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tesque et terræ eæ, quas duo diversa maria’ amplectantur, U.C. 536. Carthaginiensium essent. Indignatos deinde, quod, qui- A. C. 218. cunque Saguntum obsedissent, velut ob noxam, sibi dedi postularet populus Romanus, Iberum trajecisse ad delen* dum nomen Romanorum, liberandumque orbem terrarum. • Tum nemini visum id longum, quum ab occasu solis: ad

exortus intenderent iter. Nunc, postquam multo majorem partem itineris emensam cernant, Pyrenæum saltum inter • ferocissimas gentes superatum, Rhodanum, tantum amnem, 'tot millibus Gallorum prohibentibus, domita etiam ipsius fluminis vi, trajectum, in conspectu Alpes habeant, quarum alterum latus* Italiæ sit; in ipsis portis hostium fatigatos 'subsistere, quid Alpes aliud esse credentess, quam montium 'altitudines? Fingerent altiores Pyrenæi jugis : nullas

profecto terras cælum contingere, nec inexsuperabiles • humano generi esse. Alpes quidem habitari, coli, gignere atque alere animantes : pervias paucis esse, exercitibus

invias? Eos ipsos, quos cernant, legatos non pennis sub‘lime elatos Alpes transgressos: ne majores quidem eorum 'indigenas; sed advenas Italiæ cultores, has ipsas Alpes ' ingentibus sæpe agminibus cum liberis ac conjugibus, migrantium modo, tuto transmisissæ. Militi quidem

armato, nihil secum præter instrumenta belli portanti, ' quid invium aut inexsuperabile esse? Saguntum ut cape

retur, quid per octo menses periculi, quid laboris exhaustum ' esse ? Romam, orbis terrarum caput, petentibus quicquam 'adeo asperum atque arduum videri, quod inceptum more'tur? Cepisse quondam Gallos ea, quæ adiri posse Pænus desperet? Proinde aut cederent animo atque virtute genti, per eos dies toties ab se victæ : aut itineris finem sperent campum interjacentem? Tiberi ac monibus Romanis.

2 Duo diversa maria.] “ The higher than the Pyrenees; the amtwo opposite seas,” Mediterranean bassadors who had just come up and Atlantic, (as we would say, from Italy had, certainly, not flown from Altea to Cape Finisterre.) over them; and the Gauls who had

Quum ab occasu solis "&c.] settled in Italy were not natives; “ Though they were to march on- but had crossed them with all the ward from the setting to the rising incumbrances of wives and children; sun."

and if they had found them passable, 4 Quarum alterum latus &c.] surely soldiers &c. According to “ The farther side of which was in Livy, the first migration of the (belonged to) Italy."

Gauls

took place in the time of the 5. Quid Alpes aliud esse credentes first Tarquin. It is probable, from &c.) If we translate the participle the position of the Insubres, that literally, we lose the English idiom, they came by Mont St. Bernard. which it will be better to preserve 6 Asperum atque arduum.] These by saying, “ for, what else did they words relate respectively to the touch suppose the Alps to be than” &c. and the sight. The argument runs thus. The Alps 7 Campum interjacentem &c.] are nothing more than very high This was the Campus Martius: an mountains. Grant that they are open field used for military exercises

6

6

3

U.C. 536. His adhortationibus incitatos corpora curare, atque ad A.C. 218. iter se parare jubet. Postero die, profectus adversa ripa 31. Rhodani, mediterranea' Galliæ petit: non quia rectior ad

Alpes via esset, sed, quantum a mari recessisset, minus obvium fore Romanum credens : cum quo, priusquam in Italiam ventum foret, non erat in animo manus conserere. Quartis castris ad Insulam pervenit: ibi Isara Rhodanusque? amnes, diversis ex Alpibus decurrentes, agri aliquantum amplexi, confluunt in unum. Inde mediis campis Insulæ nomen inditum. Incolunt prope Allobroges, gens jam inde nulla Gallica gente opibus aut fama inferior: tum discors erat. Regni certamine ambigebant fratres. Major, et qui prius imperitarat, Brancus nomine, minore ab fratre et coetu juniorum, qui jure minus, vi plus poterat, pellebatur. Hujus seditionis? peropportuna disceptatio quum ad Hannibalem rejecta esset, arbiter regni factus, quod ea senatus principumque sententia fuerat, imperium majori restituit. Ob id meritum commeatu copiaque rerum omnium, maxime vestis, est adjutus, quam infames frigoribus: Alpes præparari coyebant. Sedatis certaminibus Allobrogum, quum jam Alpes peteret, non recta regione iter instituit; sed ad lævam in Tricastinos flexit*: inde per extremam oram Vocontiorum

during the republican ages: and, viously be Ibi Isara. The Arar under the empire, covered with por- (Saone) joins the Rhone at Lyons, ticoes, baths, temples, and private a point farther to the north than any residences, presenting the appear- theory on the subject contemplates; ance of a separate city. It was en- and Livy could not have been so closed on one side by the river; on grossly ignorant of geography. It the other, by the Viminal, Quirinal, is remarkable that the same error and Pincian hills.

appears in some editions of Polybius, 8 Adversá ripd.) “Up the bank,” which read "Apapos for 'Ioápas. i. e. to the north. The Rhone flows 2 Hujus seditionis &c.] “ As the a little to the east of south.

adjustment of this quarrel was at a 9 Mediterranea.) “ The inland most favourable moment referred to parts.” It has been observed that, if he had originally intended to take 3 Infames frigoribus.] "Notorious the via quce rectior esset, he would for the cold, (notoriously inclenot have crossed the Rhone at all, ment.)” but proceeded along the bank of the 4 Ád lævam in Tricastinos flexit.] Druentia.

This sentence constitutes the great 1 Insulam— Isara Rhodanusque.] difficulty in Livy's account of This island, which is only figura- the march. The Tricastini inhatively such in our acceptation of the bited the country now known as term, is described by Polybius, as St. Paul-Trois-Châteaux; and it is “ nearly resembling the Delta of impossible to understand how they Egypt in size and shape, except that could have been on the left of the the sea forms one boundary of the Carthaginians, as the latter turned latter." Though the name Arar back from the Isere. It has been appears in most Mss. it is of course suggested, that ad lævam might evident and certain, that Livy wrote signify to the left of the Rhone; Isara instead of Arar. One codex and better still, to remove the senreads Bisarar, which should ob- tence to its apparently original place

agri tetendit in Tricorios : haud usquam impedita via, U. c. 536. priusquam ad Druentiam flumen pervenit. Is et ipse

A.C. 218. Alpinus amnis longe omnium Galliæ fluminum difficillimus transitu est. Nam, quum aquæ vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est: quia nullis coercitus ripis, pluribus simul, neque iisdem alveis fluens, nova semper vada novosque gurgites, (et ob eadem pediti quoque incerta via est) ad hæc saxa glareosa volvens, nihil stabile nec tutum ingredienti præbet; et tum, forte imbribus auctus, ingentem transgredientibus tumultum fecit, quum super cetera trepidatione ipsi sua atque incertis clamoribus turbarentur. i P. Cornelius consul, triduo fere post, quam Hannibal ab

32. ripa Rhodani movit, quadrato agmine ad castra hostium venerat, nullam dimicandi moram facturus. Ceterum, ubi deserta munimenta”, nec facile se tantum prægressos assecuturum videt; ad mare ac naves rediit, tutius faciliusque ita 6 descendenti ab Alpibus Hannibali occursurus.

Ne tamen nuda auxiliis Romanis Hispania esset, quam provinciam sortitus erat, Cn. Scipionem fratrem cum maxima parte copiarum adversus Hasdrubalem misit; non ad tuendos tantummodo veteres socios conciliandosque novos, sed etiam ad pellendum Hispania Hasdrubalem. Ipse cum admodum exiguis copiis Genuam repetit, eo, qui circa Padum erat, exercitu Italiam defensurus.

Hannibal ab Druentia campestri maxime itinere ad Alpes cum bona pace? incolentium ea loca Gallorum pervenit,

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at the beginning of the chapter, and Genoa. read, “ Postero die profectus adv. 7 Hannibal ab Druentia,cum bond ripå Rhodani, ad lævam in Tric. pace, &c.] “Arrived at the Alps flectit, et Mediterr. Gall. petit.from the Durance without molesta

5 Ubi deserta munimenta.] This tion from the Gauls inhabiting that incident resembles a movement pur- country,” &c. It has been remarked posely contrived by Hannibal on a above, that this statement does not subsequent occasion,(l. xxii. 16.) and in any respect adapt itself to the recalls one of the many manœuvres valley of the Durance, where the inof Frederick the Great, during " the vaders would be entangled among seven years' war.” The king, finding the secondary ridges of the mounhimself before Dresden,which had suc- tains; but to the level and fertile cessfully resisted him, and surrounded valley of the Isere, through which by one Russian and two Austrian Polybius states that Hannibal was armies, left his camp in the night in escorted by the Prince whom he had haste to encounter his enemies se- restored to his throne. The Gauls parately; and when the Austrian inhabiting that country (i.e. between General (Count Daun) arrived with the Druentia and the Alps) were the the intention of storming the Prus- Caturiges; and the tribe who opsian camp, he was astonished to find posed Hannibal on the ascent of the it empty, and to learn, soon after, mountains must have been the Sethat his colleague, General Landolm, gusii, or Susii, whose descendants had been just defeated by Frederick. were the subjects of Cottius, or

6 Tutius faciliusque ita.] “By so Cotys, who afterwards gave his name doing,” i. e. by crossing the gulf of to the mountain, and his kingdom

Tum per

U. C. 536. Tum, quanquam fama prius, qua incerta in majus vero ferri
A.C. 218. solent, præcepta res erat, tamen ex propinquo visa montium

altitudo, nivesque cælo prope immixtæ, tecta informia im-
posita rupibus, pecora jumentaque torrida frigore', homines
intonsi et inculti, animalia inanimaque omnia rigentia gelu,
cetera visu, quam dictu, fædiora, terrorem renovarunt.
Erigentibus in primos agmen clivos' apparuerunt imminentes
tumulos insidentes montani: qui, si valles occultiores inse-
dissent, coorti in pugnam repente, ingentem fugam stra-
gemque dedissent. Hannibal consistere signa jubet; Gal-
lisque ad visenda loca præmissis, postquam comperit, trans-
itum ea non esse, castra inter confragosa omnia prærup-
taque?, quam extentissima potest valle, locat.
to Augustus. According to Poly- du Chat has been found to establish,
bius, the people through

whose ter- that Hannibal advanced through the ritory Hannibal approached the Chevelu pass of that mountain, corAlps, and who opposed his ascent, responding to the eởnalpol TOTO which were Allobroges. It has been pro- he mentions, and to the Roman posed to read Alpes Gallorum, omit- road subsequently made. From ting the intervening words; i. e. as Chevelu to the summit of the mounwe would say, the Gallic Alps. tain is an ascent of about two miles, This emendation would remove the terminating in a platform of about difficulty.

300 yards across. The passage is 8. Quanquam famá prius, &c.] divided midway by a large rock, Though the fact had been anti- measuring at the base about 200 cipated from report, (by which the yards by 100; and the road over the indefinite is generally exaggerated,) ridge is partially formed of the still, the near view of the height of ruins of a temple, said to have been the mountains, the snow almost dedicated to Mercury, or rather to blending with the sky, the shapeless the corresponding Teutonic deity, dwellings perched upon the cliffs,” Thuat, from whom the mountain &c. If Hannibal be supposed to have took its ancient name.

The large been where Livy's description would rock would appear to be that which bring him, he could have reached the Allobroges occupied during the Turin in six days, without encoun- day, and of which Hannibal took tering any of the horrors here possession in the night; and the painted.

town which he seized, on the dis9 Torrida frigore.] Literally, persion of the inhabitants, was most “ scorched by the cold.” It is now probably Bourget, which is still of known, from chemical experiments, considerable extent, and more likely that the extremes of heat and cold than Chambery, which, though larger, produce similar effects upon living is too distant to have been the town animal tissues.

in question. Looking, on the other Erigentibus in primos agmen hand, to the topography of the clivos.] The whole of this descrip- Cottian pass, we shall find that the tion, to the end of the 33d chapter, only “ Castellumof which Hanniaccords exactly with the topography bal could have made himself master, of the Mons Thuates, where Poly- must have been Cesanne, which lies bius represents the first collision at the Italian side; and there is no between the Carthaginians and the fortress or stronghold of any sort mountaineers to have taken place; from which Hannibal could have and not with the features of any spent nine days (chap. xxxv.) in approach to Mont Genevre. # reaching the highest point of his comparison of the narrative of Poly- journey. bius with the localities of the Mont 2 Inter confragosa omnia prærup

eosdem Gallos, haud sane multum lingua moribusque U. C. 536. abhorrentes, quum se immiscuissent colloquiis montanorum, A.C. 218. edoctus interdiu tantum obsideri saltum, nocte in sua quemque dilabi tecta; luce prima subiit tumulos, ut ex aperto atque interdiu vim per angustias facturus. Die deinde simulando aliud, quam quod parabatur, consumpto, quum eodem, quo constiterant, loco castra communissent, ubi primum degressos tumulis montanos laxatasque sensit custodias, pluribus ignibus, quam pro numero manentium, in speciem factis, impedimentisque cum equite relictis, et maxima parte peditum; ipse cum expeditis, acerrimo quoque viro, raptim angustias evadit: iisque ipsis tumulis, quos hostes tenuerant, consedit. Prima deinde luce castra mota, 33. et agmen reliquum incedere coepit. Jam montani signo dato ex castellis ad stationem solitam conveniebant; quum repente conspiciunt: alios, arce occupata sua, super caput imminentes, alios via transire hostes. Utraque simul objecta rest oculis animisque immobiles parumper eos defixit. Deinde, ut trepidationem in angustiis, suoque ipsum tumultu misceri agmen videre, equis maxime consternatis, quicquid adjecissent ipsi terroris, satis ad perniciem fore rati, diversis rupibus, juxta invia ac devia assueti, decurrunt. Tum vero simul ab hostibus, simul ab iniquitate locorum Pæni oppugnabantur; plusque inter ipsos, sibi quoque tendente, ut periculo prius evaderet, quam cum hostibus, certaminis erat. Equi maxime infestum agmen faciebant, qui et clamoribus dissonis, quos nemora etiam repercussæque valles augebant, territi trepidabant, et icti forte aut taque.]

« Amid one vast scene of 4 Utraque simul objecta res, &c.] rugged precipices."

“Both objects, presented at the 3 Quum repente conspiciunt.] A same moment to their eyes and parallel to this movement will be minds, kept them motionless for a found in that of General Wolfe at time: afterwards, perceiving the conQuebec, (A.D. 1759.) Finding fusion in the passes, and the army that his colleague, General Amherst, disconcerted by its own disorder, could not effect a junction with him, especially by the alarm of the horses, as it had been arranged, and that and believing that whatever panic he was totally unsupported in a they could themselves add, would be critical enterprise, he adopted the sufficient for its destruction, they bold expedient of ascending, in the ran across the rocks,” &c. night, the heights of Abraham, which 5 Diversis rupibus.] Instead of commanded the town. The river this reading, the meaning of which was rapid, the landing-place narrow, is obvious, Crevier approves

of

perand the precipices difficult of ascent versis, which he explains by molestis, even by day; but all obstacles were v. incommodis: the more natural surmounted before morning; and, meaning would be “ turning over," when day dawned, the French com

or, “ rolling down.' mander, the Marquis de Montcalm, 6 Infestum agmen faciebant.] “Ensaw with amazement the enemy in dangered the line of march, (or, the possession of a position which he position of the army.)” had supposed inaccessible.

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