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U.C.538. in amicitia Romana, non Carthaginienses modo, qui regioA.C. 216. nem obtinebant, sed Bruttii quoque ceteri, ob separata ab

se consilia, oppugnabant. Quibus quum obsistere malis nequirent Petelini, legatos Romam ad præsidium petendum miserunt. Quorum preces lacrimæque' (in questus enim flebiles, quum sibimet ipsi consulere jussi sunt, sese in vestibulo curiæ profuderunt) ingentem misericordiam Patribus ac populo moverunt. Consultique iterum a M'. Pomponio prætore Patres, circumspectis omnibus imperii viribus, fateri coacti, nihil jam longinquis sociis in se præsidii esse, redire domum', fideque ad ultimum expleta, consulere sibimet ipsos in reliquum præsenti fortuna jusserunt. Hæc postquam renuntiata legatio Petelinis est, tantus repente mæror pavorque senatum eorum cepit, ut pars profugiendi, qua quisque posset, ac deserendæ urbis auctores essent; pars, quando deserti a veteribus sociis essent, adjungendi se ceteris Bruttiis, ac per eos dedendi Hannibali. Vicit tamen ea pars, quæ nihil raptim nec temere agendum, consulendumque de integro censuit. Re laxata postero die per

? minorem trepidationem tenuerunt optimates, ut, convectis

omnibus ex agris, urbem ac muros firmarent. 21. Per idem fere tempus literæ ex Sicilia Sardiniaque Ro

mam allatæ. Priores ex Sicilia T. Otacilii proprætoris in senatu recitatæ sunt: 'P. Furium prætorem cum classe ex • Africa Lilybæum venisse: ipsum graviter saucium in dis•crimine ultimo vitæ esse.

Militi et navalibus sociis neque stipendium, neque frumentum ad diem dari; neque, unde detur, esse. Magnopere suadere, ut quam primum ea mittantur; sibique, si ita videatur, ex novis prætoribus successorem mittant.' Eademque ferme de stipendio frumentoque ab A. Cornelio Mammula proprætore ex Sardinia scripta. Responsum utrisque, non esse, unde mitteretur: jussique ipsi classibus atque exercitibus suis consulere. T. Otacilius, ad unicum subsidium populi Romani Hieronem Bruttians had by this time taken dato. “ The case appearing less up arms for Carthage, and joined urgent." It is almost certain, howthe foreign forces under Himilco. ever, that Crevier's emendation re

9 Quorum preces lacrimæque &c.] stores the original reading, relatá And their prayers and tears— for re tenuerunt, and this is further they broke forth into loud sorrow confirmed by the appearance of retiat the door of the house when re- nuerunt in some Mss. quired to protect themselves—awak- 3 Frumentum ad diem.] Either, ened the sincere sympathy of,” &c. “their daily provisions," (rations,)

1 Redire domum &c.] They or, ad diem (sc. constitutam) dari, bade them return home, and as were distributed regularly,” (in they had maintained their allegiance time.) to the last, to take measures for 4 Hieronem ] This timely act themselves thenceforth, under exist- of generosity is believed to have ing circumstances.”

been the last public act of Hiero. Relaxatd.) i. e. Laxamento

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Et Romæ quo

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legatos quum misisset, in stipendium, quanti argenti opus U. C 538. fuit, et sex mensium frumentum accepit. Cornelio in Sar. A.C. 216. dinia civitates sociæ benigne contulerunt. que propter penuriam argenti triumviri mensarii“, rogatione M. Minucii tribuni plebis, facti, L. Æmilius Papus, qui consul censorque fuerat, et M. Atilius Regulus, qui bis consul fuerat, et L. Scribonius Libo, qui tum tribunus plebis erat. Et duumviri creati, M. et C. Atilii, ædem Concordiæ, quam L. Manlius prætor voverat, dedicaverunt. Et tres pontifices creati, Q. Cæcilius Metellus, et Q. Fabius Maximus, et Q. Fulvius Flaccus, in locum P. Scantinii demortui, et L. Æmilii Paulli consulis, et Q. Ælii Pæti, qui ceciderant pugna Cannensi.

Quum cetera, quæ continuis cladibus fortuna minuerat, quantum consiliis humanis assequi poterant, Patres explessent; tandem se quoque et solitudinem curiæ, paucitatemque convenientium ad publicum consilium respexerunt. Neque enim post L. Æmilium et C. Flaminium censores senatus lectus fuerat, quum tantum senatorum 6 adversæ pugnæ, ad hoc sui quemque casus per quinquennium absumpsissent. Quum de ea re M'. Pomponius prætor, dictatore post Casilinum amissum profecto jam ad exercitum, exposcentibus cunctis retulisset; tum Sp. Carvilius, quum longa oratione non solum inopiam, sed paucitatem etiam civium, ex quibus in Patres legerentur, conquestus esset, explendi senatus causa, et jungendi artius Latini nominis cum populo Romano, magnopere? se suadere dixit, ut ex singulis populis Latinorum, binis senatoribus, si Patres Romani censuissent, civitas daretur, atque in demortuorum locum in senatum legerentur. Eam sententiam haud æquioribus animis, quam ipsorum quondam postulatum Latinorum, Patres audierunt: et, quum fremitus indignantium tota curia esset, et præcipue T. Manlius, esse etiam nunc

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In war,"

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5 Triumviri mensarië.] « Three sore cost, after the Gallic invasion. commissioners of finance, banking

says Gibbon, “ the commissioners." Independently of worst sufferings fall

the most

upon the expenses

of the war, the want innocent and helpless. of money was occasioned by the 6 Quum tantum senatorum &c.] revolt of several towns, from which “ Though the calamities of war, in the exchequer would have been, addition to personal casualties, had otherwise, receiving contributions; been removing so many,” &c. by the hostile occupation of large Magnopere.] “Earnestly, se

7 tracts of land, and the destruction riously.” of

crops; by the deaths in battle of 8 Et præcipuè T. Manlius &c.] many tax-payers, whose bereaved “And Manlius in particular declared families could not supply the defi- that there still lived a man of that ciency; and by the dread of bor. family, one of whom, a consul, had rowing money at interest, as the once threatened in the Senate,” &c. poorer citizens had done, to their (See note c. 6, above.)

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U.C. 538. ' stirpis ejus virum,' diceret, ' ex qua quondam in Capitolio
A. C. 216. . consul minatus esset, quem Latinum in curia vidisset, eum

sua manu se interfecturum ;' Q. Fabius Maximus, Nun

quam rei ullius alieniore tempore' mentionem factam in · senatu, dixit, ' quam inter tam suspensos sociorum ani‘mos incertamque fidem id tactum', quod insuper sollicita(ret eos.

Eam unius hominis temerariam vocem silentio . omnium exstinguendam esse: et, si quid unquam arcani?

sanctive ad silendum in curia fuerit, id omnium maxime • tegendum, occulendum, obliviscendum, pro non dicto ha'bendum esse.' Ita ejus rei oppressa mentio est. Dictatorem, qui censor ante fuisset, vetustissimusque ex iis, qui viverent, censoriis esset, creari placuit, qui senatum legeret: accirique C. Terentium consulem ad dictatorem dicendum jusserunt. Qui, quum ex Apulia, relicto ibi præsidio, magnis itineribus Romam redisset, nocte proxima, ut mos erat, M. Fabium Buteonem ex senatusconsulto sine magistro equitum dictatorem et sex menses dixit. Is, ubi cum licto

ribus in Rostra escendit, neque duos dictatores tempore 23.

uno, quod nunquam antea factum esset, probare se,' dixit:
neque dictatorem se sine magistro equitum: nec censoriam
'vim uni permissam, et eidem iterum: nec dictatori, nisi

rei gerendæ causa creato, in sex menses datum imperium.
• Quæ immoderata fors, tempus ac necessitas fecerint, iis se
modum impositurum. Nam

neque

senatu quemquam 'moturum ex iis, quos C. Flaminius, L. Æmilius censores in senatum legissent: transscribió tantum recitarique eos jussurum; ne penes unum hominem judicium arbitriumque de fama ac moribus senatoris fuerit: et ita in demor*tuorum locum sublecturum, ut ordo ordini, non homo ho‘mini prælatus videretur.' Recitato vetere senatu, inde primos in demortuorum locum legit, qui post L. Æmilium et C. Flaminium censores curulem magistratum cepissent, necdum in senatum lecti essent; ut quisque eorum primus? creatus erat: tum legit, qui ædiles, tribuni plebei, quæsto

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" At a

9 Alieniore tempore.]

censor at a time; and contrary to
more unlucky (unseasonable) mo- law that the same man should be
ment.”

censor a second time.
| Id tactum.] “ Such a question 5 Quæ immoderata &c.] "The
should be started.”

irregularities which accident, occa-
2 Si quid unquam arcani &c.] sion, and necessity had created, he
" With whatever secresy and so- would restrain within due limits."
lemnity had ever tended to secure 6 Transscribi.] i. e.

So as to
silence."

contain only the names of the sur.
3 Vetustissimusque.) “The senior vivors.
of the ex.censors then living."

Ut quisque eorum primus.)
4 Neque dictatorem &c.] It was “ In the order in which they had
contrary to precedent that there been successively elected” (to the
should be two dictators and but one curule offices).

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resve fuerant: tum ex iis, qui magistratus non cepissent, U. C. 538. qui spolia ex hoste fixa domi haberent, aut civicam coronam A. C. 216. accepissent. Ita, centum septuaginta septem cum ingenti approbatione homnium in senatum lectis, extemplo se magistratu abdicavit, privatusque de Rostris descendit, lictoribus abire jussis: turbæque se immiscuit privatas agentium res, tempus hoc sedulo terens, ne deducendi sui causa populum de foro abduceret. Neque tamen elanguit cura 8 hominum ea mora, frequentesque eum domum deduxerunt. Consul nocte insequenti ad exercitum rediit, non facto certiore senatu, ne comitiorum causa in urbe retineretur. Postero die consultus a M'. Pomponio prætore senatus

24. decrevit, dictatori scribendum, uti, si e republica censeret esse, ad consules subrogandos veniret cum magistro equitum et prætore M. Marcello, ut ex iis præsentibus noscere Patres possent, quo statu respublica esset, consiliaque ex rebus caperent. Qui acciti erant, omnes venerunt, relictis legatis, qui legionibus præessent. Dictator, de se pauca ac modice locutus, in magistrum equitum, Ti. Sempronium Gracchum, magnam partem gloriæ vertit; comitiaque edixit, quibus L. Postumius tertium absens, qui tum Galliam provinciam obtinebat, et Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, qui tum magister equitum et ædilis curulis erat, consules crearentur. Prætores inde creati, M. Valerius Lævinus, Ap. Claudius Pulcher, Q. Fulvius Flaccus, Q. Mucius Scævola. Dictator, creatis magistratibus, Teanum' in hiberna ad exercitum rediit, relicto magistro equitum Romæ : qui, quum post paucos dies magistratum initurus esset, de exercitibus scribendis comparandisque in annum Patres consuleret.

Quum eæ res maxime agerentur, nova clades nuntiata, aliam super aliam? cumulante in eum annum fortuna: L. Postumium, consulem designatum, in Gallia ipsum atque exercitum deletos. Silva erat vasta, (Litanam Galli vocabant) qua exercitum traducturus erat. Ejus silvæ dextra lævaque circa viam Galli arbores ita inciderant, ut immotæ starent“, momento levi impulsæ occiderent. Legiones duas

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8 Elanguit cura.] “ But the en- Appian road. thusiasm of the people did not die 2 Aliam super aliam.] “In conaway (cool down),” &c.

stant succession.' Comitiaque quibus-consules 3 Litanam Galli vocabant.] This crearentur.] If this reading be re- forest was the scene of a defeat tained, the sentence would imply, inflicted on the Gauls, some years that the election of the two indi. afterwards, by Valerius Flaccus, on viduals named was part of the pro- which occasion they lost 8,000 men. clamation, which would be incon- 4 Ut immote starent, &c.] “That sistent with the principle of free they stood while unshaken, and election. There can be scarcely a when moved by a slight impulse doubt that Livy wrote creantur. would fall."

1 Teanum.] sc. Sidicinum, on the

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U.C. 538. Romanas habebat Postumius, sociûmque ab supero mari A.C. 216. tantum conscripserat, ut viginti quinque millia armatorum

in agros hostium induxerit. Galli oram extremæ silvæ5 quum circumsedissent, ubi intravit agmen saltum, tum extremas arborum succisarum impellunt: quæ, alia in aliam®, instabilem per se ac male hærentem, incidentes, ancipiti strage arma, viros, equos obruerunt, ut vix decem homines effugerent. Nam quum exanimati plerique essent arborum truncis fragmentisque ramorum, ceteram quoque multitudinem, inopinato malo trepidam, Galli, saltum omnem armati circumsedentes, interfecerunt; paucis e tanto numero captis, qui, fluminis pontem petentes, obsesso ante ab hostibus ponte interclusi sunt. Ibi Postumius, omni vi, ne caperetur, dimicans, occubuit. Spolia corporis caputque ducis præcisum Boii ovantes templo, quod sanctissimum est apud eos, intulere. Purgato inde capite, ut mos iis est, calvam auro cælavere?: idque sacrum vase iis erat, quo sol. lennibus libarent: poculumque idem sacerdoti esse, ac templi antistitibus. Præda quoque haud minor Gallis, quam victoria, fuit. Nam etsi magna pars animalium strage silvæ

5 Oram extrema silvæ.] “ The to assassinate him. The conspiracy outskirts of the forest.”

was successful; but she was even6 Quæ, alia in aliam, &c.] “And tually compelled to take flight in these, as they fell successively company with one of the murderers. against the others which were un

The skull of Cunimund was presteady and slightly attached, buried served for 200 years among the arms, horses, and men under the Lombards. surrounding ruin, so that, &c.” The popularity of this practice

? Calvam auro cælavere.] “Em- among the northern nations may be bossed the skull with gold.” A inferred from the fact, that it was more recent period of Italian history anticipated as one of the enjoyments furnishes a similar story of a skull, of the Valhala, and that they numthe desecration of which was followed bered their victories by such trophies, by tragical consequences. Alboin, as the North-American Indians by king of the Lombards, (in the reign scalps. In the translation of the of Justin 11. the nephew of Justinian,) song of Lodbrog, in an Edda, we having slain Cunimund king of the find the lines; Gepida in battle, made a drinking- “ Bliss eternal shall be mine cup of his skull, according to the

Where the halls of Odin shine: national custom, and at the same

To him, great sire, my deeds are known;

For me he has prepared a throne, time, strange to tell, married his

In the hollow skulls of foes." enemy's daughter, Rosamond, by whose beauty he had been captivated. 8 Idque sacrum vas &c.] Either, Some time after, on the capture of “such was (usually) their consePavia, he sent to the queen, from crated cup;” or, this (particular his own table where he was cele- skull) became,” &c. The ancient brating his victory, her father's skull Scythians also held a periodical filled with wine, together with an festival, where those who had slain insulting message. Dissembling her enemies drank from their skulls; resentment for the moment, she the quantity of wine allowed to immediately entered into a conspi- each being proportioned to the numracy with two of the king's officers ber of his trophies.

Where richest ale for ever flows

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