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agri tetendit in Tricorios: haud usquam impedita via, U. C. 536. priusquam ad Druentiam flumen pervenit. Is et ipse A. C. 218. Alpinus amnis longe omnium Galliæ fluminum difficillimus transitu est. Nam, quum aquæ vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est: quia nullis coercitus ripis, pluribus simul, neque iisdem alveis fluens, nova semper vada novosque gurgites, (et ob eadem pediti quoque incerta via est) ad hæc saxa glareosa volvens, nihil stabile nec tutum ingredienti præbet; et tum, forte imbribus auctus, ingentem transgredientibus tumultum fecit, quum super cetera trepidatione ipsi sua atque incertis clamoribus turbarentur. P. Cornelius consul, triduo fere post, quam Hannibal ab

32. ripa Rhodani movit, quadrato agmine ad castra hostium venerat, nullam dimicandi moram facturus. Ceterum, ubi deserta munimenta”, nec facile se tantum prægressos assecuturum videt; ad mare ac naves rediit, tutius faciliusque ita 6 descendenti ab Alpibus Hannibali occursurus.

Ne tamen nuda auxiliis Romanis Hispania esset, quam provinciam sortitus erat, Cn. Scipionem fratrem cum maxima parte copiarum adversus Hasdrubalem misit; non ad tuendos tantummodo veteres socios conciliandosque novos, sed etiam ad pellendum Hispania Hasdrubalem. Ipse cum admodum exiguis copiis Genuam repetit, eo, qui circa Padum erat, exercitu Italiam defensurus.

Hannibal ab Druentia campestri maxime itinere ad Alpes cum bona pace? incolentium ea loca Gallorum pervenit,

at the beginning of the chapter, and Genoa. read, Postero die profectus adv.

7 Hannibal ab Druentia,cum bond ripå Rhodani, ad lævam in Tric. pace, &c.] “Arrived at the Alps flectit, et Mediterr. Gall. petit.from the Durance without molesta

5 Ubi deserta munimenta.] This tion from the Gauls inhabiting that incident resembles a movement pur- country,” &c. It has been remarked posely contrived by Hannibal on a above, that this statement does not subsequent occasion,(l. xxii. 16.) and in any respect adapt itself to the recalls one of the many maneuvres valley of the Durance, where the inof Frederick the Great, during “the vaders would be entangled among seven years' war.” The king, finding the secondary ridges of the mounhimself before Dresden,which had suc- tains; but to the level and fertile cessfully resisted him, and surrounded valley of the Isere, through which by one Russian and two Austrian Polybius states that Hannibal was armies, left his camp in the night in escorted by the Prince whom he had haste to encounter his enemies se- restored to his throne. The Gauls parately; and when the Austrian inhabiting that country (i.e. between General (Count Daun) arrived with the Druentia and the Alps) were the the intention of storming the Prus- Caturiges; and the tribe who opsian camp, he was astonished to find posed Hannibal on the ascent of the it empty, and to learn, soon after, mountains must have been the Sethat his colleague, General Landolm, gusii, or Susii, whose descendants had been just defeated by Frederick. were the subjects of Cottius, or

6 Tutius faciliusque ita.] “By so Cotys, who afterwards gave his name doing,” i. e. by crossing the gulf of to the mountain, and his kingdom

Tum per

U.C. 536. Tum, quanquam fama prius , qua incerta in majus vero ferri
A.C. 218. solent, præcepta res erat, tamen ex propinquo visa montium

altitudo, nivesque coelo prope immixtæ, tecta informia im-
posita rupibus, pecora jumentaque torrida frigore", homines
intonsi et inculti, animalia inanimaque omnia rigentia gelu,
cetera visu, quam dictu, fædiora, terrorem renovarunt.
Erigentibus in primos agmen clivos' apparuerunt imminentes
tumulos insidentes montani: qui, si valles occultiores inse-
dissent, coorti in pugnam repente, ingentem fugam stra-
gemque dedissent. Hannibal consistere signa jubet; Gal-
lisque ad visenda loca præmissis, postquam comperit, trans-
itum ea non esse, castra inter confragosa omnia prærup-
taque?, quam extentissima potest valle, locat.
to Augustus. According to Poly- du Chat has been found to establish,
bius, the people through

whose ter- that Hannibal advanced through the ritory Hannibal approached the Chevelu pass of that mountain, corAlps, and who opposed his ascent, responding to the eởkaipOL Tótol which were Allobroges. It has been pro- he mentions, and to the Roman posed to read Alpes Gallorum, omit- road subsequently made. From ting the intervening words; i. e. as Chevelu to the summit of the moun. we would say, the Gallic Alps. tain is an ascent of about two miles, This emendation would remove the terminating in a platform of about difficulty.

300 yards across. The passage is 8 Quanquam famá prius, &c.] divided midway by a large rock, “ Though the fact had been anti- measuring at the base about 200 cipated from report, (by which the yards by 100; and the road over the indefinite is generally exaggerated,) ridge is partially formed of the still, the near view of the height of ruins of a temple, said to have been the mountains, the snow almost dedicated to Mercury, or rather to blending with the sky, the shapeless the corresponding Teutonic deity, dwellings perched upon the cliffs,” Thuat, from whom the mountain &c. If Hannibal be supposed to have took its ancient name.

The large been where Livy's description would rock would appear to be that which bring him, he could have reached the Allobroges occupied during the Turin in six days, without encoun- day, and of which Hannibal took tering any of the horrors here possession in the night; and the painted.

town which he' seized, on the dis9 Torrida frigore.). Literally, persion of the inhabitants, was most “scorched by the cold.” It is now probably Bourget, which is still of known, from chemical experiments, considerable extent, and more likely that the extremes of heat and cold than Chambery, which, though larger, produce similar effects upon living is too distant to have been the town animal tissues.

in question. Looking, on the other ! Erigentibus in primos agmen hand, to the topography of the clivos.] The whole of this descrip. Cottian pass, we shall find that the tion, to the end of the 33d chapter, only “ Castellumof which Hanniaccords exactly with the topography bal could have made himself master, of the Mons Thuates, where Poly- must have been Cesanne, which lies bius represents the first collision at the Italian side; and there is no between the Carthaginians and the fortress or stronghold of any sort mountaineers to have taken place; from which Hannibal could have and not with the features of any spent nine days (chap. xxxv.) in approach to Mont Genevre. Å reaching the highest point of his comparison of the narrative of Poly- journey. bius with the localities of the Mont 2 Inter confragosa omnia prærup

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eosdem Gallos, haud sane multum lingua moribusque U.C. 536. abhorrentes, quum se immiscuissent colloquiis montanorum, A. C. 218. edoctus interdiu tantum obsideri saltum, nocte in sua quemque dilabi tecta; luce prima subiit tumulos, ut ex aperto atque interdiu vim per angustias facturus.

Die deinde simulando aliud, quam quod parabatur, consumpto, quum eodem, quo constiterant, loco castra communissent, ubi primum degressos tumulis montanos laxatasque sensit custodias, pluribus ignibus, quam pro numero manentium, in speciem factis, impedimentisque cum equite relictis, et maxima parte peditum ; ipse cum expeditis, acerrimo quoque viro, raptim angustias evadit: iisque ipsis tumulis, quos hostes tenuerant, consedit. Prima deinde luce castra mota, 33. et agmen reliquum incedere cæpit. Jam montani signo dato ex castellis ad stationem solitam conveniebant; quum repente conspiciunt: alios, arce occupata sua, super caput imminentes, alios via transire hostes. Utraque simul objecta res oculis animisque immobiles parumper eos defixit. Deinde, ut trepidationem in angustiis, suoque ipsum tumultu misceri agmen videre, equis maxime consternatis, quicquid adjecissent ipsi terroris, satis ad perniciem fore rati, diversis rupibus', juxta invia ac devia assueti, decurrunt. Tum vero simul ab hostibus, simul ab iniquitate locorum Poeni oppugnabantur; plusque inter ipsos, sibi quoque tendente, ut periculo prius evaderet, quam cum hostibus, certaminis erat. Equi maxime infestum agmen faciebanto, qui et clamoribus dissonis, quos nemora etiam repercussæque valles augebant, territi trepidabant, et icti forte aut taque.]

“ Amid one vast scene of 4 Utraque simul objecta res, &c.] rugged precipices."

“ Both objects, presented at the 3 Quum repente conspiciunt.) A same moment to their eyes and parallel to this movement will be minds, kept them motionless for a found in that of General Wolfe at time: afterwards, perceiving the conQuebec, (A.D. 1759.) Finding fusion in the passes, and the army that his colleague, General Amherst, disconcerted by its own disorder, could not effect a junction with him, especially by the alarm of the horses, as it had been arranged, and that and believing that whatever panic he was totally unsupported in a they could themselves add, would be critical enterprise, he adopted the sufficient for its destruction, they bold expedient of ascending, in the ran across the rocks,” &c. night, the heights of Abraham, which 5 Diversis rupibus.] Instead of commanded the town. The river this reading, the meaning of which was rapid, the landing-place narrow, is obvious, Crevier



perand the precipices difficult of ascent versis, which he explains by molestis, even by day; but all obstacles were v. incommodis: the more natural surmounted before morning; and, meaning would be “turning over,” when day dawned, the French com

or, “ rolling down.' mander, the Marquis de Montcalm, 6 Infestum agmen faciebant.] “Ensaw with amazement the enemy in dangered the line of march, (or, the possession of a position which he position of the army.)” had supposed inaccessible.

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U. C. 536. vulnerati? adeo consternabantur, ut stragem ingentem simul
A. C. 218. hominum ac sarcinarum omnis generis facerent: multosque

turba, quum præcipites deruptæque utriumque angustiæ
essent, in immensum altitudinis dejecit; quosdam et arma-
tos: sed ruinæ maximæ modo 8 jumenta cum oneribus de-
volvebantur. Quæ quanquam foeda visu erant, stetit
parumper tamen Hannibal, ac suos continuit, ne tumultum
ac trepidationem augeret. Deinde, postquam interrumpi
agmen vidit, periculumque esse, ne exutum impedimentis
exercitum nequicquam incolumem traduxisset, decurrit ex
superiore loco; et, quum impetu ipso fudisset hostem, suis
quoque tumultum auxit. Sed is tumultus momento tem-
poris, postquam liberata itinera fuga montanorum erant,
sedatur: nec per otium modo, sed prope silentio, mox
omnes traducti. Castellum inde, quod caput ejus regionis
erat, viculosque circumjectos capit, et captivo cibo ac pe-
coribus per triduum exercitum aluit. Et quia nec montanis

primo perculsis, nec loco magnopere impediebantur', ali34. quantum eo triduo viæ confecit.

Perventum inde ad frequentem cultoribus alium, ut inter montana?, populum. Ibi non bello aperto, sed suis artibus,

? Icti forte aut vulnerati.] “ When leaving jumenta to be governed by they happened to be struck or dejecit. wounded."

9 Quum impetu ipso fudisset &c.] 8 Ruinæ maximæ modo.] The “And, although he dispersed the cattle that suffered most on this occa- enemy by the mere violence of the sion must have been the elephants; charge, he aggravated, at the same those animals being unsuited, by the time, the confusion,” &c. formation of theirbind legs, to moving Impediebantur,confecit.] In or exerting their immense strength order to remove the anomaly in upon inclined planes. We read that, Syntax between these verbs, Groon a subsequent occasion, the Consul nov.reads montani prælio (for primo) Marcius, when invading Macedonia, perculsi, nec loca magn. impediebant, facilitated the descent of his ele- which is a considerable improvephants down the side of a mountain, ment. by means of bridges or galleries, 2 Ut inter montann &c.] “Conwhich, as soon as the animals pro- sidering that it was on the mounceeded some distance upon them, tains.” The meeting with the nasank at one end, and sent them tives described bere, is copied from sliding down gently to the plane of Polybius, who seems to represent those next in elevation.

them as having been Centrones (inAlii elephanti pedibus insistentes, habitants of the Tarantaise); for, alii clunibus subsidentes, prolabeban- if we adopt his account of the march, tur.

Ubi planities altera pontis ex- we must suppose Hannibal to have cepisset eos, rursus simili ruiná now passed through the Allobroges, pontis inferioris deferebantur, donec and entered the territory of another ad æquiorem vallem perventum est. people, whose frontier was at a place (Livy xliv. 5.) It does not appear subsequently called ad publicanos, that Hannibal adopted any precau- (i. e. the provincial toll-house,) now tion to save the life of either man or known as L'Hôpital. Polybius debeast; except that of procuring some scribes the envoys as coming to meet warm clothing from the Gallic prince. the army θαλλους έχοντες και στεφάIn one Ms. devolvebantur is omitted, The wealth and numbers of



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fraude, deinde insidiis est prope circumventus. Magno U. C. 636. natu principes castellorum oratores ad Ponum veniunt: A.C. 218. ·alienis malis, utili exemplo, doctos,' memorantes, 'amici'tiam malle, quam vim experiri Panorum. Itaque obedienter imperata facturos: commeatum itinerisque duces, et ad fidem promissorum obsides acciperet.'

Hannibal nec temere credendo, nec aspernando, ne repudiati aperte hostes fierent, benigne quum respondisset; obsidibus, quos dabant, acceptis, et commeatu, quem in viam ipsi detulerant, usus, nequaquam, ut inter pacatos, incomposito agmine duces eorum sequitur. Primum agmen elephanti et equites erant: ipse post cum robore peditum, circumspectans sollicitusque omnia', incedebat. Ubi in angustiorem viam ex parte altera subjectam jugo insuper imminenti ventum est, undique ex insidiis barbari a fronte, ab tergo coorti, cominus eminus petunt: saxa ingentia in agmen devolvunt: maxima ab tergo* vis hominum urgebat. In eos versa peditum acies haud dubium fecit, quin, nisi firmata extrema agminis fuissent, ingens in eo saltu accipienda clades fuerit. Tunc quoque ad extremum periculi ac prope perniciem ventum est: nam, dum cunctatur Hannibal demittere agmen in angustias ; quia non, ut ipse equitibus præsidio erat, ita peditibus quicquam ab tergo auxilii reliquerat; occursantes per obliqua montani, perrupto medio agmine, viam insedere: noxque una Hannibali sine equitibus atque impedimentis acta est. Postero die, jam segnius intercursantibus barbaris, 35. junctæ copiæ, saltusque haud sine clade, majore tamen jumentorum, quam hominum, pernicie, superatus. Inde montani pauciores jam, et latrocinii magis quam belli more, concursabant; modo in primum, modo in novissimum agmen, utcunque aut locus opportunitatem daret, aut progressi morative aliquam occasionem fecissent. Elephanti, sicut per artas præcipites vias magna mora agebantur, ita tutum ab hostibus, quacunque incederent, quia insuetis adeundi propius metus erat, agmen præbebant.

Nono die in jugum Alpium perventum est, per invia pleraque et errores, quos aut ducentium fraus?, aut, ubi fides

this tribe form another argument in the rear.”
favour of Polybius; because, on any 5 Per artas præcipites vias.] Cre-
other part of the Alps but the Graian, vier proposes per arctas et præcipites
the Carthaginian army must have vias. But the text, as it stands,
perished of starvation.

requires no alteration.
3 Circumspectans sollicitusque om- 6 Nono die &c.] See note on
nia.] It will be perceived that omnia chap. xxiii. above.
is governed by circumspectans alone; ** Ducentium fraus.] Polybius
thus, “watching every thing and mentions no deception on the part of

the guides, who appear, according to 4 Maxima ab tergo.] Observe the his statement, to have led the army emphasis, “ It was principally on faithfully from Carthagena to their

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