legati concurrerunt. Sed qui vere ditionis imperiique Romani facti sunt, obsidibus datis, populi, amplius fuerunt centum viginti. Igitur terrestribus quoque copiis satis fidens Romanus usque ad

3

Toto prætentam in litore.] made themselves masters of the sea Lining the whole shore.

all along that coast;" and accord4 Quæ non aut perfregerant &c.] ingly cruised back again toward Perizonius and Crevier would re- Carthagena. The scene of these move the negative, and thereby operations was the sea coast along destroy the obvious meaning of the those provinces now called Murcia, sentence. The only galleys that Valencia, and Catalonia. the Romans could possibly have 7 Ebusum insulam.] sc. Iviza, one ་ “ towed out to sea,” were, of course, of the Pityusæ. those which the Carthaginians had 8 Ad populationem agri.] The not staved nor stranded.

island is about a hundred miles in 5 Pulcherrimum ejus victoriæ.] circumference.

Its principal pro“ The most glorious feature (lit. duce consisted of figs and flocks, the beauty') of that victory.” (Pliny, iii. 5.) 6 Toto ejus oræ &c.]

“ Had

saltum Castulonensem' est progressus. Hasdrubal in Lusi- U.C. 537. taniam ac propius Oceanum concessit.

A.C. 217. Quietum inde fore videbatur reliquum æstatis tempus, 21. fuissetque per Pænum hostem?; sed, præterquam quod ipsorum Hispanorum inquieta avidaque in novas res sunt ingenia, Mandonius Indibilisque', qui antea Ilergetum regulus fuerat, postquam Romani ab saltu recessere ad maritimam oram, concitis popularibus, in agrum pacatum sociorum Romanorum* ad populandum venerunt. Adversus eos tribunus militum cum expeditis auxiliis, a Scipione missi, levi certamine, ut tumultuariam manum, fudere omnes; occisis quibusdam captisque, magna pars armis exuta. Hic tamen tumultus cedentem ad Oceanum Hasdrubalem cis Iberum ad socios tutandos retraxit. Castra Punica in agro Ilercaonensium, castra Romana ad Novam Classem erant, quum fama repens alio avertit bellum. Celtiberi, qui principes regionis suæ legatos miserant, obsidesque dederant Romanis, nuntio misso a Scipione exciti, arma capiunt, provinciamque Carthaginiensium valido

9 Saltum Castulonensem.), “The coast,the central point being the mines forest of Castulo,” situated between in the neighbourhood of Carthagena, Corduba and Carthagena, now called at the Mons Argentarius, now the Cazlona or Cathlona. It stood on Sierra Segura, from which their the Bætis, now known as the Guadal government extracted something quivir, i. e. guadi-al-kiber, (“the near £900 a day. According to great river,") the Arabic name given Mariana (1. i. c. 4.) it was a fire on by the Moors. It was the birth- the mountains, that by melting the place of Imilce, one of the wives of veins of those mines, first discovered Hannibal, and called by the Greeks their existence. At a later period, Parnassia or Castalia, under the (U. C. 252.) an earthquake again impression that its founders were revealed the metallic riches of the Phocians.

country, and again invited the visits | Propius Oceanum.] The Bay of foreigners. Strabo says (1.3.) that, of Biscay was at this time called in the time of Hamilicar Barca, the Oceanus Cantabricus; and it may Spaniards were so wealthy, that possibly be that part of the Atlantic their mangers and water-troughs to which the historian alludes. were made of silver. Mines of that

2 Per Pænum hostem.] “As metal are known at present in Guafar as the Carthaginian enemy was

dalcanal on the Sierra Morena. concerned.”

The tenure of the Carthaginians, 3 Mandonius and Indibilis were however, was as precarious and brothers. Antea, i. e. before they unquiet, as that of a more civilized were reduced to submission by in the territory of a more barbarous Cn. Scipio. (1. xxi. 61.)

nation must ever be, until the natives Agrum pacatum sociorum Rom.] are assimilated or exterminated. The friendly territory (i.e. Ilergetes) The relation of the more refined and of the allies of the Romans. The powerful nations of antiquity to the Latin idiom requires that sociorum natives of the countries which they shall govern and not agree with colonized, may be illustrated in its Romanorum.

most prominent features by that of s Provinciamque Carthaginien- the English of the present day to sium.] The Carthaginian possessions the Caffres and the aboriginal tribes lay principally along the southern of Northern Asiatic India.

4

R

22.

U. C. 537. exercitu invadunt: tria oppida vi expugnant. Inde, cum A.C. 217. ipso Hasdrubale duobus præliis egregie pugnantes, quin

decim millia hostium occiderunt, quattuor millia cum multis militaribus signis capiunt.

Hoc statu rerum in Hispania, P. Scipio in provinciam venit, prorogato post consulatum imperio ab senatu missus, cum viginti longis navibus, et octo millibus militum, magnoque commeatu advecto. Ea classis ingens agmine onerariarum procul visa?, cum magna lætitia civium sociorumque, portum Tarraconis ex alto tenuit. Ibi milite exposito, profectus Scipio fratri se conjungit: ac deinde communi animo consilioque gerebant bellum. Occupatis igitur Carthaginiensibus Celtiberico bello, haud cunctanter Iberum transgrediuntur; nec ullo viso hoste, Saguntum pergunt ire, quod ibi obsides totius Hispaniæ custodiæ traditos ab Hannibale fama erat modico in arce custodiri præsidio. Id unum pignus inclinatos ad Romanam societatem omnium Hispaniæ populorum animos morabatur, ne sanguine liberûm suorum culpa defectionis lueretur. Eo vinculo. Hispaniam vir unus, sollerti magis quam fideli consilio, exsolvit. Ābelux erat Sagunti nobilis Hispanus, fidus ante Penis: tum (qualia plerumque sunt barbarorum ingenia) cum fortuna mutaverat fidem. Ceterum, transfugam, sine magnæ rei proditione venientem ad hostes, nihil aliud quam unum vile atque infamel corpus esse ratus, id agebat, ut quam maximum emolumentum novis sociis esset. Circumspectis igitur omnibus, quæ fortuna potestatis ejus? poterat facere, obsidi

ac

sc.

6 Militaribus signis.] The na- sideration alone.” tional emblems of Carthage, which 9 Eo vinculo &c.] “From that were most probably represented on restriction one individual released their standards, were the lion and Spain by an expedient rather inthe palm-tree. Those figures ap- genious than honourable." The pear on the silver shield found at emphasis of the original (see Rule 18, Passage in Dauphine which is re- Introduction) would be more garded as one of the records of his curately conveyed by a paraphrase; journey through the Alps; and it “ From that restriction Spain was, possibly, with an allusion to was released by the ingenious, rather such an emblem, that Hamilcar than honourable, expedient of one used to say of his sons, that they man.' were the young lions whom he was i Vile atque infame.]

« Worthrearing for the destruction of Rome. less and degraded individual.”

Ingens agmine onerariarum pro- 2 Quæ fortuna potestatis ejus, &c.] cul visa.] This may signify, either, “ Which circumstances could place “ increased by a squadron of store- in his power," is the translation ships,” &c.; or, " presenting in the suggested by the obvious meaning distance the appearance of numbers of the phrase potestatis facere. An(seeming large at a distance) from other interpretation, more ingenious the squadron of,” &c. The latter but not so true to the original, has interpretation is more in accordance been proposed; sc. “ which the cirwith the idiom of the original. cumstances of his means, or oppor8 Id unum pignus.]

* That con

tunities, (fortuna potestatis ejus,)

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