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A.C. 218.

ab eos juvenem divina specie, qui 'se ab Jove' diceret U.C. 536. • ducem in Italiam Hannibáli missum: proinde sequeretur,

neque usquam a se deflecteret oculos. Pavidum primo, nusquam circumspicientem aut respicientem, secutum ; deinde, cura humani ingenii“, quum, quidnam id esset, quod respicere vetitus esset, agitaret animo, temperare oculis nequivisse; tum vidisse, post: sese serpentem mira magnitudine cum ingenti arborum ac virgultorum strage ferri, ac post insequi cum fragore coeli nimbum : tum, quæ moles ea, quidve prodigii esset,' quærentem audisse: Vastitatem Italiæ esse : pergeret porro ire, nec ultra inquireret, sineretque fata in occulto esse.' Hoc visu lætus tripartito Iberum copias trajecit, præ

23. missis, qui Gallorum animos, qua traducendus exercitus erat, donis conciliarent, Alpiumque transitus specularentur.


3 In quiete visum ab eo &c.] The effectively illustrated in Sir W. Scott's ancients (the Jews especially, from “Vision of Don Roderic.' the number of Divine interpositions 4 Cura humani ingenii.]

" The in that form, with which they were natural curiosity of the human mind." acquainted) were superstitious on 5 Tum vidisse, post &c.] “Then the subject of dreams. A memorable he saw behind him a serpent of dream of Alexander the Great is wondrous size, moving on amid a recorded; in which he saw the high mighty destruction of trees and unpriest of the Jews, some time before derwood, and a storm following it his march to Jerusalem, and by with peals of thunder.” Moles, which he was so powerfully affected, “disturbance, agitation.” that when he met him afterwards at 6. Alpiumque transitus.] Hanni. the head of the procession that came bal's approach to the Pyrenees on his to meet him, he recognised the figure way to the Alps, lay through the dishe had seen in sleep. A curious trict now called Catalonia; or, more instance of clairvoyance, closely al- particularly, through Emporium lied to dreaming, is mentioned by (Ampurias), along the line of the Aulus Gellius. On the day of the Roman road subsequently laid down battle of Pharsalia, a priest named from that point to Nimes. This Cornelius, in the town of Patavium, road crossed the Pyrenees at Bellesaw in a waking vision all the vicis- garde, and turning to the right to situdes of the battle pass before him, Illiberis (Elne), passed through and suddenly exclaimed that Cæsar Perpignan, Narbonne, Beziers, Pont was victorious. The circumstance d'Ambroix, and Nimes. At the was disregarded, until the news of latter point (Nemausus), this road the battle actually arrived, when it diverged into two branches, of which appeared that every thing had oc- one led to Arles, and the other to curred, not only in the same order, Tarascon. From Nimes Hannibal but at the same moment, in which marched directly to the Rhone, Cornelius had seen it. (Noctes Att. through Rousillon and Languedoc. xv. 18.) In the beautiful romance In order to inake the following of Xenophon, also, we read, that chapters intelligible, it becomes Cyrus the Great was visited in a necessary here to anticipate their dedream by “a figure more majestic tails, by an examination of the difthan human, that seemed to say, ferent theories of Hannibal's march, • Prepare thyself, Cyrus, for now from the point where all authorities shalt thou depart to the gods:' and are unanimous in fixing his passage that his death followed in a few of the Rhone. The district, to days.” These superstitions are very which those discussions relate, pre


U. C. 536. Nonaginta millia peditum?, duodecim millia equitum Iberum A.C. 218.

sents, when viewed on a map, some- of M. de Luc of Geneva, and other what of the form of an irregular gentlemen who have made personal rectangle; of which the left side is observations, is as follows: Hannibounded by the Rhone, flowing in a bal crossed the Rhone, above the south-west direction from Lugdu- confluence of the Druentia (Dunum (Lyons) to the sea : the upper rance), at the modern village of Jimit consists of a line drawn across Roquemaure, between Avenio ( Avigfrom Vienna Allobrogum (Vienne), non), and Aurantio (Orange): he through Bergusium (Bourgoin), then proceeded up along the eastern Lemincum (Chambery), along the bank of that river, through MonteIsara (Isere) to the Graian Alps, limart and Valentia (Valence), to Augusta Prætoria (Aouste), and Vienna: from that point he turned Eporedia ( Ivrèe); the lower bound- off at right angles to the south-east, ary is formed by the rivers Druentia and crossing the Mons Thuates (Durance), Verdon, and Doria; and (Mont du Chat), descended into the the line on the right coincides with territory of the Insubres; and after the chain

of the Alps from the sea resting there a few days, joined his to Mont Blanc.

allies against the Taurini, and took In Livy's time, there were but their city (Turin). His motive, four known routes over those moun- according to Polybius, for proceedtains. These were, according to ing so far to the north, was not so Polybius and Strabo, 1. Through much an anxiety to avoid a collision the Ligurians, near the Tyrrhene with the Romans, as a wish to sea; that is, over the Maritime Alps, descend into the territory of his from Arelate (Arles), through Nice friends, who had guided him all and Monaco, to Genoa. This was a along from Carthagena, and of Roman road (via Aurelia) in the time course led him by the passes which of Polybius, and the first

which they they had been themselves in the constructed out of Italy. 2. Through habit of using. The account furthe Taurini; that is, over the Saltus nished by Livy, on the other hand, Taurinus in the Cottian Alps (Mont is, that Hannibal crossed the Rhone Genevre), and leading through Bri. at the point indicated by Polybius, gantio (Briançon). 3. Through and instead of proceeding directly the Salassii, over the Graian Alps across to the mountains, as he had (little St. Bernard), into the terri- originally intended, followed up the tory of the Insubres (Piedmont). bank of the river, in order to avoid 4. Over the Rhætian Alps (Mont the Romans; that, in a four days' Splugen), from Coire to Milan. march, he arrived at the Insula

The question to be determined Allobrogum, a triangle enclosed by here is between the second and third the Rhone, the Isere, and the mounof these roads—the others being, tains; and that having arranged according to all reliable authorities, there the quarrel between the brother beside the inquiry—or rather, be- princes, (as Polybius also states,) tween the account of Livy, which turned down again in a south-east appears to have been intended to direction, ad lævam in Tricacoincide with the second; and that stinos," &c. until he reached the of Polybius, whose description of Durance at Ebrodunum (Embrun); localities and measurement of dis- and, passing through Brigantio, and tances corresponds exactly with the the Cottian Alps, descended upon third, and who is further entitled to Turin, thus following the line of the confidence by the circumstances of Roman road. The inconsistencies his having been a practical military observed in this account are, 1. The tactician, and having inspected in statement that Hannibal, after having person the scene of the narrative. proceeded so far to the north as His account of the march, which is Valence, came down again nearly further confirmed by the researches to the same point at which he crossed

traduxit. Ilergetes inde, Bargusiosque, et Ausetanos, et U.C. 536. Lacetaniam, quæ subjecta Pyrenæis montibus est, subegit: A.C. 218. oræque huic omni præfecit Hannonem, ut fauces, quæ Hispanias Galliis jungunt, in potestate essent. Decem millia peditum Hannoni ad præsidium obtinendæ regionis data, et mille equites. Postquam per Pyrenæum saltum traduci exercitus est captus, rumorque per barbaros manavit certior de bello Romano; tria millia inde Carpetanorum peditum iter averterunt. Constabat, non tam bello motos, quam longinquitate viæ insuperabilique Alpium transitu. Hannibal, quia revocare aut vi retinere eos anceps erat', ne ceterorum etiam feroces animi irritarentur, supra septem millia hominum domos remisit, quos et ipsos gravari militia senserat, Carpetanos quoque ab se dimissos simulans. Inde, ne mora atque otium animos sollicitarent,

24; cum reliquis copiis Pyrenæum transgreditur, et ad oppidum Illiberi" castra locat. Galli quanquam Italiæ" bellum inferri the Rhone. 2. The descriptions of Cennisolle); the precipices rising the inclement features of the moun- gradually on one side, and descendtains, which are applicable only to ing abruptly on the other; the the higher elevations, and not to plateau on the summit, and the Mont Genevre, which lies far below height commanding a view of the the level of perpetual snow; and plains, of the plains by which he approached ? Nonaginta millia peditum, &c.] the mountains, (“ Campestri maximè This estimate considerably exceeds itinere," &c.) applicable only to the that of Polybius, who fixes the pleasant valleys of the Isere, through amount of the troops when crossing which Polybius leads the Cartha- the Pyrenees at 50,000 infantry, ginians. 3. The arrival of Hannibal and 9000 cavalry. (Pol. iii. c. 35.) among the enemies of his own allies, Pyrenæum saltum.] Saltus litéwhich is irreconcileable with the fact rally signifies either “an eminence,” of his having halted to refresh the or, "an interval;” but is generally troops. It would appear, in short, understood to mean an open elevated upon the whole of Livy's account, space in a wood, (" à glade”); that he copied the beginning and sometimes as signifying the wood the end of the narrative of Polybius, itself, when the idea of an elevation which do not correspond with the is included. In Livy, we may geneintermediate details supplied by rally take it to mean what we call himself.

defile." In addition to these, other theories 9 Quiaanceps erat.) “ Because have been advanced in modern times, it would be hazardous,” or,

a dan. according to which this memorable gerous alternative.” passage of the Alps was effected 1 Oppidum Iliberi.] This place over the Pennine ridge, (the Great was afterwards called Helena, after St. Bernard); or Mont Cenis, which the celebrated Roman Princess. is the route generally adopted at The name was eventually shortened present; and, as far as we can ascer. into Elne. tain, was first used by Charlemagne 2 Galli, quanquam Italiæ, &c.] in his invasion of Italy, during the The position of the latter proper Lombard wars in the eighth century. name here is emphatic, and requires Some of the features of this route, that we should translate, “ Though however, correspond with Livy's the Gauls had heard that it was account; the road enclosed by the against Italy,” &c. rocks and the mountain-stream (the




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U. C. 536. audiebant, tamen, quia vi subactos trans Pyrenæum HisA.C. 218.

panos fama erat, præsidiaque valida imposita, metu servitutis ad arma consternati, Ruscinonem : aliquot populi conveniunt. Quod ubi Hannibali nuntiatum est, moram magis, quam bellum, metuens, oratores ad regulos eorum misit, 'colloqui semet ipsum velle cum his; et vel illi propius Illiberi accederent, vel se Ruscinonem processurum, ut ex propinquo congressus facilior esset: nam et accepturum eos in castra sua se lætum, nec cunctanter se ipsum 'ad eos venturum. Hospitem enim se Galliæ, non hostem“, advenisse: nec stricturum ante gladium, si per Gallos

liceat, quam in Italiam venisset.' Et per nuntios quidem hæc. Ut vero reguli Gallorum, castris ad Illiberim extemplo motis, haud gravate ad Pænum venerunt; capti donis cum



fines suos præter Ruscinonem oppidum transmiserunt5. 25. In Italiam interim nihil ultra, quam Iberum transisse

Hannibalem, a Massiliensium legatis Romam perlatum erat: quum perinde, ac si Alpes jam transisset, Boii, sollicitatis Insubribus, defecerunt; nec tam ob veteres in populum Romanum iras, quam quod nuper circa Padum, Placentiam Cremonamque colonias in agrum Gallicum deductas ægre patiebantur. Itaque, armis repente arreptis, in eum ipsum agrum impetu facto, tantum terroris ac tumultus fecerunt, ut non agrestis modo multitudo, sed ipsi

3 Ruscinonem.] This name has Pavia, Lodi, &c. Up to this time evidently been corrupted into the they had been in a state of quiet modern Rousillon.

subjection, since their decisive defeat 4 Hospitem-non hostem.] These at Populonia, by the Consul Æmilius words were originally identical, both Papus, about fifty years previously. signifying stranger;" but, the The colonies of Placentia and Cresacred character of a stranger need- mona were planted, most probably, ing protection, gave to one of the with the same view as Salernum, forms amicable signification. Cosa, Pæstum, and Beneventum; The alliteration in the original can- to secure and appropriate conquered not be very easily transferred into territories, and to unite Italy against English; unless the terms “friendCarthage, with which a decisive and “foe" be considered sufficiently struggle must have been, for some expressive, and similar in sound. Å time, anticipated. The subsequent somewhat similar ambiguity exists histories of Cremona and Placentia in the French and Italian hôte and present many vicissitudes.

Both ospite.

suffered severely in the wars of the 5 Transmiserunt.] After this Triumvirs, the contest between Vi. word, several commentators propose tellius and Vespasian, and the wars to subjoin in Italiam, taken from of the Goths and Lombards. Under the beginning of the next chapter. the Romans, Milan became the

6 Boii.] This tribe inhabited seat of a University, and was the country between the Po and the called Nove Athenær under the northern side of the Apennines, Constantines, it took precedence of nearly corresponding to the limits Rome itself, but was successively of the Duchies of Milan and Parma, destroyed by Vitiges, Alboin, and and containing the cities Milan, Barbarossa.


Mutinæ quum

triumviri Romani', qui ad agrum venerant assignandum, U. c. 536. diffisi Placentiæ moenibus, Mutinam confugerint, C. Luta- A. C. 218. tius, C. Servilius, T. Annius. Lutatii nomen haud dubium est: pro C. Servilio et T. Annio Q. Acilium et C. Herennium habent quidam annales: alii P. Cornelium Asinam et C. Papirium Masonem. Id quoque dubium est, legati, ad expostulandum missi ad Boios, violati sint, an in triumviros agrum metantes impetus sit factus. obsiderentur, et gens, ad oppugnandarum urbium artes rudis, pigerrimao eadem ad militaria opera, segnis intactis assideret muris, simulari cæptum de pace agi': evocatique ab Gallorum principibus legati ad colloquium, non contra jus modo gentium, sed violata etiam, quæ data in id tempus erat, fide, comprehenduntur; negantibus Gallis, nisi obsides sibi redderentur, eos dimissuros. Quum hæc de legatis nuntiata essent, et Mutina præsidiumque in periculo esset, L. Manlius prætor, ira accensus, effusum agmen ad Mutinam ducit. Silvæ tunc circa viam erant, plerisque incultis. Ibi, inexplorato profectus, in insidias præcipitatus, multaque cum cæde suorum ægre in apertos campos emersit. Ibi castra communita; et, quia Gallis ad tentanda ea defuit spes, refecti sunt militum animi, quanquam sexcentos cecidisse 4 satis constabat. Iter deinde de integro coeptum; nec, dum per patentia loca ducebatur agmen, apparuit hostis: ubi rursus silvæ intratæ, tum postremos adorti, cum magna trepidatione ac pavore omnium, octin

" The

7 Triumviri Romani.]

| Simulari coeptum agi.] “A three Roman Commissioners." pretended negociation began."

8 Mutinam.] This city (Modena) 2 Silve, tunc &c.-plerisque inwas a place of considerable power cultis.] Here we might, at the and prosperity under the Roman first view, expect to read pleræque Republic; firmissima et splendidis- inculte ; but the ablative absolute sima colonia," is the character at- conveys a peculiar force, giving a tributed to it by Cicero. But it reason for the preceding proposition; has been so often destroyed, and so thus, “ The woods enclosed both often risen from its ruins, that not sides of the road; as they were for only have all vestiges of its ancient the most part (or, as the general splendour disappeared, but even the features of the scene were) wild.” certainty that the modern town 3 Præcipitatus, multaque, &c.] stands


the site of the ancient. To maintain the connexion of the Modena has been distinguished as sentence, we must either understand the birth-place of the celebrated præcipitatus as a verb; or remove patron of literature, Alfonso d'Este; que, or read præcipitatur. the antiquarians Muratori and Tira- 4 Accisas res.]“ Their strength boschi; and other eminent persons. was reduced.”

Accisus literally 9 Rudis, pigerrima.] These epi- signifies, “ diminished by cutting thets indicate two different defects; away all round.” Instead of accisas the former signifying a want of res, Gronovius, on the authority of practice and cultivation; the latter, one Ms., proposes to read, ad... cea natural incapacity, or, want of cidisse. ingenuity.

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