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animo ferebat, ab Gallis accitum se venisse ad liberan- U.C. 636. dos eos, dictitans. Ob eam iram, simul ut præda militem A.C. 218. aleret, duo millia peditum et mille equites, Numidas plerosque, mixtos quosdam et Gallos, populari omnem deinceps agrum usque ad Padi ripas jussit. Egentes ope Galli, quum ad id dubios servassent animos, coacti ab auctoribus injuriæ ad vindices futuros declinanto: legatisque ad consulem missis, auxilium Romanorum terræ, ob nimiam cultorum fidem in Romanos laboranti, orant.

Cornelio nec causa, nec tempus agendæ rei placebat: suspectaque ei gens erat, quum ob infida multa facinora, tum, ut alia vetustate obsolevissent? ob recentem Boiorum perfidiam. Sempronius contra, continendis in fide sociis maximum vinculum esse primos, qui eguissent ope, defensos, censebat. Tum collega cunctante, equitatum suum, mille peditum jaculatoribus ferme admixtis, ad defendendum Gallicum agrum trans Trebiam mittit. Ii sparsos et incompositos, ad hoc graves præda plerosque, quum inopinatos invasissent, ingentem terrorem cædemque ac fugam usque ad castra stationesque hostium fecere : unde multitudine effusa pulsi, rursus subsidio suorum proelium restituere. Varia inde pugna sequente', quanquam ad extremum æquassent certamen, major tamen hostium Romanis fama victoriæ fuit.

Ceterum nemini omnium major justiorque, quam ipsi consuli, videri; gaudio efferri, . qua parte copiarum alter 'consul victus foret, ea se vicisse. Restitutos ac refectos militibus animos: nec quemquam esse, præter collegam, •qui dilatam dimicationem vellet: eum, animo magis, quam ' corpore, ægrum, memoria vulneris aciem ac tela horrere. . Sed non esse cum ægro senescendum?. Quid enim ultra

53.

5 Omnem deinceps agrum.] ‘Every “And though the rest of the action field from that point to the banks,' was doubtful,”, and they eventually &c.

restored the balance of the contest; 6 Coactideclinant.] “Were com- still the reputation of victory was pelled to turn from the perpetrators more with the Romans than the of the wrong to those likely to be enemy.” (sc. major famd victoria their avengers.”

hostium.) In addition to suggesting Ut alia vetustate obsolevissent.] the above reading instead of se“Though the rest (other events) quentes, Gronovius proposes also to had been effaced by time.”

read justiorque instead of hostium, 8 Primos,

qui eguissent ope, de- as the other adjective is repeated fensos.] “The protection of those in the following sentence. . who had first required help.".

2 Non esse cum ægrosenescendum.] 9 Jaculatoribus ferme admixtis.] “They must not sink into (be infected “With a general sprinkling of jave- by) a sick man’s apathy. lin-men." Crevier's reading is M. should there be any further delay or peditibus, jaculatoribus ferme, ad- waste of time? What third Consul; mixtis, which is an improvement. what second army?”' &c. i Parid inde pugnd sequente.]

M

Why

6

6

U. C. 536. differri aut teri tempus ? Quem tertium consulem, quem A.C. 218. alium exercitum exspectari ? Castra Carthaginiensium

' in Italia, ac prope in conspectu urbis esse. Non Siciliam

ac Sardiniam victis ademptas, nec cis Iberum Hispaniam peti, sed solo patrio terraque, in qua geniti forent, pelli • Romanos. Quantum ingemiscant, inquit, patres nostri, 'circa mænia Carthaginis bellare soliti, si videant nos, progeniem suam, duos consules consularesque exercitus, in media Italia paventes intra castra; Poenum, quod in'ter Alpes Apenninumque agri sit, suæ ditionis fecisse: ?' Hæc assidens ægro collegæ, hæc in prætorio prope concionabundus agere.

Stimulabat et tempus propinquum comitiorum, ne in novos consules bellum differretur, et occasio in se unum vertendæ gloriæ, dum æger collega erat. Itaque, nequicquam dissentiente Cornelio, parari: ad propinquum certamen milites jubet. Hannibal, quum, quid optimum foret hosti, cernereto, vix ullam spem habebat, temere atque improvide quicquam consules acturos. Quum alterius ingenium, fama prius, deinde re cognitum, percitum ac ferox sciret esse, ferociusque factum prospero cum prædatoribus suis certamine crederet; adesse gerendæ rei fortunam haud diffidebat. Cujus ne quod prætermitteret tempus, sollicitus intentusque erat, dum tiro hostium esset miles, dum meliorem ex ducibus inutilem vulnus faceret, dum Gallorum animi vigerent: quorum ingentem multitudinem sciebat segnius secuturam, quanto longius ab domo traherentur. Quum ob hæc taliaque speraret propinquum certamen, et facere, si cessaretur, cuperet; speculatoresque Galli, ad ea exploranda, quæ vellet, tutiores', quia in utris

que castris militabant, paratos pugnæ esse Romanos retu54. lissent; locum insidiis circumspectare Ponus coepit. Erat

in medio? rivus, præaltis utrimque clausus ripis, et circa obsitus palustribus herbis et, quibus inculta ferme vestiuntur, virgultis vepribusque. Quem ubi equiti quoque tegendo satis latebrosum locum circumvectus ipse oculis perlu

3 Poenum-fecisse &c.] And still more so by,” &c. the Carthaginians after subjecting" ? Sollicitus intentusque.] “Anx&c.

ious and vigilant.” 4 Concionabundus.] "In the style 8 Et facere, si cessaretur.] And of a public address."

was anxious to make it so, in case 5 Parari, (mid. verb,) “ to pre

there should be any delay.” pare themselves, to make ready. 9 Ad ea exploranda, quæ vellet,

6 Hannibal, quum cerneret, &c.] tutiores.] “Less exposed to danger “ Hannibal, seeing, as he did, what in making the discoveries which he would be best for the enemy, scarcely desired.” entertained any hope, &c.; but, as he 1 In medio.]

“ Between them," knew, first by report, and then by (sc. the two armies.) experience, that the temper of one 2 Quem ubicircúmvectus.] “And of them was impetuous and sanguine, when he rode round, and took a perand believed that it was rendered sonal survey,” &c.

stravit : Hic erit locus, Magoni fratri ait, quem teneas. U.C. 636. • Delige centenos viros ex omni pedite atque equite; cum A.C. 218. ' quibus ad me: vigilia prima venias. Nunc corpora curare ' tempus est.' Ita prætorium missum“. Mox cum delectis Mago aderat. Robora virorum cerno,' inquit Hannibal : sed, ut et numero etiam, non animis modo, valeatis, singulis vobis novenos ex turmis manipulisque vestri similes eligite. Mago locum monstrabit, quem insideatis. Hos• tem cæcum ad has belli artes habebitis.' Ita mille equitibus Magoni, mille peditibus dimissis, Hannibal prima luce Numidas equites, transgressos Trebiam flumen, obequitare jubet hostium portis, jaculandoque in stationes elicere ad pugnam hostem : injecto deinde certamine cedendo sensim citra flumen pertrahere. Hæc mandata Numidis. Ceteris ducibus peditum equitumque præceptum, ut prandere omnes juberent: armatos deinde, instratisque equis, signum exspectare.

Sempronius, ad tumultum Numidarum primum omnem equitatum, ferox ea parte virium, deinde sex millia peditum, postremo omnes copias ad destinatum jam ante consilio?, avidus certaminis, eduxit. Erat forte brumæ tempus et nivalis dies in locis Alpibus Apenninoque interjectis®, propinquitate etiam fluminum ac paludium prægelidis. Ad hoc raptim eductis hominibus atque equis, non capto ante cibo', non ope ulla ad arcendum frigus adhibita, nihil caloris inerat: et quicquid auræ fluminis' appropinquabant, afflabat

3 Cum quibus ad me, &c.] “ And from the sea, so these plains are come with them to me.

cooled by gales that blow constantly 4 Ita prætorium missum.] “On from the bordering mountains. Hence this understanding the council was the traveller, who has been panting dismissed.”

and melting away in the glowing Robora virorum, &c.] “I per- atmosphere of Florence and Genoa, ceive strength of men (picked men), no sooner crosses the Apennines, and and, in order to have strength of descends into the Milanese, than he numbers also,” &c.

finds himself revived by a freshness 6 Injecto-certamine.] “When an the more agreeable and unexpected, engagement was provoked.” because he still continues to enjoy

7 Ad destinatum jam ante consilio.] the same unclouded sky and azure According to the previously de- firmament.” It may be added, that signed arrangement;" or, ad (certn- no part of Italy, or, indeed, no part men) jam ante consilio destinatum, of Europe, has suffered so much, in “to an encounter previously planned.” proportion to its extent, from those

8 In locis Alpibus Apenninoque successive hordes of invaders, whom interjectis.] This district (the Mi- the wealth and refinement of the lanese) for its climate, soil, and south attracted across the Alps. scenery, is the favourite theme of 9 Non capto ante cibo.]

" Withthe praises of all travellers in Italy. out first taking food; without using

The climate," says Eustace, (chap. any means to counteract the cold.” ii.) “like that of Italy at large, is i Quicquid auræ fluminis, &c.] uniform and serene; but, as the "The nearer they approached the more southern provincesare refreshed, breeze from the river, the sharper during the sultry season, by a breeze was the cold that blew

upon

them."

Gallica gens.

U.C. 536. acrior frigoris vis. Ut vero refugientes Numidas inseA.C. 218. quentes aquam ingressi sunt, (et erat pectoribus tenus aucta

nocturno imbri) tum utique egressis rigere omnibus corpora,

ut vix armorum tenendorum potentia essent, et simul lassi55. tudine, procedente jam die, fame etiam deficere. Hanni

balis interim miles, ignibus ante tentoria factis, oleoque per manipulos, ut mollirent artus, misso, et cibo per otium capto, ubi transgressos flumen hostes nuntiatum est, alacer animis corporibusque arma capit, atque in aciem procedit. Baliares locat ante signa, levem armaturam, octo ferme millia hominum; dein graviorem armis peditem', quod virium, quod roboris erat: in cornibus circumfudit decem millia equitum; et ab cornibus in utramque partem divisos elephantos statuit. Consul effusos sequentes equites, quum ab resistentibus subito Numidis incauti exciperentur, signo receptui dato, revocatos circumdedit peditibus. Duodeviginti millia Romani erant, sociûm nominis Latini viginti; auxilia præterea Cenomanorum: ea sola in fide manserat

His copiis concursum est. Proelium a Baliaribus ortum est; quibus quum majore robore* legiones obsisterent, deductæ propere in cornua leves armaturæ sunt. Quæ res effecit, ut equitatus Romanus extemplo urgeretur: nam quum vix jamó per se resisterent decem millibus equitum quattuor millia, et fessi plerisque integris, obruti sunt insuper velut nube jaculorum a Baliaribus conjecta. Ad hoc elephanti, eminentes ab extremis cornibus, equis maxime non visu modo, sed odore insolito territis, fugam late faciebant. Pedestris pugna par animis magis, quam viribus, erat; quas recentes Ponus, paullo ante. curatis corporibus, in prælium attulerat: contra, jejuna fessa que? corpora Romanis et rigentia gelu torpebant. Restitissent tamen animis, si cum pedite solum foret pugnatum. Sed et Baliares, pulso equite, jaculabantur in latera, et elephanti jam in mediam peditum aciem sese tulerant: et Mago Numidæque, simul latebras eorum improvida præterlata acies est, exorti ab tergo ingentem tumultum ac terrorem fecere. Tamen in tot circumstantibus malis mansit aliquamdiu immota acies, maxime præter

2 Graviorem armis peditem, &c.] exhausted, were already scarcely “All the power and resistance of his able, of themselves, to resist ten more heavily armed infantry.”. thousand, for the most part fresh,

3 Revocatos circumdedit peditibus.] they were further overpowered,” &c. “ When recalled, he posted them on

6 Eminentes ab extremis cornithe flanks of the infantry.”

bus.] “Adding still more to the 4 Quibus quum majore robore, &c.] length of the wings.” “ And as the legion, with their 7 Jejuna fessaque, &c.]

- The greater solidity, withstood these." bodies of the Romans, hungry and

5 Nam quum vix jam, &c.) “For, weary and stiff with cold, were beas four thousand men, and these numbed."

spem omnium adversus elephantos. Eos velites, ad id U C. 636. ipsum locati, verutis conjectis et avertere, et insecuti A.C. 218. aversos sub caudis, qua maxime molli cute vulnera accipiunt, fodiebant. Trepidantes propeque jamo in suos con- 56. sternatos media acie in extremam, ad sinistrum cornu, adversus Gallos auxiliares agi jussit Hannibal. Extemplo haud dubiam fecere fugam. Additus quoque novus terror Romanis, ut fusa auxilia sua viderunt. Itaque, quum jam in orbem pugnarent, decem millia ferme hominum, quum alia evadere nequissent, media Afrorum acie, quæ Gallicis auxiliis firmata erat, cum ingenti cæde hostium perrupere : et, quum neque in castra reditus esset flumine interclusis, neque præ imbri satis decernere possent, qua suis opem ferrent, Placentiam recto itinere perrexere. Plures deinde in omnes partes eruptiones factæ : et, qui flumen petiere, aut gurgitibus absumpti sunt, aut inter cunctationem ingrediendi ab hostibus oppressi. Qui passim per agros fuga sparsi erant, vestigia cedentis sequentes agminis, Placentiam contendere: aliis timor hostium audaciam ingrediendi flumen fecit, transgressique in castra pervenerunt. Imber nive mixtus, et intoleranda vis frigoris, et homines multos, et jumenta, et elephantos prope omnes, absumpsit. Finis insequendi hostis Ponis flumen Trebia fuit: et ita torpentes gelu in castra rediere, ut vix lætitiam victoria sentirent. Itaque nocte insequenti, quum præsidium cas

8 Velites.] The use of this name on their rear, the additional assault here is, technically speaking, a pro- from behind completed the rout lepsis; as Velites were not formally already impending.' Hannibal's tacestablished in the Roman army, tics during the engagement were an until the siege of Capua. (See l. xxvi. attack on the Roman infantry by c. 44.)

the Baleares, and (when this was Chap. lvi. In order to understand resisted) the removal of those light the topography of the battle on the skirmishers to the flanks, where Trebia, it is necessary to remember, they galled the Roman cavalry, that Hannibal was stationed between already inconvenienced by the elethe rivers (Trebia and Padus), and phants: finally, after the assault on the Romans at the further side of the rear, and the repulse of the elethe Trebia, which thus separated phants, a charge of these animals on the two armies, (erat in medio rivus). the Gallic (Roman) allies. This On the bank at his own side, Han- movement completed the dispersion nibal laid the ambush described in of the Romans, who, fearing to enter chap. liv; and in order to provoke the river a second time, retreated in the Romans to come across the river the direction of Piacenza, with the at that point, he sent over his cavalry exception of a small number collected to menace the camp, and retreat by Scipio, and led to Cremona. when pursued. In following the 9 Trepidantes propeque jam, &c.] Carthaginian cavalry back through “As they (the elephants) were just the river, the Romans (cavalry and now running wildly among their infantry) became disabled by cold, owners, now in disorder, Hannibal and, as the day advanced, by hunger. ordered them to be driven from As soon as the Romans advanced centre to flank against the Gallic sufficiently to have the ambuscade auxiliaries on the left wing."

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