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U. C.539. esset: Campani per se adorti sunt rem Cumanam suæ A. C. 215. ditionis facere; primo sollicitantes, ut ab Romanis defice

rent. Ubi id parum processit, dolum ad capiendos eos comparant. Campanis omnibus statum sacrificium ad Hamas. Eo senatum Campanum venturum certiores Cumanos fecerunt: petieruntque, ut et Cumanus eo senatus veniret ad consultandum communiter, ut eosdem uterque populus socios hostesque haberet: præsidium ibi armatum sese habituros, ne quid ab Romano Pænove periculi esset. Cumani (quanquam suspecta fraus erat) nihil abnuere ; ita tegi fallax consilium posse rati. Interim Ti. Sempronius consul Romanus Sinuessæ, quo ad conveniendum diem edixerat, exercitu lustrato, transgressus Vulturnum flumen, circa Liternum castra posuit. Ibi, quia otiosa stativa erant, crebro decurrere milites cogebat, ut tirones (ea maxima pars? volonum erat Jassuescerent signa sequi, et in acie agnoscere ordines suos. Inter quæ concordiæ maxima inerat cura duci, itaque legatis tribunisque præceperat, 'ne qua ' exprobratio cuiquam veteris fortunæ discordiam inter ordines sereret: vetus miles tironi, liber voloni sese exæ• quari sineret: omnes satis honestos generososque ducerent,

quibus arma sua signaque populus Romanus commisisset : . quæ fortunæ coegisset' ita fieri, eandem cogere tueri factum.' Ea non majore cura præcepta ab ducibus sunt, quam a militibus observata; brevique tanta concordia coaluerant omnium animi, ut prope in oblivionem veniret, qua ex conditione quisque esset miles factus. Hæc agenti Graccho legati Cumani nuntiarunt, quæ a Campanis legatio paucos ante dies venisset, et quid iis ipsi respondissent. Triduum post eum diem festum esse : non senatum solum omnem ibi futurum, sed castra etiam et exercitum Campanum. Gracchus, jussis Cumanis omnia ex agris in urbem convehere, et manere intra muros, ipse pridie, quam statum sacrificium Campanis esset, Cumas movet castra. Hamæ inde tria millia passuum absunt. Jam Campani eo frequentes ex composito convenerant, nec procul inde in occulto Marius Alfius Medixtuticus (summus' magistratus

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5 Fallax consilium.] “A deceptive portion consisted principally of slaveplan (of their own).” It is believed soldiers.” that the treachery really originated 8 Ne qua exprobratio.) “No rewith the Cumani, or was suggested flections upon any man's former conto them by the Romans, who after- dition," &c. wards calumniated the Campanians, 9 Quæ fortuna coegisset &c.] “The in order to justify themselves. (see circumstances that rendered such a Arnold, Rom. Hist. vol. iii. p. 184.). measure necessary, would also oblige

6 Decurrere. lit. “ to march," them to vindicate it." “ to exercise,”

' kept the soldiers 1 Medixtuticus (summus &c.] “The constantly at drill.”

Medix Tuticus; (this was the high7 Ea maxima pars &c.] “ That est civil office,” &c.)

erat Campanis) cum quattuordecim millibus armatorum U. C.639. habebat castra ; sacrificio apparando, et inter id instruendæ A. C. 215. fraudi aliquanto intentior, quam muniendis castris, aut ulli militari operi. Triduum sacrificatum ad Hamas. Nocturnum erat sacrum, ita ut ante mediam noctem compleretur. Huic Gracchus insidiandum temporis ratus, custodibus ad portas positis, ne quis enuntiare posset cæpta, et ad decimam diei horam coactis militibus corpora curare, somnoque operam dare, ut primis tenebris convenire ad signum possent, vigilia ferme prima tolli jussit signa; silentique profectus agmine, quum ad Hamas media nocte pervenisset, castra Campana, ut in pervigilio* neglecta, simul omnibus portis invadit: alios somno stratos, alios perpetrato sacro inermes redeuntes obtruncat. Hominum eo tumultu nocturno cæsa plus duo millia, cum ipso duce Mario Alfio : capta sunt signa militaria quattuor et triginta.

Gracchus, minus centum militum jactura castris hostium 36. potitus, Cumas se propere recepit, ab Hannibale metuens, qui super Capuam in Tifatis habebat castra.

Nec eum provida futuri fefellit opinio. Nam simul Capuam ea clades est nuntiata, ratus Hannibal', ab re bene gesta insolenter lætum exercitum tironum magna ex parte servorumque, spoliantem victos, prædasque agentem, ad Hamas se inventurum; citatum agmen præter Capuam rapit, obviosque ex fuga Campanorum, dato præsidio, Capuam duci, saucios vehiculis portari jubet. Ipse Hamis vacua ab hostibus castra, nec quicquam præter recentis vestigia cædis, strataque passim corpora sociorum invenit. Auctores erant quidamo, ut protinus inde Cumas duceret, urbemque oppugnaret. Id quanquam haud modice Hannibal cupiebat, ut, quia Neapolim non potuerat, Cumas saltem, maritimam urbem, haberet; tamen, quia præter arma nihil secum miles, raptim acto agmine, extulerat, retro in castra supra

? Nocturnum sacrum, ita ut, &c.] 6 Provida futuri-opinio.] “Pro“The ceremony took place by night, phetic suspicion of the result”but only so far that it was concluded ão his presentiment.” before midnight.”

7 Ratus Hannibal, &c.] “Es3 Huicinsidiandum tempori,&c.] pecting to find at Hamæ an army Deeming this the proper time for consisting principally of recruits and bis ambuscade."

volunteers, intemperately exulting 4 In pervigilio.] “During a so- in their success, stripping their fallen lemn match,” (a conventional phrase): enemies, and driving away plunder; i. e. where all were supposed to re- marched hastily by Capua, and commain awake all night.

manded such of the retreating Cam5 In Tifatis habebat castra.) It panians as he met, to he escorted to was on this mountain (now Tifati) Capua, and the wounded,” &c. that the Samnites were in the habit 8 Auctores erant quidam.] “Some of encamping during their periodical advised him,” &c. descents upon Campania.

U.C. 539. Tifata se recepit. Inde, fatigatus Campanorum precibus, A. C. 215.

sequenti die cum omni apparatu oppugnandæ urbis Cumas redit: perpopulatoque agro Cumano, mille passus ab urbe castra locat; quum Gracchus magis verecundia in tali necessitate deserendi socios, implorantes fidem suam populique Romani, substitisset, quam satis fidens exercitui. Nec alter consul Fabius, qui ad Cales castra habebat, Vulturnum flumen traducere audebat exercitum ; occupatus primo auspiciis repetendis, dein prodigiis, quæ alia super alia nuntiabantur, expiantique ea haud facile litario haru

spices respondebant. 37.

Hæ causæ quum Fabium tenerent, Sempronius in obsidione erat; et jam operibus oppugnabatur. Adversus ligneam ingentem admotam urbi', aliam turrem ex ipso muro excitavit consul Romanus, aliquanto altiorem : quia muro satis per se alto subjectis validis sublicis pro solo usus erat. Inde primum saxis sudibusque et ceteris missilibus propug. natores monia atque urbem tuebantur: postremo, ubi promovendo adjunctam muro? viderunt turrem, facibus ardentibus plurimum simul ignem conjecerunt. Quo incendio trepida : armatorum multitudo quum de turre sese præcipitaret, eruptio ex oppido simul duabus portis stationes hostium fudit, fugavitque in castra ; ut eo die obsesso, quam obsidenti, similior esset Pænus. Ad mille trecenti Carthaginiensium cæsi, et undesexaginta vivi capti; qui, circa muros et in stationibus solute ac negligenter agentes, quum nihil minus, quam eruptionem, timuissent, ex improviso oppressi fuerant. Gracchus, priusquam se hostes ab repentino pavore colligerent, receptui signum dedit, ac suos intra muros recepit. Postero die Hannibal, lætum secunda re consulem justo proelio ratus certaturum, aciem inter castra atque urbem instruxit. Ceterum postquam neminem mo

9 Haud facile litari.]

« That

were let down. These were filled propitiation would not be easy." with armed men, and, as soon as

i Ligneam ingentem admotam they reached the mouths of the urbi.] Among the many ingenious caverns, a hand-to-hand fight began devices by which those engines were between the two parties. Of Belisubsequently modified, an invention sarius also it is recorded, that, when of Herod the Great (son of Anti- besieging the Gothic garrison in pater) appears to deserve especial Palermo, he brought his ships up to notice. During the expedition which the walls, and hoisted small boats he undertook for the extermination filled with archers up to the mastof the robber insurgents who had heads; so that they commanded the fortified themselves in the caves of whole range of the ramparts. Antilibanus which were inaccessible 2 Adjunctam muro.] “ Brought from below, he ascended to the brow in contact with the wall.” of the precipices, and constructed 3 Quo incendio trepida.]

" And fixed engines or cranes, with pulleys, when, alarmed by this fire," &c. from which large stages or boxes

veri ab solita custodia urbis vidit, nec committi quicquam.U. C. 639. temerariæ spei, ad Tifata redit infecta re'.

A.C. 215. Quibus diebus Cumæ liberatæ sunt obsidione, iisdem diebus et in Lucanis ad Grumentum Ti. Sempronius, cui Longo cognomen erat, cum Hannone Pono prospere pugnat. Supra duo millia hostium occidit, et ducentos octoginta milites amisit: signa militaria? ad quadraginta unum cepit. Pulsus finibus Lucanis Hanno retro in Bruttios sese recepit. Et ex Hirpinis oppida tria, quæ a populo Romano defecerant, vi recepta per M. Valerium prætorem, Vercellium, Vescellium, Sicilinum : et auctores defectionis securi percussi. Supra mille captivorum sub hasta venierunt: præda alia militi concessa, exercitus Luceriam reductus. Dum hæc in Lucanis atque in Hirpinis geruntur, quin

38. que naves, quæ Macedonum atque Ponorum captos legatos Romam portabant, ab supero mari ad inferum circumvectæ prope omnem Italiæ 8 oram, quum præter Cumas velis ferrentur, neque, hostium an sociorum essent, satis sciretur, Gracchus obviam ex classe sua naves misit. Quum percunctando in vicem' cognitum esset, consulem Cumis esse; naves Cumas appulsæ, captivique ad consulem deducti, et literæ datæ. Consul, literis Philippi atque Hannibalis perlectis, consignata omnia ad senatum itinere terrestri misit: navibus devehi legatos jussit. Quum eodem fere die literæ legatique Romam venissent, et, percunctatione facta, dicta cum scriptis congruerent, primo gravis cura Patres incessit, cernentes, quanta vixi tolerantibus Punicum bellum Macedonici belli moles instaret.

Cui tamen adeo non' succubuerunt, ut extemplo agitaretur, quemadmodum ultro inferendo bello averterent ab Italia hostem.

ex

* Nec committi quicquam.] “And liæ, &c.] This is rather an that nothing was hazarded,”' &c. aggeration. The voyage, on the

6 Infectă re.) This might have most liberal calculation, and supposbeen expected, for the walls were ing the Macedonians to have got defended, not by the usual garrison, clearly out to sea, could not have but a consular army; and a sea-port been longer than from Hydruntum town, with the sea open, could not (Otranto) to Cumæ; i. e. round the be reduced by famine.

coast of Bruttium, through the 6 Grumentum.] (Now Armento,) Straits, and up along the coast of was the scene of an inconsiderable Lucania. defeat sustained, in the tenth year 9 Percunctando in vicem.) By of the war, by Hannibal, from mutual inquiries.” Claudius Nero. (1. xxvii. 42.)

Cernentes, quanta vix,&c.] “Per? Signa militaria.] The standard ceiving what a pressure of war from (or “arms”) of Carthage was a lion. Macedonia was approaching them, On the silver shield, left by Hanni- scarcely able, as they were, to withbal at Passage in Dauphine, appears stand,” &c. the figure of a lion standing under a 2 Cui tamen adeo non, &c.] “ To palm-tree.

this however they were so far from 8 Circumvectæ prope omnem Ita- yielding.”

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U. C. 539. Captivis in vincula condi jussis, comitibusque eorum sub A. C. 215. hasta venditis, ad naves viginti quinque, quibus P. Valerius

Flaccus præfectus præerat, viginti parandas alias decernunt. His comparatis deductisque, et additis quinque navibus, quæ advexerant captivos legatos, triginta naves ab Ostia Tarentum profectæ : jussusque P. Valerius, militibus Varronianis, quibus L. Apustius legatus Tarenti præerat, in naves impositis, quinquaginta navium classe 3 non tueri modo Italiæ oram, sed explorare de Macedonico bello. Si congruentia literis legatorumque indiciis Philippi consilia essent, ut M. Valerium prætorem literis certiorem faceret : isque, L. Apustio legato exercitui præposito, Tarentum ad classem profectus, primo quoque tempore in Macedoniam transmitteret: daretque operam, ut Philippum in regno contineret. Pecunia ad classem tuendam bellumque Macedonicum ea decreta est, quæ Ap. Claudio in Siciliam missa erat, ut redderetur Hieroni“ regi : ea per L. Apustium legatum Tarentum est devecta. Simul ab Hierone missa ducenta millia modium tritici, et hordei centum.

Dum hæc Romani parant aguntque, ad Philippum captiva navis, una ex iis, quæ Romam missæ erant, ex cursu refugit: inde scitum, legatos cum literis captos. Itaque ignarus de iis, quæ cum Hannibale legatis suis convenissent, quæque legati ejus ad se allaturi fuissent, legationem aliam cum iisdem mandatis mittit. Legati ad Hannibalem missi, Heraclitus, cui Scotino cognomen erat, et Crito Bercæus, et Sositheus Magnes. Hi prospere tulerunt ac retulerunt mandata. Sed prius se æstas circumegit, quam movere ac moliri quicquam rex posset: tantum navis una capta cum legatis momenti fecit ad dilationem imminentis Romanis belli.

Et circa Capuam, transgresso Vulturnum Fabio post expiata tandem prodigia, ambo consules rem gerebant. Compulteriam, et Trebulam, et Saticulam, urbes, quæ ad Ponum defecerant, Fabius vi cepit; præsidiaque in iis Hannibalis, Campanique permulti capti. Et Nolæ, sicut priore anno, senatus Romanorum, plebs Hannibalis erat : consiliaque occulta de cæde principum et proditione urbis inibantur. Quibus ne incepta’ procederent, inter Capuam

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3. Quinquaginta navium classe.] designation is probably an addition Made up of the twenty-five under by some later hand, for the Herathe command of Flaccus, the five clitus so named lived a long time that brought the ambassadors, and before the æra of this Philip. the twenty additional.

6 Tantum navis una capta, &c.] 4 Ut redderetur Hieroni.] For

“Of such importance was the capthe supplies recently advanced to the ture of one ship." troops in Sicily.

? Quibus ne incepta, &c.] “But to 5 'Cui Scotino cognomen.] This prevent the success of their designs."

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