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U. C. 138. vallem, medium agmen, traducit: ut diripiendis velut deA.C. 216. sertis fuga dominorum castris occupatum impeditumque

hostem opprimeret. Crebri relicti in castris ignes, ut fides fieret", dum ipse longius spatium fuga præciperet, falsa

imagine castrorum, sicut Fabium priore anno frustratus 42. esset, tenere in locis consules voluisse. Ubi illuxit, sub

ductæ primo stationes“, deinde propius adeuntibus insolitum silentium admirationem fecit. Jam satis comperta solitudine, in castrisó concursus fit ad prætoria consulum, nuntiantium fugam hostium adeo trepidam, ut, tabernaculis stantibus, castra reliquerint: quoque fuga obscurior esset, crebros etiam relictos ignes. Clamor inde ortus, ut signa proferri juberent, ducerentque ad persequendos hostes, ac protinus castra diripienda. Et consulalter velut unus turbæ militaris erat. Paullus etiam atque etiam dicere, providendum præcavendumque esse.

Postremo, quum aliter neque seditionem neque ducem seditionis sustinere posset, Marium Statilium præfectum cum turma Lucana exploratum mittit. Qui, ubi adequitavit portis, subsistere extra munimenta ceteris jussis, ipse cum duobus equitibus vallum intravit: speculatusque omnia cum cura renuntiat, insidias profecto esse : ignes in parte castrorum, quæ vergat in hostem, relictos: tabernacula aperta, et omnia cara in promptu' relicta : argentum quibusdam locis temere per vias, velut objectum ad prædam, vidisse. Quæ ad deterrendos a cupiditate animos nuntiata erant, ea accenderunt; et, clamore orto a militibus, 'ni signum detur, sine ducibus 'ituros,' haudquaquam dux defuit: nam extemplo Varro signum dedit proficiscendi. Paullus, quum ei sua sponte cunctanti pulli quoque auspicio non addixissent, obnuntiari jam efferenti porta signa collegæ jussito. Quod quanquam Varro ægre est passus, Flaminii tamen recens casus, Člaudiiquel consulis primo Punico bello memorata naralis clades,

2 Diripiendis velut desertis, &c.] 6 Providendum præcavendum" In plundering the camp, under the que.?

an occasion for impression that it was forsaken, &c." foresight and precaution.”.

3 Ut fides fieret, &c.] “ To en- Omnia cara in promptu.] “All courage the belief that, while he valuables exposed to view, (left in was securing a greater distance in the way.)” his flight, he had intended to keep 8 Sud sponte.- quoque.] the consuls on the spot by the addition to his own previous hesideceptive appearance of the camp. tation.'

4 Šubductæprimo stationes,] "The 9 Obnuntiari -- college jussit.] absence (or removal) of the out- " Ordered his colleague to be interposts, in the first instance."

rupted by the announcement." 5 Satis comperta solitudine, in i Flaminii- Claudiique, &c.] It castris. ]

It would make better is of course unnecessary to repeat sense to join these words; thus, the particulars of these two acts of “When the desertion of the camp defiance of unpromising omens. The was fully ascertained.”

real danger, in such cases, is the

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religionem animo incussit. Dii prope ipsi' eo die magis U. C. 638. distulere, quam prohibuere, imminentem pestem Romanis. A. C. 216. Nam forte ita evenit, ut, quum referri signa in castra ju. benti consuli milites non parerent, servi duo, Formiani unus, alter Sidicini equitis, qui, Servilio atque Atilio consulibus, inter pabulatores excepti a Numidis fuerant, profugerent eo die ad dominos : qui deducti ad consules nuntiant, omnem exercitum Hannibalis trans proximos montes sedere in insidiis. Horum opportunus adventus consules imperii potentes' fecit, quum ambitio alterius suam primum apud eos prava indulgentia majestatem solvisset,

Hannibal, postquam motos* magis inconsulte Romanos, 43. quam ad ultimum temere evectos, vidit; nequicquam, detecta fraude, in castra rediit. Ibi plures dies propter inopiam frumenti manere nequibat; novaque consilia in dies non apud milites solum, mixtos ex colluviones omnium gentium, sed etiam apud ipsum ducem, oriebantur. Nam quum initio fremitus, deinde aperta vociferatio fuisset exposcentium stipendium debitum, querentiumque annonam 6 primo, postremo famem ; et mercenarios milites, maxime Hispani generis, de transitione cepisse consilium fama esset: ipse etiam interdum Hannibal de fuga in Galliam dicitur agitasse, ita ut, relicto peditatu omni, cum equitibus se proriperet. Quum hæc consilia? atque hic habitus animorum esset in castris, movere inde statuit in calidiora atque eo maturiora messibus Apuliæ loca: simul ut, quo longius ab hoste recessisset, transfugia impeditioras levibus ingeniis essent. Profectus est nocte, ignibus similiter factis, tabernaculisque paucis in speciem relictis, ut insidiarum par priori metus contineret Romanos. Sed, per eundem Lucanum Statilium, omnibus ultra castra transque montes ex

imprudence of shaking the popular deception;" or, (if we take nequicfaith in superstitions, that have been quam immediately with detectá,)“ as inculcated for political purposes.

the deception was discovered with? Dii propè ipsi.] “ It may be out having effected its object. almost said, that the gods themselves, 5 Mixtos ex colluvione.]

“ Coin&c.”

posed of a medley, &c.” 3 Consules imperii potentes, &c.] 6 Querentiumque annonam.] “ Restored the consuls to the pos- “ Complaining of the scarcity, (the session of their authority; after the state of the market.)”. conciliating policy of one of them ? Quum hæc consilia, &c.] “As had, already, weakened his own in- such were the speculations, and such fluence, &c."

the tone of feeling in the camp, he 4 Hannibal, postquam motos, &c.] resolved to move from that position “When Hannibal found that the into that district of Apulia which Romans had been moved by a pass

was warmer, and therefore more ading excitement, rather than preci- vanced toward harvest." pitately impelled to a definite re- 8 Transfugia impeditiora, &c.] sult, he returned in disappointment “ Desertions might be more difficult to his camp, on the discovery of his to the inconstant spirits.”

V. C. 538. ploratis, quum relatum esset, visum procul hostium agmen ; A. C. 216. tum de insequendo eo consilia agitari cæpta.

Quum utriusque consulis eadem, quæ semper ante, fuisset sententia'; ceterum Varroni fere omnes, Paullo nemo, præter Servilium prioris anni consulem, assentiretur; majoris partis sententia ad nobilitandas clade Romana Cannas, urgente fato', profecti sunt. Prope eum vicum Hannibal castra posuerat aversa a Vulturno vento, qui campis torridis siccitate nubes pulveris vehit. Id quum ipsis castris percommodum fuit, tum salutare præcipue futurum erat, quum aciem dirigerent, ipsi aversi, terga tantum afflante vento,

in occæcatum pulvere offuso hostem pugnaturi. 44. Consules, satis exploratis itineribus, sequentes Pænum,

ut ventum ad Cannas est, ubi in conspectu Pænum habebant, bina castra communiunt, eodem ferme intervallo, quo ad Geronium, sicut ante, copiis divisis. Aufidus amnis?, utrisque castris affluens, aditum aquatoribus ex sua cujusque opportunitate haud sine certamine dabat. Ex minoribus tamen castris, quæ posita trans Aufidum erant, liberius aquabantur Romani, quia ripa ulterior nullum habebat hostium præsidium. Hannibal spem nactus, locis natis ad equestrem pugnam: qua parte virium invictus erat, facturos

9

“ The

Quæ semper ante, fuisset sen- segment of a circle. tentia.] The text would be much 2 Aufidus amnis, &c.] improved by reading, quæ semper river, flowing by both camps, (i. e. ante fuisset, sententia esset. Still both the Roman camps,) did not more, by omitting fuisset altogether. afford an unimpeded access to the

i Urgente fato, &c.] “Under water, as might be expected from the impulse (the instigation of fate, their respective convenient positions." they took the road to Cannæ, des- The Romans appear to have arrived tined to become memorable for, in the first instance at the left bank, &c." This battle field, originally and to have thrown a detachment called the plain of Diomed, and across the river, in order to command intersected by a small stream, the the supplies from the plains south of Vergellus, which Hannibal bridged the Aufidus, and to check the over with dead bodies, is still enemy's foraging parties in that dinamed the Pezzo di sangue, (“ field rection. Hannibal had also arrived of blood.")

Some difficulty has on the left bank, which was the been occasionally felt in explaining nearest to both parties as they moved the positions of the two armies on southward, and encamped opposite the bank of the Aufidus. It appears to the main body of the Romans. that, after finally crossing the riverHe then, on the second day, sent his the two fronts were drawn up at Numidian cavalry across the river, right angles with the bank; and, as which is always shallow in summer, the direction of the current was due in order to intercept the watering east, the position of the Cartha- parties of the enemy; and kept the ginians, with their backs to the Romans on the right or southern south, can be explained only by bank (ripa ulterior) all night without observing, that the Ofanto, after water, which was a serious inconrunning eastward for some distance, venience in an atmosphere heated takes a turn, just at this point, to by an Apulian sun. the south, and describes a large 3 Locis natis ad equestrem pug.

copiam pugnandi consules, dirigit aciem, lacessitque Numi- U.C. 538. darum procursatione hostes. Inde rursus sollicitari sedi, A.C. 216. tione militari ac discordia consulum Romana castra : quum Paullus Semproniique et Flaminii temeritatem Varroni, Varro speciosum timidis* ac segnibus ducibus exemplum Fabium objiceret: testareturque deos hominesque hic, ' nullam penes se culpam esse, quod Hannibal jam velut

usucepisset Italiamo; se constrictum a collega teneri ; fer* rum atque arma iratis et pugnare cupientibus adimi militibus;' ille, si quid projectis ac proditis ad inconsultam . atque improvidam pugnam legionibus accideret, se, omnis culpæ exsortem, omnis eventus participem fore' diceret. Videret, ut, quibus lingua tam prompta ac temeraria, æque ' in pugna vigerent manus.' Dum altercationibus magis, quam consiliis, tempus teri

45. tur, Hannibal ex acie, quam ad multum diei tenuerat instructam, quum in castra ceteras reciperet copias, Numidas ad invadendos ex minoribus castris Romanorum aquatores trans flumen mittit. Quam inconditam turbam?

quum

vix-
dum in ripam egressi clamore ac tumultu fugassent, in sta-
tionem quoque pro vallo locatam atque ipsas prope portas
evecti sunt. Id vero indignum visum, ab tumultuario auxilio 8
пат.] ] “On ground adapted by the whole staff; and the soldiers,
nature to a cavalry engagement: seeing their leaders so merry, knew
The field was all open aud level, that they were sure of a victory.
with the exception of the eminence 4 Varro speciosum timidis, &c.]
standing at a short distance, and “ While Paullus taunted Varro with
clothed with underwood, behind the precipitation of Sempronius and
which some cavalry and light in- Flaminius; and Varro alluded to
fantry were placed in ambush by (instanced) Fabius as a plausible
Hannibal. It was an engagement precedent 'for timid and indolent
on ground so favourable to the enemy, commanders.”
whose strongest arm was his formid- 5 Usucepisset Italiam.] i.e. as we
able cavalry, that Æmilius was espe-

would
say,

“ had taken a lease of cially anxious to avoid it: and this Italy;" “had taken undisputed or motive too was one of those that prescriptive possession of Italy.? induced Fabius, during the whole Usucapio, a technical phrase in civil period of his command, to encamp law, signifies the right acquired by on the hills. Hannibal is said to enjoying possession for à certain have been so gratified by the fatal time, as specified in a law of limitmistakes of his enemies, that, on the ations. A similar right was called morning of battle, he could not re- the prescriptio longi temporis, which frain from bantering one of his was amalgamated with the former officers. The particulars have been by Justinian. See the Editor's recorded by Plutarch. " What an Manual of Civil Law, book ii. title 6. astonishing number of troops the

6 Videret.]

“ Let him (Varro) Romans have to-day!” observed take care that,” &c. Gisco. “ There is another still more ? Quam inconditam turbam, &c.] wonderful fact,” said Hannibal, “ And when, almost before they “which you do not notice.” “What reached the bank, they dispersed is that?” said Gisco. “That not that disorderly multitude." one among them all is called Gisco!!! 8 Tumultuario auxilio.]

“ UnThis reply provoked the laughter of disciplined auxiliaries."

U. C. 538. jam etiam castra Romana terreri: ut ea modo una causa, A.C. 216. ne extemplo transirent flumen, dirigerentque aciem, tenu

erit Romanos, quod summa imperii eo die penes Paullum fuerit. Itaque Varro postero die', cui sors ejus diei imperii erat, nihil consulto collega, signum pugnæi proposuit, instructasque copias flumen traduxit, sequente Paullo; quia magis non probare?, quam non adjuvare, consilium poterat. Transgressi flumen eas quoque, quas in castris minoribus habuerant, copias suis adjungunt: atque ita instructa acie, in dextro cornu: (id erat flumini propius) Romanos equites locant, deinde pedites: lævum cornu extremi equites sociorum, intra pedites, ad medium juncti legionibus Romanis tenuerunt: jaculatores cum ceteris levium armorum auxiliis prima acies faeti. Consules cornua tenuerunt; Terentius lævum, Æmilius dextrum. Gemino Servilio media pugna

tuenda data. 46. Hannibal luce prima, Baliaribus levique alia armatura

præmissa, transgressus flumen, ut quosque traduxerat, ita

9 Itaque Varro postero die, &c.] the centre, the rest being made up of When Varro, on his day of com- the skirmishers of the allies. By mand, crossed the Aufidus, (appa- carrying on jaculatores to the following rently for the purpose of protecting clause, the Roman and allied infantry the watering parties on the right or together would be described as formsouthern side,) and placed himself ing the centre; and the jaculatores between the enemy and the sea. as being thrown forward, as they Paullus could not, on his day, retreat usually were at the commencement from that position, and thus an action of a battle. Polybius states (iii. became inevitable.

113.) the unaccountable fact, that Signum pugnæ.] This was a the Romans on this occasion, though red flag flying from the Prætorium. on an open plain, were drawn up in

? Quia magis non probare, &c.] columns. By this arrangement they “As he had power to withhold forfeited the opportunity of outflankrather his consent than his coope- ing the enemy; which, with their ration.” When Varro crossed the superior numbers, they might have river, Hannibal also forded it at two easily done by forming in lines. It points, and drew up face to face is possible that this close and deep with the enemy.

form of battle array may have been 3 In dextro cornu, &c.] “On the found useful on some former occasion, right wing (which rested on the in preventing the main body from river) he stationed the Roman ca- being broken through by elephants valry; inside them, the Roman in- or cavalry; and that it was inconfantry: the cavalry of the allies siderately adopted now, when it formed the extremity of the left would have been wiser to secure as wing; inside them, (i.e. to their much space as possible. If Polybius right, between them and the main is right in his statement, (and it is body,) the infantry (of the allies); borne out indirectly by that of Livy,) next to the Roman legious, and it is nearly certain that the want of with them, formed the centre." the space, which was thus lost, preAs the text is punctuated in some vented a successful resistance to the editions, (jaculatores joined to charges of Asdrubal's cavalry on the tenuerunt,) it would appear, that flanks and rear. the Roman infantry formed but half

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