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bantur. Tatra ibi luctatio erat, ut a lubrica glacie, non U.C. 536. recipiente vestigium, et in prono citius pedes fallente: et, A.C. 218. seu manibus in assurgendo seu genu se adjuvissent, ipsis adminiculis prolapsis si iterum corruerent, nec stirpes circa radicesve, ad quas pede aut manu quisquam eniti posset, erant; ita in levi tantum glacie tabidaque nive volutabantur. Jumenta secabant interdum etiam tum infimam ingredientia nivem, et prolapsa jactandis gravius in connitendo ungulis penitus perfringebant: ut pleraque, velut pedica capta, hærerent in durata et alte concreta glacie. Tandem, 37. nequicquam jumentis atque hominibus fatigatis, castra in jugo posita?, ægerrime ad id ipsum loco purgato: tantum nivis fodiendum atque egerendum fuit. Inde ad rupem muniendam, per quam unam via esse poterat, milites ducti, quum cædendum esset saxum, arboribus circa immanibus 3 dejectis detruncatisque, struem ingentem lignorum faciunt: eamque, quum et vis venti apta faciendo igni coorta esset, succendunt, ardentiaque saxa infuso aceto putrefaciunt*. Ita torridam incendio rupem ferro pandunt, molliuntque anfractibus modicis clivos, ut non jumenta solum, sed elephanti etiam, deduci possent.

Quatriduum circa rupem consumptum, jumentis prope fame absumptis: nuda enim fere cacumina sunt, et, si quid est pabuli, obruunt nives.

summer sun, the snow remains un- the tall trees felled for the purpose
thawed sometimes during the whole of heating the rocks, and, imme-
year, and forms a natural bridge diately after, speaking of the nuda
over the stream for a considerable cacumina. But it may be observed,
distance. “On voit,” says a French that the nakedness of the heights
writer, M. de Saussure, who passed is evidently to be interpreted only
through in 1792, “ là sous ses pieds, with reference to pasture.
des amas de niege, qui se sont 4 Ardentiaque saxa infuso aceto
conservés depuis l'hiver, et qui for- putrefaciunt.] 16 Crumbled the
ment des ponts sur ce torrent.” In heated rocks by pouring on vinegar.”
the arrangement of this sentence, It has never been ascertained where
Drakenborch reads pede se fallente, this legend originated: where the
(the Latinity of which is doubtful,) Carthaginians procured such quan-
and omits si before iterum corru- tities of a thing so useless to a
issent, which must accordingly de- marching army as vinegar; or even
pend on ut.

what effect it could have produced ? Castra in jugo posita.] Having upon primitive rock. Nothing of failed in his attempt to penetrate the kind is mentioned by Polybius, this pass, Hannibal was obliged to who merely states, that Hannibal, encamp, probably on the piain upon “ having desisted from his first which the village of Artolica (La attempt, encamped near the narrow Tuille) stands, and to proceed, on pass, and after clearing away the the next day, to construct a road in snow, employed his army in propping order to turn the ravine, by passing up and repairing the road,” (and behind the rocks on the right bank not, therefore, in constructing a of the river.

new way.) 3 Arboribus circa immanibus, &c.] 5 Molliuntque anfractibus &c.] Livy has been accused of contra- “Reduced (lowered) the acclivities dicting himself here, in mentioning by easy angles.”

A.C. 218.

U. C. 536. Inferiora valles et apricos quosdam collesø habent, rivosque

prope silvas, et jam humano cultu digniora loca. Ibi jumenta in pabulum missa, et quies muniendo fessis hominibus data triduo. Inde ad planum descensum, etiam locis mol

lioribus et accolarum ingeniis. 38. Hoc maxime modo? in Italiam perventum est, quinto

mense a Carthagine nova, ut quidam auctores sunt, quinto decimo die8 Alpibus superatis. Quantæ copiæ° transgresso in Italiam Hannibali fuerint, nequaquam inter auctores constat. Qui plurimum, centum millia peditum, viginti equitum fuisse scribunt: qui minimum, viginti millia peditum, sex equitum. L. Cincius Alimentus', qui captum se ab Hannibale scribit, maxime auctor me moveret, nisi confunderet numerum, Gallis Liguribusque additis: cum his octoginta millia peditum, decem equitum, adducta in Italiam: (magis


6 Inferiora valles et apricos quos- with 50,000 infantry and 9,000 dam colles &c.] This description cavalry: those numbers were corresponds exactly with what is duced, after crossing the Rhone, to known of the village of Arebrigium 38,000 infantry and 8,000 cavalry: (Prè St. Didier), at the foot of the on his arrival in Italy, he had but mountains: a rich, fertile, and genial 20,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry: valley of meadows, groves, and vine- having lost 33,000 men on the whole yards, presenting a strong contrast march. This computation differs to the naked rocks and glaciers that but slightly from that quoted by hang over it. Into this valley, as Livy from Cincius Alimentus; but they were now in a friendly country, in order to reconcile them, we must it would appear that the surviving take into account, that the 80,000 horses and elephants, which must infantry and 10,000 cavalry, menhave been by this time nearly starved, tioned in the first instance, are the were sent down to feed. This march numbers with which Hannibalcrossed (of 200 Roman miles) was com- the Ebro: and as to the rest, the pleted in five months: Hannibal 36,000 men, said to have been lost having left Carthagena early in in Taurinis, agree sufficiently with June, and arrived at the Italian the losses enumerated by Polybius. foot of the mountains in the first It may be observed, that no Ms. week in November, A.U.C. 536, exhibits in before Taurinis. The and B. C. 218.

omission would remove a difficulty; 7 Hoc maximè modo.] « In this as the translation would then be, way, most probably, (as nearly as 6 he had lost on his descent into can be ascertained.)”?

Italy from the Taurini,”' &c. 8 Quinto decimo die.] The actual I L. Cincius Alimentus.] This passage of the mountains occupied early historian, like Fabius Pictor, thirty-five days, according to Livy wrote in Greek. Like Xenophon and Polybius, with a further addi- and Nævius, who recorded the events tion of three days, if we suppose the of the first Punic war, and Bernal final encampment among the In- Diaz, who has left an account of subres to be the conclusion of the the American wars of Cortez, and expedition, and make no allowance the several English and French for the days spent in constructing officers who have published remithe road.

niscences of modern expeditions, 9 Quantæ copiæ.] According to he had the advantage of witnessing, Polybius, who refers to an inscription especially in the enemy's camp, the left by the Carthaginians at Laci- events of his narrative. nium, Hannibal crossed the Pyrenees

several passes.

affluxisse' verisimile est, et ita quidam auctores sunt) ex ipso U.C. 536. autem audisse Hannibale, postquam Rhodanum transierit, A. C. 218. triginta sex millia hominum, ingentemque numerum equorum et aliorum jumentorum amisisse, Taurinis, quæ Gallis proxima gens erat, in Italiam degressum. Id quum inter omnes constet, eo magis miror ambigi', quanam Alpes transierit: et vulgo credere, Penino, atque inde nomen ei jugo Alpium inditum, transgressum. Colius per Cremonis

Magis affluxisse &c.] “That (Lomello), and Ticinum (Pavia). they enlisted (joined his standard) it appears then, that the account there, is more probable.”

given by Cælius coincides very nearly 3 Eo magis miror ambigi &c.) with that of Polybius. It also agrees The cause of all the uncertainty is, with the statement made by Cornesimply that the ancient historians lius Nepos, in his life of Hannibal. have omitted to name the particular Julius Cæsar also has left an acmountains and passes to which their count of his march across the Alps; several theories relate. Had Poly- but he appears to have taken the bius only mentioned the Graian route which was better known to the Alps, it would have saved much dis- Romans, and to have crossed Mont cussion: because, in the existing Genevre by the road which was first state of the evidence, commentators rendered practicable by Pompey, in can merely compare descriptions of his expedition against Sertorius. places and computations of distances, “ Diebus xl. exercitum paravi, howith the physical features of the stesque in cervicibus jam Italiæ

agentes ab Alpibus in Hispaniam 4 Penino, atque inde nomen &c.] submovi, per eas iter aliud atque It was an ignorant mistake to have Hannibal nobis opportunius pateever derived the ancient name of the feci.” (Sallust. Hist. Fragm. lib. Great St. Bernard from the term iii.) In the time of Augustus, when Pæni. It was evidently so called, more constant and expeditious as Livy observes, after the name of communication with the northern the Celtic Deity Pen. The term provinces became necessary, two Pin or Pen is still applied by the roads were constructed through the Belgians to a peak. Compare the Alps, over the Penine and Graian Scotch Ben, and the cognate terms hills; one leading from Milan to Bin, Byn, Pen, as Penman Mawr Lyons; and the other from Milan to in Wales, &c.

Vienna. 5 Cælius ( Antipater).] Thishisto- The Alps have been frequently rian lived in the time of the Gracchi, crossed by armies within the period (about A.U.C. 620,) something less of modern history. During the Lomthan a century after the invasion by bard wars in Italy, Pepin and his Hannibal. His works have been son Charlemagne marched through all lost; but there are on record them: but the most remarkable abundant testimonies to the value of passage in modern times was that his authority Brutus epitomised effected by Francis I. in 1515, in his history of the second Punic war, his invasion of Lombardy, imme(Cicero ad Att. lib. xiii. Ep. 8.) diately before the decisive battle of and Cicero strongly commends his Marignano. All the known and veracity and beauty of style, (de Leg. customary roads were occupied by i. and de Orat. ii. 20.). The Cre- the Swiss troops; and to avoid these, monis (or Centronis) jugum, now he was obliged to send the main known as the Cramont, lies between body of his army by the valley of the Little St. Bernard and Mont Barcelonette, south of the Durance, Blanc, and led down, as Livy states, and then by the Col de l'Argentiere into the territory of the Gauls, called into Saluzzo, south of Turin. Libui or Libicii, who inhabited It may be interesting to take Vercellæ (Verceil), Laumellum some notice here of the memorable


U.C. 536. jugum dicit transisse : qui ambo saltus eum non in Tauri-
A. C. 218.


Salassos montanos ad Libuos Gallos deduxissent. Nec verisimile est, ea tum ad Galliam paruisse itinera; utique, quæ ad Peninum ferunt, obsæpta gentibus passage of these mountains by Na- the Isand of the Allobroges; that poleon I. and instructive to compare he then returned through the Vothe prudent foresight with which contii and Tricorii till he reached every contingency was anticipated, the Durance, at a distance of nine with the absence of preparation and days' march from the summit of the mechanical skill in the former in Alps; and that he then crossed the stance. Like Hannibal, the First Mont Genevre, and descended among Consul was diverted from the more the Taurini. This marching and direct road into Italy (through Mont countermarching would alone be Cenis), by a reluctance to descend sufficient to make us suspect his among his enemies, the Austrians, accuracy; but when we find, which who were then besieging Genoa, and we shall upon comparing the two obliged to look for a more circuitous narratives, that he follows Polybius route. General Marescot of the step by step to the Insula, then engineers having reported that the drops him during the return to the pass of the Great St. Bernard was Durance, and then takes him up practicable, though extremely diffi- again in the same place where he cult, it was resolved to select that had left off, beginning afresh from road for the main body of the army, the Durance, as Polybius does from and to send smaller divisions by the the Isere; and after this, he follows St. Gothard, the Simplon, and Mont him word for word, with the exCenis, in order to secure a larger ception of his own exaggeration, command of supplies along the through a country which it is clear march. As the present roads were he knew nothing about—since the not in existence, the artillery was country described by Polybius is as taken over the heights on sledges, different as possible from the road and the carriages taken asunder on between the Durance and the Mont the French side of the passes, and Genevre ;—and when he finally put together again on the Italian brings him out with an enfeebled side; provisions for men and horses army among a hostile people ;— what were carried on in large quantities can we conclude, but that the Latin and with immense labour; and corps author is not only totally unworthy of of blacksmiths and saddlers organ- credit, but that he was also so ignorant ized, to make repairs on the way. of geography, as not to be able even In this manner, the main body to make out a credible or intelligible marched a distance of forty-five account of his own hypothesis?” leagues, from the Lake of Geneva to “ Livy's account,” says Gibbon, “ is the plains of Piedmont, including rather a romantic picture, calculated ten leagues without any roads pass- to please the fancy, than a faithful able for wheeled carriages. The and judicious history capable of samarch occupied twelve days, from tisfying the understanding." On the 13th to the 25th of May, 1800. the contrary, Polybius assures us,

Livy's account of the whole expe- (lib. iii. 48.) that, if there be any dition is treated as follows, in an passage in his history on which, more Essay on the subject by MM. than another, he can rely for its Wickham and Cramer, (1828.). “It fidelity to actual facts, it is bis deappears from Livy's account—if we scription of the march of Hannibal leave out all mention of what he has from the Ebro to the Ticinus. The copied from Polybius, and read it name Passage still perpetuated on a with reference to itself alone—that portion of the route described by Hannibal crossed the Rhone at Polybius, and a silver tablet found Roquemaure; that he then, fright- in the same place in Dauphiné, are ened by the Romans, marched up to additional testimonies to his accuracy.

A. C. 218.

semigermanis fuissent. Neque, hercule, montibus his (si U.C. 536. quem forte id movet) ab transitu Poenorum ullo Veragri, incolæ jugi ejus, norunt nomen inditum: sed ab eo, quem, in summo sacratum vertice, Peninum montani appellant.

Peropportune ad principia rerum 6 Taurinis, proximæ 39. genti, adversus Insubres motum bellum erat.

Sed armare exercitum Hannibal, ut parti alteri auxilio esset, in reficiendo maxime? sentientem contracta ante mala, non poterat. Otium etenim ex labore, copia ex inopia, cultus ex illuvie tabeque, squalida et prope efferata corpora varie movebant. Ea P. Cornelio consuli causa fuit, quum Pisas navibus venisset, exercitu a Manlio Atilioque accepto tirones, et in novis ignominiiso trepido, ad Padum festinandi; ut cum hoste nondum refecto manum consereret. Sed quum Placentiam consul venit, jam ex stativis moverat Hannibal; Taurinorumque unam urbem', caput gentis ejus, quia volentes in amicitiam? non veniebant, vi expugnarat: junxissetque sibi, non metu solum, sed etiam voluntate, Gallos accolas Padi; ni eos, circumspectantes defectionis tempus, subito adventus consulis oppressisset. Et Hannibal movits ex Taurinis, incertos, quæ pars sequenda esset, Gallos præsentem se secuturos ratus. Jam prope in conspectu erant exercitus, convenerantque duces sicuti inter se nondum satis noti, ita* jam imbutus uterque quadam admiratione alterius. Nam Hannibalis et apud Romanos, jam ante Sagunti excidium, celeberrimum nomen erat: et Scipionem Hannibal eo ipso, quod adversus se dux potissimum lectus esset, præstantem virum credebat. Et auxerant inter se opinionem”; Scipio, quod, relictus in Gallia, obvius fuerat in Italiam transgresso Hannibali; Hannibal, et conatu tam

6 Ad principia rerum.] “For a by Augustus. In all the invasions commencement of operations." from the north, from the days of

? In reficiendo maximè &c.] Attila to Francis I. it suffered all “ Which felt, especially in its reco- the horrors of war and devastation. very, the damage it had already It was not until the 13th century, received; for, rest succeeding to when it became the capital of the toil, abundance after privation, com- Lavoyard Princes, that it acquired fort after neglect and exhaustion, any importance. were producing various effects upon ? Quia volentes in amicitiam.] their disfigured and almost brutalized Other editions read volentis, i. e. bodies.”

Hannibalis, 66 refused his offer of 8 Exercitu tirone.] An army alliance." of raw troops (recruits)."

3 Et Hannibal movit.]

" And 9 In novis ignominiis, sc. their Hannibal did move,” &c. recent defeat by the Gauls.

4 Sicuti inter se&c.- ita.]“Though Taurinorumque unam urbem.] not yet well known to each other, still The principal city of the Taurini mutually impressed with some," &c. took the name Augusta Taurinorum, 5 Auxerant inter se opinionem.) when erected into a Roman colony “ Enhanced their mutual estimate."


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