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21.

saltum Castulonensemo est progressus. Hasdrubal in Lusi- U.C. 537. taniam ac propius Oceanum' concessit.

A.C. 217. Quietum inde fore videbatur reliquum æstatis tempus, fuissetque per Poenum hostem'; sed, præterquam quod ipsorum Hispanorum inquieta avidaque in novas res sunt ingenia, Mandonius Indibilisque, qui antea Ilergetum regulus fuerat, postquam Romani ab saltu recessere ad maritimam oram, concitis popularibus, in agrum pacatum sociorum Romanorum ad populandum venerunt. Adversus eos tribunus militum cum expeditis auxiliis, a Scipione missi, levi certamine, ut tumultuariam manum, fudere omnes; occisis quibusdam captisque, magna pars armis exuta. Hic tamen tumultus cedentem ad Oceanum Hasdrubalem cis Iberum ad socios tutandos retraxit. Castra Punica in agro Ilercaonensium, castra Romana ad Novam Classem erant, quum fama repens alio avertit bellum. Celtiberi, qui principes regionis suæ legatos miserant, obsidesque dederant Romanis, nuntio misso a Scipione exciti, arma capiunt, provinciamque Carthaginiensium valido

9 Saltum Castulonensem.) “ The coast, the central point being the mines forest of Castulo," situated between in the neighbourhood of Carthagena, Corduba and Carthagena, now called at the Mons Argentarius, now the Cazlona or Cathlona. It stood on Sierra Segura, from which their the Bætis, now known as the Guadal- government extracted something quivir, i. e. guadi-al-kiber, (“ the near £900 a day. According to great river,”') the Arabic name given Mariana (1. i. c. 4.) it was a fire on by the Moors. It was the birth- the mountains, that by melting the place of Innilce, one of the wives of veins of those mines, first discovered Hannibal, aud called by the Greeks their existence. At a later period, Parnassia or Castalia, under the (U. C. 252.) an earthquake again impression that its founders were revealed the metallic riches of the Phocians.

country, and again invited the visits Propius Oceanum.] The Bay of foreigners. Strabo says (1.3.) that, of Biscay was at this time called in the time of Hamilicár Barca, the Oceanus Cantabricus; and it may Spaniards were so wealthy, that possibly be that part of the Atlantic their mangers and water-troughs to which the historian alludes. were made of silver. Mines of that

? Per Poenum hostem.] “ As metal are known at present in Guafar as the Carthaginian enemy was

dalcanal on the Sierra Morena. concerned."

The tenure of the Carthaginians, 3 Mandonius and Indibilis were however, was as precarious and brothers. Antea, i. e. before they unquiet, as that of a more civilized were reduced to submission by in the territory of a more barbarous Cn. Scipio. (1. xxi. 61.).

nation must ever be, until the natives Agrum pacatuni sociorum Rom.] are assimilated or exterminated. The friendly territory (i. e. Ilergetes) The relation of the more refined and of the allies of the Romans. The powerful nations of antiquity to the Latin idiom requires that sociorum natives of the countries which they shall govern and not agree with colonized, may be illustrated in its Romanorum.

most prominent features by that of 5 Provinciamque Carthaginien- the English of the present day to sium.] The Carthaginian possessions the Caffres and the aboriginal tribes lay principally along the southern of Northern Asiatic India.

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U. C. 537. exercitu invadunt: tria oppida vi expugnant. Inde, cum A.C. 217.

ipso Hasdrubale duobus proeliis egregie pugnantes, quindecim millia hostium occiderunt, quattuor millia cum multis militaribus signis capiunt.

Hoc statu rerum in Hispania, P. Scipio in provinciam venit, prorogato post consulatum imperio ab senatu missus, cum viginti longis navibus, et octo millibus militum, magnoque commeatu advecto. Ea classis ingens agmine onerariarum procul visa?, cum magna lætitia civium sociorumque, portum Tarraconis ex alto tenuit. Ibi milite exposito, profectus Scipio fratri se conjungit: ac deinde communi animo consilioque gerebant bellum. Occupatis igitur Carthaginiensibus Celtiberico bello, haud cunctanter Iberum transgrediuntur; nec ullo viso hoste, Saguntum pergunt ire, quod ibi obsides totius Hispaniæ custodiæ traditos ab Hannibale fama erat modico in arce custodiri præsidio. Id unum pignus inclinatos ad Romanam societatem omnium Hispaniæ populorum animos morabatur, ne sanguine liberûm suorum culpa defectionis lueretur. Eo vinculo Hispaniam vir unus, sollerti magis quam fideli consilio, exsolvit. Ābelux erat Sagunti nobilis Hispanus, fidus ante Poenis: tum (qualia plerumque sunt barbarorum ingenia) cum fortuna mutaverat fidem. Ceterum, transfugam, sine magnæ rei proditione venientem ad hostes, nihil aliud quam unum vile atque infame' corpus esse ratus, id agebat, ut quam maximum emolumentum novis sociis esset. Circumspectis igitur omnibus, quæ fortuna potestatis ejus? poterat facere, obsidi

ac

6 Militaribus signis.] The na

sideration alone." tional emblems of Carthage, which 9 Eo vinculo &c.] “ From that were most probably represented on restriction one individual released their standards, were the lion and Spain by an expedient rather inthe palm-tree. Those figures ap- genious than honourable.” The pear on the silver shield found at emphasis of the original (see Rule 18, Passage in Dauphinè which is re- Introduction) would be more garded as one of the records of his curately conveyed by a paraphrase; journey through the Alps; and it sc. “ From that restriction Spain was, possibly, with an allusion to was released by the ingenious, rather such an emblem, that Hamilcar than honourable, expedient of one used to say of his sons, that they man.” were the young lions whom he was i Vile atque infame.]

« Worthrearing for the destruction of Rome. less and degraded individual."

7 Ingens agmine onerariarum pro- 2 Quæ fortuna potestatis ejus, &c.] cul visa.] This may signify, either, " Which circumstances could place “ increased by a squadron of store in his power," is the translation ships,” &c.; or, “presenting in the suggested by the obvious meaning distance the appearance of numbers of the phrase potestatis facere. An(seeming large at a distance) from other interpretation, more ingenious the squadron of,” &c. The latter but not so true to the original, has interpretation is more in accordance been proposed; sc. “ which the cirwith the idiom of the original. cumstances of his means, or oppor

8 Id unum pignus.] That con- tunities, (fortuna potestatis ejus,)

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bus potissimum tradendis animum adjecit: eam unum rem V. C.537. maxime ratus conciliaturam Romanis principum Hispaniæ

A.C. 217. amicitiam. Sed quum, injussu Bostaris præfecti, satis sciret, nihil obsidum custodes facturos esse, Bostarem ipsum arte aggreditur. Castra extra urbem in ipso litore habebat Bostar, ut aditum ea parte intercluderet Romanis. Ibi eum in secretum abductum, velut ignorantem, monet, quo statu

• Metum continuisse* ad eam diem Hispanorum animos, quia procul Romani abessent: nunc cis Iberum

castra Romana esse, arcem tutam profugiumque novas volentibus res. Itaque, quos metus non teneat, beneficio 'et gratia devinciendos esse.' Miranti Bostari percunctantique, quodnam id subitum tantæ rei donum possit esse? Obsides, inquit, in civitates remitte. Id et privatim parentibus, quorum maximum nomen in civitatibus est suis, et publice populis gratum erit. Vult sibi quisque 'credi, et habita fides ipsam plerumque obligat fidem. • Ministerium restituendorum domos obsidum mihimet deposco ipse, ut opera quoque impensa? consilium adjuvem ' meum, et rei suapte natura gratæ, quantam insuper gratiam possim, adjiciam. Homini, non ad cetera Punica ingenias callido, ut persuasit, nocte clam progressus ad hostium stationes, conventis quibusdam auxiliaribus Hispanis, et ab iis ad Scipionem perductus, quid afferret, expromit. Fide accepta dataque, ac loco et tempore constituto ad obsides trahendos, Saguntum redit; diem insequentem absumpsit cum Bostare, mandatis ad rem agendam accipiendis. Dimissus, quum se nocte iturum, ut custodias hostium falleret, constituisset, ad compositam cum iis horam excitatis custodibus puerorum profectus, veluti ignarus in præparatas sua fraude insidias ducit. In castra Romana perducti: cetera omnia de reddendis obsidibus, sicut cum Bostare constitutum erat, acta per eundem ordinem, quo sio Carthamight be able to effect:" but the duces contempt. Latin, unfortunately, cannot bear 7 Operdimpensá.]

By my this meaning,

personal services,” lit. “ by trouble 3 Ea parte. ) i. e. e regione portús. or time bestowed.” « On the side of the harbour."

8 Ad cætera Punica ingenia.] 4 Metum continuisse.) “It was “ In comparison with other Carthafear that had restrained,” &c. ginian minds."

5 Id subitum tantæ rei donum.] 9 Acta per eundem ordinem, quo “That so unexpected and important (acta forent) si &c.] « In the favour.” Bostar asks for an ex- same routine as if the act was done planation of the words beneficio et in the name of,” &c. A different gratid.

reading per eundem (sc. Abelucem) 6 Habita fidesobligat fidem.] This ordine gives the sense, “every thing maxim belongs to a far higher tone was done by the same agent, in the of sentiment than prevailed among

same manner as if,” &c. in either either the Spaniards or Cartha- case, the meaning is, that the Roginians of that day. Where the man general took no advantage of moral sense is imperfectly developed, his power over the hostages, and confidence reposed generally pro- restored them to their friends, as it

U. C. 537. giniensium nomine sic ageretur. Major aliquanto RomaA. C. 217. norum gratia fuit in re pari, quam quanta futura Cartha

giniensium fuerat. Illos enim', graves superbosque in rebus secundis expertos, fortuna et timor mitigasse videri poterat. Romanus primo adventu, incognitus ante, ab re clementi liberalique initium fecerat: et Abelux, vir prudens, haud frustra videbatur socios mutasse. Itaque ingenti consensu defectionem omnes spectare: armaque extemplo mota forent, ni hiems, quæ Romanos quoque et Carthaginienses

concedere in tecta coegit, intervenisset. 23. Hæc in Hispania quoque secunda æstate Punici belli

gesta, quum' in Italia paullum intervalli cladibus Romanis sollers cunctatio Fabii fecisset: quæ ut: Hannibalem non mediocri sollicitum cura habebat, tandem eum militiæ magistrum delegisse Romanos cernentem, qui bellum ratione, non fortuna“, gereret; ita contempta erat inter cives, armatos pariter togatosque; utique postquam, absente eo, temeritate magistri equitum, læto verius dixerim, quam prospero eventu, pugnatum fuerat. Accesserant duæ res ad augendam invidiam dictatoris: una fraude ac dolo Hannibalis, quod, quum a perfugis ei monstratus ager

dictatoris esset, omnibus circa solo æquatis, ab uno eo ferrum ignemque et vim omnem hostium abstineri jussit, ut occulti alicujus pacti ea merces videri posset: altera ipsius facto, primo forsitan dubio, quia non exspectata in eo senatus auctoritas est; ad extremum haud ambigue in maximam laudem verso, in permutandis captivis: quod, sicut primo Punico bello factum erat, convenerat inter duces Romanum Pænumque, ut, quæ pars plus reciperet, quam daret, argenti pondo bina et selibras? in militem præstaret. Ducentos quadraginta septem quum plures Romanus, quam Ponus, recepisset, argentumque pro iis debitum, sæpe jactata in senatu re, quoniam non consuluisset Patres, tardius erogaretur: inviolatum ab hoste agrum, misso Romam Quinto filio, vendidit, fidemque publicam impendio privato exsolvit8. appeared to them that the Cartha- &c.: i. e. these successes in Spain ginians intended to do.

were realized during the temporary Illos enim, &c.] “Because the respite gained in Italy by Fabius. latter(sc. the Carthaginians), though

3 Utita.)

Although-yet.” oppressive and tyrannical 'in their 4 Ratione fortunâ. ] prosperity, adversity and fear might ciple—on chance." be supposed to have softened; while 5 Læto verius quam prospero.! the Roman, on his first arrival and “Rather flattering than beneficial.' unknown in any previous transaction, 6 Altera ipsius facto, primò forsitan had be with a merciful and dubio.] “ The second by an

act of generous act: so that Abelux, who his own, at first view perhaps dewas a man of judgment, appeared batable: as, &c.” to have changed his allies not 7 Pondo bina et selibras.) “Two without reason.'

pounds and a half.” 2 In Hispania quoque-quum.] 8 Fidemque publicam-exsolvit. ) “In Spain also, at the time when,” Redeemed the national credit."

On prina parenthesis, or, ex ordine. In Cerbalus (Cervalo). It may be the former case it would be stated interesting to observe here, that the that Hannibal had sent out one third course taken by Hannibal through of his army instead of the usual two Italy very nearly coincided with thirds; as (quum) the enemy was that followed by Totila in defiance In the latter, it would be of the Lieutenants of Justinian, represented as incredible that he (Belisarius and Narses). In other should have sent away even so much; respects, however, the differences but to convey this meaning more were remarkable. The second Pu- emphatically, it would probably be nic war was unmarked by any such better to extend the parenthesis from circumstances of degradation as dis- quod to esset.

Hannibal pro Geronii mõnibus, cujus urbis, captæ at- U.C. 637. que incensæ ab se, in usum horreorum pauca reliquerat A. C. 217. tecta, in stativis erat. Inde frumentatum duas exercitus partes mittebat: cum tertia ipse expedita in statione erat, simul castris præsidio, et circumspectans', necunde impetus in frumentatores fieret. Romanus tunc exercitus in agro 24. Larinati erat. Præerat Minucius magister equitum, profecto, sicut ante dictum est, ad urbem dictatore. Ceterum castra, quæ in monte alto ac tuto loco' posita fuerant, jam in planum deferuntur: agitabanturque pro ingenio ducis consilia calidiora, ut impetus aut in frumentatores palatos, aut in castra, relicta cum levi præsidio, fieret. Nec Hannibalem fefellit, cum duce mutatam esse belli rationem, et ferocius, quam consultius?, rem hostes gesturos. Ipse autem, (quod minime quis crederet*) quum hostis propius esset, tertiam partem militum frumentatum, duabus in castris retentis, dimisit: dein castra ipsa propius hostem movit, duo ferme a Geronio millia, in tumulum hosti conspectum; ut intentum sciret esse ad frumentatores, si qua vis fieret, tutandos. Propior inde ei, atque ipsis imminens Romanorum castris tumulus apparuit: ad quem capiendum si

9 Castris præsidio, et circumspec- tinguished the Gothic invasion ; tans.] The transition in the syntax, when the Roman commander of the so effective in the original, cannot garrison of Naples was brought to be imitated in English: we must the ramparts with a halter round his say, “ both as a protection to the neck, and advised the citizens to camp and as a precaution."

throw themselves on the mercy of i In monte alto ac tuto loco.] This the invaders. Another difference position must have been on some may be observed in the fact, that slope of Mount Garganus (St. An- Totila was a man whose slightest gelo.) In the immediate neighbour- promise no friend or enemy ever hood were the several places in had cause to doubt. which Hannibal encamped at dif- 2 Ferocius, quam consultius.] ferent periods of the war. Teanum “ With more confidence than prulay at the foot of the hill. Geronium dence.” When the excess of one (or Gerion) was still nearer; and quality over another is indicated. Arpi (Foggia), to which he returned The Latin classics write both the repeatedly, and which was subse- adjectives or adverbs in the comquently occupied by Totila the Goth, parative. after the capture of Rome, stood a Quod minimè quis crederet.] little more to the south. All these These words may be taken either as were on the banks of the river

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