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affluxisse? verisimile est, et ita quidam auctores sunt) ex ipso U.C. 536. autem audisse Hannibale, postquam Rhodanum transierit, A.C. 218. triginta sex millia hominum, ingentemque numerum equorum et aliorum jumentorum amisisse, Taurinis, quæ Gallis proxima gens erat, in Italiam degressum. Id quum inter omnes constet, eo magis miror ambigi', quanam Alpes transierit: et vulgo credere, Penino, atque inde nomen ei jugo Alpium inditum, transgressum.

Calius

per

Cremonis ? Magis affluxisse &c.] “ That (Lomello), and Ticinum (Pavia). they enlisted (joined his standard) It appears then, that the account there, is more probable.”

given by Cælius coincides very nearly 3 Eo magis miror ambigi &c.) with that of Polybius. It also agrees The cause of all the uncertainty is, with the statement made by Cornesimply that the ancient historians lius Nepos, in his life of Hannibal. have omitted to name the particular Julius Cæsar also has left an acmountains and passes to which their count of his march across the Alps; several theories relate. Had Poly- but he appears to have taken the bius only mentioned the Graian route which was better known to the Alps, it would have saved much dis Romans, and to have crossed Mont cussion: because, in the existing Genevre by the road which was first state of the evidence, commentators rendered practicable by Pompey, in can merely compare descriptions of his expedition against Sertorius. places and computations of distances, “ Diebus xl. exercitum paravi, howith the physical features of the stesque in cervicibus jam Italiæ several passes.

agentes ab Alpibus in Hispaniam 4 Penino, atque inde nomen &c.] submovi, per eas iter aliud atque It was an ignorant mistake to have Hannibal nobis opportunius pateever derived the ancient name of the feci.” (Sallust. Hist. Fragm. lib. Great St. Bernard from the term iii.) In the time of Augustus, when Pæni. It was evidently so called, a more constant and expeditious as Livy observes, after the name of communication with the northern the Celtic Deity Pen. The term provinces became necessary, two Pin or Pen is still applied by the roads were constructed through the Belgians to a peak. Compare the Alps, over the Penine and Graian Scotch Ben, and the cognate terms hills; one leading from Milan to Bin, Byn, Pen, as Penman Mawr Lyons; and the other from Milan to in Wales, &c.

Vienna. 5 Cælius ( Antipater).] This histo- The Alps have been frequently rian lived in the time of the Gracchi, crossed by armies within the period (about A.U.C.620,) something less of modern history. During the Lomthan a century after the invasion by bard wars in Italy, Pepin and his Hannibal. His works have been son Charlemagne marched through all lost; but there are on record them: but the most remarkable abundant testimonies to the value of passage in modern times was that his authority Brutus epitomised effected by Francis I. in 1515, in his history of the second Punic war, his invasion of Lombardy, imme(Cicero ad Att. lib. xiii. Ep. 8.) diately before the decisive battle of and Cicero strongly commends his Marignano. All the known and veracity and beauty of style, (de Leg. customary roads were occupied by i. and de Orat. ii. 20.) The Cre- the Swiss troops; and to avoid these, monis (or Centronis) jugum, now he was obliged to send the main known as the Cramont, lies between body of his army by the valley of the Little St. Bernard and Mont Barcelonette, south of the Durance, Blanc, and led down, as Livy states, and then by the Col de l'Argentiere into the territory of the Gauls, called into Saluzzo, south of Turin. Libui or Libicii, who inhabited It may be interesting to take Vercellæ (Verceil), Laumellum some notice here of the memorable

U.C. 536. jugum dicit transisse : qui ambo saltus eum non in Tauri-
A, C. 218.

nos,
sed
per

Salassos montanos ad Libuos Gallos deduxissent. Nec verisimile est, ea tum ad Galliam patuisse itinera; utique, quæ ad Peninum ferunt, obsæpta gentibus passage of these mountains by Na- the Isand of the Allobroges; that poleon I, and instructive to compare he then returned through the Vuthe prudent foresight with which contii and Tricorii till he reached every contingency was anticipated, the Durance, at a distance of nine with the absence of preparation and days' march from the summit of the mechanical skill in the former in Alps; and that he then crossed the stance. Like Hannibal, the First Mont Genevre, and descended among Consul was diverted from the more the Taurini. This marching and direct road into Italy (through Mont countermarching would alone be Cenis), by a reluctance to descend sufficient to make us suspect his among his enemies, the Austrians, accuracy; but when we find, which who were then besieging Genoa, and we shall upon comparing the two obliged to look for a more circuitous narratives, that he follows Polybius route. General Marescot of the step by step to the Insula, then engineers having reported that the drops him during the return to the pass of the Great St. Bernard was Durance, and then takes him up practicable, though extremely diffi- again in the same place where he cult, it was resolved to select that had left off, beginning afresh from road for the main body of the army, the Durance, as Polybius does from and to send smaller divisions by the the Isere; and after this, he follows St. Gothard, the Simplon, and Mont him word for word, with the exCenis, in order to secure a larger ception of his own exaggeration, command of supplies along the through a country which it is clear march. As the present roads were he knew nothing about-since the not in existence, the artillery was country described by Polybius is as taken over the heights on sledges, different as possible from the road and the carriages taken asunder on between the Durance and the Mont the French side of the passes, and Genevre ;—and when he finally put together again on the Italian brings him out with an enfeebled side; provisions for men and horses army among a hostile people ;-what were carried on in large quantities can we conclude, but that the Latin and with immense labour; and corps author is not only totally unworthy of of blacksmiths and saddlers organ- credit, but that he was also so ignorant ized, to make repairs on the way. of geography, as not to be able even In this manner, the main body to make out a credible or intelligible marched a distance of forty-five account of his own hypothesis?” leagues, from the Lake of Geneva to “ Livy's account,” says Gibbon, " is the plains of Piedmont, including rather a romantic picture, calculated ten leagues without any roads pass- to please the fancy, than a faithful able for wheeled carriages. The and judicious history capable of samarch occupied twelve days, from tisfying the understanding." On the 13th to the 25th of May, 1800. the contrary, Polybius assures us,

Livy's account of the whole expe- (lib. iii. 48.) that, if there be any dition is treated as follows, in an passage in his history on which, more Essay on the subject by MM. than another, he can rely for its Wickham and Cramer,(1828.). “It fidelity to actual facts, it is bis deappears from Livy's account—if we scription of the march of Hannibal leave out all mention of what he has from the Ebro to the Ticinus. The copied from Polybius, and read it name Passage still perpetuated on a with reference to itself alone—that portion of the route described by Hannibal crossed the Rhone at Polybius, and a silver tablet found Roquemaure; that he then, fright- in the same place in Dauphiné, are ened by the Romans, marched up to additional testimonies to his accuracy.

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semigermanis fuissent. Neque, hercule, montibus his (si V.C. 536. quem forte id movet) ab transitu Poenorum ullo Veragri, A. C. 218. incolæ jugi ejus, norunt nomen_inditum: sed ab eo, quem, in summo sacratum vertice, Peninum montani appellant.

Peropportune ad principia rerum 6 Taurinis, proximæ 39. genti, adversus Insubres motum bellum erat.

Sed armare exercitum Hannibal, ut parti alteri auxilio esset, in reficiendo maxime7 sentientem contracta ante mala, non poterat. Otium etenim ex labore, copia ex inopia, cultus ex illuvie tabeque, squalida et prope efferata corpora varie movebant. Ea P. Cornelio consuli causa fuit, quum Pisas navibus venisset, exercitu a Manlio Atilioque accepto tirone®,

, et in novis ignominiiso trepido, ad Padum festinandi; ut cum hoste nondum refecto manum consereret. Placentiam consul venit, jam ex stativis moverat Hannibal; Taurinorumque unam urbem', caput gentis ejus, quia volentes in amicitiam’ non veniebant, vi expugnarat: junxissetque sibi, non metu solum, sed etiam voluntate, Gallos accolas Padi; ni eos, circumspectantes defectionis tempus, subito adventus consulis oppressisset. Et Hannibal movits ex Taurinis, incertos, quæ pars sequenda esset, Gallos præsentem se secuturos ratus. Jam prope in conspectu erant exercitus, convenerantque duces sicuti inter se nondum satis noti, ita* jam imbutus uterque quadam admiratione alterius. Nam Hannibalis et apud Romanos, jam ante Sagunti excidium, celeberrimum nomen erat: et Scipionem Hannibal eo ipso, quod adversus se dux potissimum lectus esset, præstantem virum credebat. Et auxerant inter se opinionem”; Scipio, quod, relictus in Gallia, obvius fuerat in Italiam transgresso Hannibali; Hannibal, et conatu tam

Sed quum

7 In

6 Ad principia rerum.] “For a by Augustus. In all the invasions commencement of operations." from the north, from the days of

reficiendo maximè &c.] Attila to Francis I. it suffered all “ Which felt, especially in its reco- the horrors of war and devastation. very, the damage it had already It was not until the 13th century, received; for, rest succeeding to when it became the capital of the toil, abundance after privation, com- Lavoyard Princes, that it acquired fort after neglect and exhaustion, any importance. were producing various effects upon Quia volentes in amicitiam.] their disfigured and almost brutalized Other editions read volentis, i. e. bodies."

Hannibalis, “ refused his offer of 8 Exercitu tirone.] An army alliance." of raw troops (recruits).”

3 Et Hannibal movit.]

" And 9 In novis ignoniniis, sc. their Hannibal did move,” &c. recent defeat by the Gauls.

4 Sicuti inter se&c.- ita.]“Though Taurinorumque unam urbem.] not yet well known to each other, still The principal city of the Taurini mutually impressed with some,” &c. took the name Augusta Taurinorum, 5 Auxerant inter se opinionem.] when erected into a Roman colony « Enhanced their mutual estimate."

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U. C. 636. audaci trajiciendarum Alpium, et effectu. Occupavit tamen A. U. 218. Scipio Padum trajicere, et, ad Ticinum amnem motis castris,

prius, quam educeret in aciem, adhortandorum militum

causa, talem orationem exorsus est: 40. • Si eum exercitum, milites, educerem in aciem, quem in

Gallia mecum habui, supersedissem’ loqui apud vos. Quid enim adhortari referrets aut eos equites, qui equitatum • hostium ad Rhodanum flumen egregie vicissent, aut eas • legiones, cum quibus fugientem hunc ipsum hostem secutus,

confessionem cedentis ac detrectantis certamen pro victoria ‘habui? Nunc, quia ille exercitus, Hispaniæ provinciæ ? 'scriptus, ibi cum fratre Cn. Scipione meis auspiciis rem 'gerit, ubi eum gerere senatus populusque Romanus voluit;

ego, ut consulem ducem adversus Hannibalem ac Pænos haberetis, ipse me huic voluntario certamini obtuli; novo 'imperatori apud novos milites pauca verba facienda sunt. Ne genus belli, neve hostem ignoretis; cum iis est vobis, milites, pugnandum, quos terra marique priore bello

vicistis: a quibus stipendium per viginti annos exegistis: a • quibus capta belli præmia, Siciliam ac Sardiniam, habetis. Érit igitur in hoc certamine is vobis illisque animus, qui victoribus et victis esse solet. Nec nunc illi, quia audent, ' sed quia necesse est, pugnaturi sunt: nisi creditis, qui

exercitu incolumi pugnam detrectavere, eos, duabus parti'bus peditum equitumque in transitu Alpium amissis, quum plures pæne perierint, quam supersunt, plus spei nactos

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6 Ad Ticinum amnem.

n.] Pavia
8 Quid-referret.]

" Where
derived its first and ancient name, would be the necessity (or object).”.
Ticinum, from the river Ticinus 9 Cum quibus fugientem &c.]
(Tesino) on which it stood. The “ With whom when I followed this
only memorable events by which its same enemy in his flight, I regarded
ancient name has been signalized as a victory the admission of his
were, this first engagement between retreat, and of his refusal of battle.”
Scipio and Hannibal, and the visit 1 Nunc quia &c.] The apodosis
of the Emperor Augustus, to pay a to this conjunction begins at novo
compliment to the ashes of Drusus imperatori; sc. “ because that army
Nero. In the eighth century, the is elsewhere, and because I have
name Papia, (that of a Roman gens,) offered myself, &c. A new com-
softened into Pavia, first appeared. mander must have a few words to
Soon after it derived celebrity from say,” &c.
its University, after having been the 2 Hispanie provincia, is a ge-
residence of some of the Gothic nitive; meis auspiciis, on my re-
Princes, and subsequently the capi- sponsibility;” because Spain was
tal of the Lombard Kings.

his (Cornelius's) province. ? Supersedissem.] I“ would have 3 Duabus partibus.]. Two parts forborne, (deemed it unnecessary.)” out of three, “ two-thirds." This This verb literally signifies to “ sit statement renders pænè superfluous above” (to take a higher position); in the next sentence; and some and hence, in a secondary sense, commentators would omit it accord“ to be placed above the necessity ingly. of."

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esse. At enim* pauci quidem sunt, sed vigentes animis U.C. 636. ' corporibusque, quorum robora ac vires • vix sustinere vis A. C. 218.

ulla possit. Effigies, imo umbræ hominum, fame, frigore, ‘illuvie, squalore enecti, contusi ac debilitati inter saxa ru‘ pesque. Ad hæc, præusti artus, nive rigentes nervi,

membra torrida gelu, quassata fractaque arma, claudi ac • debiles equi. Cum hoc equite, cum hoc pedite pugnaturi

estis : reliquias extremas hostium, non hostes, habebitis. • Ac nihil magis vereor, quam ne, vos quum pugnaveritis, Alpes vicisse Hannibalem videantur. Sed ita forsitan decuit, cum foederum ruptore duce ac populo deos ipsos, sine ‘ulla humana ope, committere ac profligare? bellum: nos, 'qui secundum deos violati sumus, commissum ac profligatum conficere. Non vereor, ne quis me hoc vestri adhor- 41. tandi causa magnifice loqui existimet : ipsum aliter animo affectum esse. Licuit in Hispaniam, provinciam meam,

quo jam profectus eram, cum exercitu ire meo: ubi et ' fratrem consilii participem ac periculi socium haberem, et * Hasdrubalem potius, quam Hannibalem, hostem, et

minorem haud dubie molem belli. Tamen, quum præterveherer navibus Galliæ oram, ad famam hujus hostis ' in terram egressus, præmisso equitatu, ad Rhodanum movi 'castra. Equestri proelio, qua parte copiarum conserendi manum fortuna data est, hostem fudi : peditum agmen, quod in modum fugientium raptim agebatur, quia assequi ' terra non poteram, regressus ad naves, quanta maxima ' celeritate potui, tanto maris terrarumque circuitu, in radi'cibus Alpium obvius fui.

Huic timendo hostio utrum, quum declinarem certamen, improvisus incidisse videor an occurrere in vestigiis ejus ? lacessere ac trahere ad decernendum? Experiri juvat, utrum alios repente Carthaginienses per viginti annos terra ediderit: an iidem sint, qui ad Ægates pugnaverunt insulas, et quos ab Eryce • duodevicenis denariis æstimatos' emisistis: et utrum Han4 At enim.]

These words, as literally, “ burned at the ends." usual, anticipate and give its full 7 Committere ac profligare.[ “Beforce to an obvious objection: q.d. gin and expedite.”' The latter “ But, it may be said ; they are few, verb literally signifies, “ to push out to be sure; but,” &c.

of the way.5 Robora ac vires.] Refer respec- 8 Ad famam hujus hostis.] “At tively to animis and corporibus : i. e. the announcement of this enemy.' passive and active strength—for re- 9 Huic timendo hosti &c.] “This sistance and aggression—" strength formidable enemy do I appear to have and energy.”

encountered unexpectedly, while de6 Ad hæc, præusti &c.] “Be- clining an engagement; or to have sides, their joints are scorched; their come purposely to meet him on his sinews frozen in the snow; their way?” limbs parched by the frost (frost- i Duodevicenis denariis æstimabitten); arms shattered and broken; tos.) “Valued at eighteen denarii horses lame and disabled.” Prausti, each," that is, about eleven shillings

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