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jussu consulum conventuros, neque injussu abituros. Nam U. C. 538. ad eam diem nihil præter sacramentum fuerat; et, ubi ad A. C. 216. decuriatum aut centuriatum convenissent, sua voluntate ipsi inter se equites decuriati, centuriati pedites conjurabant, sese fugæ atque formidinis ergo non abituros, neque ex ordine recessuros, nisi teli sumendi, aut petendi, et aut hostis feriendi, aut civis servandi causa. Id ex voluntario inter ipsos foedere a tribunis ad legitimam jurisjurandi adactionem translatum.

Conciones, priusquam ab urbe signa moverentur, consulis Varronis multæ ac feroces fuere, denuntiantes, bellum

arcessitum in Italiam ab nobilibus, mansurumque in visceribus reipublicæ, si plures Fabios imperatores ha'beret; se, quo die hostem vidisset, perfecturum.' Collegæ ejus Paulli una, pridie quam ex urbe proficiscerentur, concio fuit verior, quam gratior populo, qua nihil inclementer in Varronem dictum, nisi id modo : ‘Mirari se, quomodo

quis dux, priusquain aut suum, aut hostium exercitum, locorum situm, naturam regionis nosset, jam nunc togatus ‘in urbe sciret, quæ sibi agenda armato forent; et diem quoque prædicere posset, qua cum hoste signis collatis esset dimicaturus. Se, quæ consilia magis res dent ho‘minibus', quam homines rebus, ea ante tempus immatura non præcepturum. Optare, ut, quæ caute atque consulte gesta essent, satis prospere evenirent. Temeritatem”, præterquam quod stulta sit, infelicem etiam ad id locorum ' fuisse.' Id sua sponte: apparebat, tuta celeribus consiliis præpositurum: et, quo id constantius perseveraret“, Q. Fabius Maximus sic eum proficiscentem allocutus fertur:

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transposing the clauses respectively Latin, would be an improvement, so beginning with jussu and nam, far as it would imply more empha(sc. “ for until then there had nevertically, that, with his own promises, been more than the military oath; there was mingled a tone of censure. that they would muster at the con- 9 Togatus in urbe.] This reading sul's order,”. &c.) and thus placing is that which Muretus proposes to the words tribunes and consulum in substitute for locatus: it evidently con. antithesis.

veys more meaning per se, and forms ? Et, ubi ad decuriatum, &c.— an effective antithesis to armato. conjurabant.] i.e. They used there- 1 Quæ consilia magis res dent tofore to bind themselves to the hominibus, &c.]

6. The measures consuls by the general obligation of which circumstances impose on men, the sacramentum. And " when rather than,” &c. i. e. which are they had assembled, to the number more frequently controlled (or shaped or complement of a decuria, or, by) than they control circumstances. century,” to the subordinate officers 2 Temeritatem, &c.] “ Precipiand each other by a more special tation (hardihood), in addition to its and private oath, which was in this being irrational, had been up to that instance (first) administered by the time unsuccessful.” tribunes.

3 Id sua sponte, &c.] 8 Denuntiantes.] sc. conciones. self-evident." The genitive denunciantis, inde- * Id-perseveraret.] Ellipsis of pendently of its being more idiomatic facere.

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U.C. 538. .Si aut collegam, id quod mallem, tui similem, L. Æmili, A.C. 216. " haberes, aut tu collegæ tui similis esses, supervacanea

esset oratio mea. Nam et duo boni consules, etiam me 'indicente“, omnia e republica fide vestra faceretis : et mali

nec mea verba auribus vestris, nec consilia animis acci'peretis. Nunc et collegam tuum et te talem virum in• tuenti mihi tecum omnis oratio est: quem video nequicquam et virum bonum et civem fore.

Si altera parte claudicet? respublica, malis consiliis idem ac bonis juris et potestatis erit.

Erras enim, L. Paulle, si tibi minus cer'taminis cum C. Terentio, quam cum Hannibale, futurum 'censes. Nescio, an infestior hic adversarius, quam ille hostis, maneat. Cum illo in acie tantum, cum hoc om

nibus locis ac temporibus certaturus es : et adversus Hannibalem legionesque ejus tuis equitibus ac peditibus

pugnandum tibi est: Varro dux tuis militibus te est oppugnaturus. Ominis etiam tibi causa absit C. Flaminii memoria. Tamen ille consul demum, et in provincia, et . ad exercitum, cæpit furere : hic, priusquam peteret consulatum, deinde in petendo consulatu; nunc quoque consul, ' priusquam castra videat aut hostem, insanit. Et, qui

tantas jam nunc procellas, proelia atque acies jactando, ' inter togatos ciet, quid inter armatam juventutem censes ' facturum, et ubi extemplo verba res sequitur ? Atqui si

hic, quod facturum se denuntiat, extemplo pugnaverit; aut ego rem militarem, belli hoc genus, hostem hunc 'ignoro, aut nobilior alius Trasimeno locus nostris cladibus erit. Nec gloriandi tempus adversus unumo est, et ego, contemnendo potius, quam appetendo gloriam, modum excesserim ; sed ita res habet: una ratio belli gerendi adversus Hannibalem est, qua ego gessi. Nec eventus modo 'hoc docet, (stultorum iste magister est) sed eadem ratio,

quæ fuit, futuraque, donec res eædem manebunt, immutabilis est'. In Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo

5 Me indicente.] “ Even though (half disa bled).”
I were silent."
This is an unusual 8 Consul demum.]

• Only when form of negative: but not altogether (not until) he became consul.” exceptional. Compare, (Terence, 9 Adversus unum.]

“ To (in Ad. 3, 4, 62.) non me indicente hæc presence of) an individual;” “ to a fient : (and l. v. 15. above) ut indicta single hearer:" ut ego, (according to sint, revocare.

some editions,)“ how I, &c.” The 6. E republicà fide vestrd.) “You text above, et ego, is better, as supwould do all for the republic through plying a second abnegation of peryour own loyalty.” If que be added sonal vanity. to fide, as some editions have it, we | Immutabilis est.] These words must translate, every thing con- should apparently be removed from sistent with the public good and the text, as having been criginally a your own sense of honour."

marginal note explaining (as usual, ? Si alterá parte claudicet.) “If superfluously,) fuit futuraque est. the state be disabled on one side

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'nostro. Omnia circa plena civium ac sociorum sunt. U.C. 638. • Armis, viris, equis, commeatibus juvant, juvabuntque.

A.C. 216. 'Id jam fidei documentum in adversis rebus nostris dede'runt. Meliores, prudentiores, constantiores nos tempus diesque facit. Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili est terra?, inter omnia inimica infestaque, procul ab domo, procul ab patria. Neque illi terra, neque mari est pax : nullæ eum urbes accipiunt, nulla mænia: nihil usquam 'sui videt: in diem rapto vivit. Partem vix tertiam exer'citus ejus habet, quem Iberum amnem trajecit: plures

fames, quam ferrum, absumpsit: nec his paucis jam victus 6 suppeditat. Dubitas ergo, quin sedendo superaturi simus eum, qui senescat in dies ? non commeatus, non supplementum, non pecuniam habeat? Quam diu pro Geronii, 'castelli Apuliæ inopis, tanquam pro Carthaginis moni.bus? Sed ne adversus te quidem ego gloriabor. Cn. *Servilius atque Atilius, proximi consules, vide quemad'modum eum ludificati sint. Hæc una salutis est via, L. • Paulle, quam difficilem infestamque cives tibi magis, quam hostes, facient. Idem enim tui, quod hostium milites, volent: idem Varro, consul Romanus, quod Hannibal, • Ponus imperator, cupiet. Duobus ducibus unus resistas,

oportet: resistes autem, adversus famam rumoresque ho*minum si satis firmus steteris: si te neque collegæ vana ' gloria, neque tua falsa infamia6 moverit. Veritatem laborare? nimis sæpe, aiunt, exstingui nunquam. Gloriam

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? In aliend, in hostili est terrd.] subjects of Carthage, in short, stood The principle here illustrated by in the same relation to the metroFabius is that which probably sug- polis, as the native and half-caste gested to some writer the compa- Indians now do to the British rison of the progress of an invading government in the East. army to that of a fire on a prairie, 3 In diem rapto vivit.] consuming, as it advances, the mate- subsists on the plunder of the hour.” rial of its own life. An invader 4 Pro Carthaginis manibus.] sc. must either exterminate or assi. senescit. The sed beginning the milate. The former was the system next sentence has suggested the adopted by Tamerlane (Timur Lenk) probability that sedet may have and others of his time and creed; originally followed moenibus : and the latter by the most successful that the similarity of sound in the invaders recorded in all history, Cyrus two words may have caused the the first, and Alexander of Mace- omission of the former. don. The Carthaginians had never 5 Diffcilem infestamque.] “ Dif. done either: even in Africa, the ficult and dangerous.” For sibi one native tribes, so long their subjects, text substitutes tibi with advantage. were regarded by them as trea- 6 Vana gloria-falsa infamia.] cherous slaves rather than fellow- “ The empty pride,"

“ unmerited citizens; and even the fidelity of obloquy.' the half-caste population (the Liby- 7 Veritatem laborare.] Crevier phænices) was so questionable, that regards this as a metaphor from the they were considered dangerous at eclipses of celestial bodies : and this home and useful only abroad. The theory is supported by the antithesis

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U.C. 538. qui spreverit, veram habebit. Sine, timidum pro cautos, A.C. 216. tardum pro considerato, imbellem pro perito belli vocent.

Malo te sapiens hostis metuat, quam stulti cives laudent. • Omnia audentem contemnet Hannibal ; nil temere agentem metuet. Nec ego, ut nihil agatur, moneo; sed ut agentem te ratio ducat, non fortuna: tuæ potestatis semper, tuaque omnia sint'. Armatus intentusque sis, ' neque occasioni tuæ desis, neque suam' occasionem hosti

des. Omnia non properanti clara certaque erunt: fes40.

tinatio improvida est et cæca. Adversus ea oratio consulis haud sane læta? fuit, magis fatentis, ea, quæ diceret, vera, quam facilia factu, esse. Dictatori magistrum equitum intolerabilem fuisse ; quid consuli adversus collegam seditiosum ac temerarium virium atque auctoritatis fore? Se populare incendium priore consulatu semiustum 'effugisse. "Optare, ut omnia prospere evenirent. At, si ' quid adversi caderet, hostium se telis potius, quam suffra'giis iratorum civium, caput objecturum.'

Ab hoc sermone profectum Paullum tradunt, prosequentibus primoribus Patrum. Plebeium consulem sua plebes prosecuta, turba, quam dignitate, conspectior. Ut in castra venerunt', permixto novo exercitu ac vetere, castris bifariam factis, ut nova minora essent propius Hannibalem, in vete

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of extingui. Such an interpretation was nearly certain that the patience would throw light on the phrase of their allies in the provincial towns luna labores: (Virgil

, Geor. ii. 478.) would not be proof against the de8 Sine, timidum pro cauto, &c.] vastation of their plains during “ Let them call you pusillanimous another season. Under these cirinstead of circumspect, slow instead cumstances, it was resolved by the of deliberate, a bungler instead of a senate to give battle, at the same soldier."

time that they recommended a delay 9 Tuæ potestatis semper, tuaque until the new consuls should join omnia sint.] “So that every move- them with the new levies. These ment be under your own control, and together with the veterans amounted originating with yourself.”

to about 90,000 men (eight legions): i Occasioni tuæ-suam.] “ Fa- and it was expected that, with so vourable to you— favourable to him.' overwhelming à force, a decisive

2 Haud sanè læta.] “Not very victory was almost inevitable. It sanguine.”

seems, then, that Varro was not 3 Ut in castra venerunt.] It altogether to be blamed for preciwould appear from the statements pitating the action at Cannæ, except of Polybius (iii. 110. &c.), that a so far as he might have prevented short time before the arrival of the the deliberate choice of a favourable consuls, the proconsuls had sent time and place. It is also evident, to Rome for instruction. The har- from the subsequently ascertained vest in their neighbourhood (the fact that Hannibal had not more highlands of Apulia) was still far than ten days' provisions in his from ripe: their supplies could be camp, that if Fabius or Æmilius had only from the magazine at had the sole conduct of the campaign, Cannæ: and Hannibal had placed Hannibal must have retreated into himself between them and it; and it Gaul.

ribus major pars et omne robur virium esset ; tum consulum U.C. 538. anni prioris M. Atilium, ætatem excusantem, Romam mi- A. C. 216. serunt; Geminum Servilium in minoribus castris legioni Romanæ et socium peditum equitumque duobus millibus præficiunt. Hannibal, quanquam parte dimidia auctas* hostium copias cernebat, tamen adventu consulum mire gaudere. Non solum enim nihil ex raptis in diem commeatibus superabat, sed ne, unde raperet, quidem quicquam reliqui erat, omni undique frumento, postquam ager parum tutus erat, in urbes munitas convecto: ut vix decem dierum (quod compertum postea est) frumentum superesset, Hispanorumque ob inopiam transitio parata fuerit, si maturitas temporum exspectata foret. Ceterum temeritati consulis6 ac præpropero ingenio ma

41. teriam etiam fortuna dedit: quod in prohibendis prædatoribus tumultuario proelio, ac procursu magis militum, quam ex præparato aut jussu imperatorum, orto, haudquaquam par Penis dimicatio fuit. Ad mille et septingenti cæsi, non plus centum Romanorum sociorumque occisis. Ceterum victoribus effuse sequentibus metu insidiarum obstitit Paullus consul; cujus eo die (nam alternis imperitabant) imperium erat, Varrone indignante ac vociferante, emissum hostem e manibus; debellarique, ni cessatum foret, potuisse. Hannibal id damnum haud ægerrime pati : quin potius credere, velut inescatam & temeritatem ferocioris consulis ac novorum maxime militum esse. Et omnia ei hostium, haud secus quam sua, nota erant: dissimiles discordesque imperitare; duas prope partes tironum militum in exercitu esse. Itaque, locum et tempus insidiis aptum se habere ratus, nocte proxima nihil præter arına ferentes secum milites ducens, castra plena omnis fortunæ lo publicæ privatæque relinquit; transque proximos montes læva pedites instructos condit, dextra equites; impedimental per con

· Parte dimidiá auctas.] “ In- for repulsing foraging parties, and creased by one half,” i. e. made once originating rather in a sortie of the and a half more numerous than be- soldiers than in any previous arrangefore, fifty per cent. more.

ment or order of the commanders, 5 Si maturitas temporum, &c.] the success of the Carthaginians “ If the harvest-time were to be was far below equality.” waited for." From this it may be

7 Haud ægerrimè.]

“ Without inferred, that about ten months had very much regret.” passed since Fabius had retired 8 Inescatam.] “Lured, ensnared.” from the command; because at that 9 Duas propè partes tironum.] time we are informed that “ Nearly two-thirds of the soldiers tremum autumni erat."

in the army were recruits.” 6 Ceterum temeritati consulis, &c.] 10 Omnis fortuna, &c.] “All sorts "To the consul's impetuosity, of property, public and personal.” however, and impatient temper, an i Impedimenta- medium agmen.] accident supplied the further provo- “The baggage, as a main (or cencation, that, in an irregular skirmish tral) body."

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