Immagini della pagina
PDF
ePub

U. C. 636. Vento mixtus imber quum ferretur in ipsa ora, primo, A. C. 218. quia aut arma omittenda erant, aut contra enitentes vortice

intorti affligebantur, constitere : dein, quum jam spiritum includeret nec reciprocare animam sineret, aversi a vento parumper consedere.

Tum vero ingenti sono coelum strepere, et inter horrendos fragores micare ignes: capti auribus et oculis metu omnes torpere.

Tandem, effuso imbre, quum eo magis accensa vis venti esset, ipso illo, quo deprehensi erant, loco castra ponere necessarium visum est. Id vero laboris velut de integro initium fuit.

Nam nec explicare quicquam, nec statueres poterant; nec, quod statutum esset, manebat, omnia perscindente vento et rapiente: et mox aqua levata vento, quum super gelida montium juga concreta esset, tantum nivosæ grandinis dejecit, ut, omnibus omissis, procumberent homines, tegminibus suis magis obruti, quam tecti. Tantaque vis frigoris insecuta est, ut, ex illa miserabili hominum jumentorumque strage quum se quisque attollere ac levare vellet, diu nequiret, quia, torpentibus rigore nervis, vix flectere artus poterant. Deinde, ut tandem agitando sese movere ac recepere animos, et raris locis? ignis fieri est coeptus, ad alienam opem quisque inops tendere. Biduum eo loco, velut obsessi, mansere. Multi homines, multa jumenta, elephanti quoque ex his, qui prælio ad Trebiam facto

superfuerant, septem absumpti. 59. Degressus Apennino retro ad Placentiam castra movit,

et ad decem millia progressus consedit. Postero die duodecim millia peditum, quinque equitum adversus hostem ducit. Nec Sempronius consul (jam enim redierat ab Roma) detrectavit certamen: atque eo die tria millia passuum. inter bina castra fuere. Postero die ingentibus animis, vario eventu, pugnatum est. Primo concursu adeo U.C. 536. res Romana superior fuit, ut non acie vincerent solum, sed A. C. 218. pulsos hostes in castra persequerentur; mox castra quoque oppugnarent. Hannibal, paucis propugnatoribus in vallo portisque positis, ceteros confertos in media castra recepit, intentosque signum ad erumpendum spectare jubet. Jam nona ferme diei hora' erat, quum Romanus, nequicquam fatigato milite, postquam nulla spes erat potiundi castris, signum receptui dedit. Quod ubi Hannibal accepit, laxatamque pugnam et recessum a castris vidit, extemplo equitibus dextra lævaque emissis” in hostem, ipse cum peditum robore mediis castris erupit. Pugna raro ulla magis sæva, et cum utriusque partis pernicie clarior fuisset, si extendi eam dies in longum spatium sivisset. Nox accensum ingentibus animis proelium diremit. Itaque acrior concursus fuit, quam cædes ; et, sicut æquata ferme

it almost surpassed the horrors (the With this we may compare a similar inclemency) of the Alps. When description in M. Labaume's history the wind mingled with rain beat of the retreat from Moscow. “Many right against their faces; at first of them,” he writes, “suffering more they halted; because, either their from cold than hunger, forsook all arms must be thrown away, or, while their baggage, to come and lie down struggling forward, they were bent before some large fire; but, at the by the storm, and thrown down.”' moment of departure, those wretches

5 Nec explicare quicquam, nec had lost the power to rise, and prestatuere &c.] “They could neither ferred falling into the hands of the unpack (unfold) nor set up any enemy, to making any effort to conthing,” (sc. any tents.)

tinue the march.' 6 Ex illa miserabili hominum &c.] 7 Raris locis.] "Here and there." “Of that pitiable scene of prostrate 8 Millia passuum.] Of the meamen and cattle, when any attempted surement of distances by paces, to rise and stand up, they were for a it may be observed, that a passus long time unable; because, with was really two steps, though apsinews numbed by the cold, they parently but one movement;

it was could scarcely bend their limbs.” the distance from the point off which

pugna erat, ita clade pari discessum est. Ab neutra parte sexcentis plus peditibus, et dimidium ejus equitum cecidit. Sed major Romanis, quam pro numero, jactura fuit: quia equestris ordinis aliquot, et tribuni militum quinque, et præfecti sociorum tres, sunt interfecti. Secundum eam pugnam Hannibal in Ligures, Sempronius Lucam concessit. Venienti in Ligures. Hannibali per insidias intercepti duo quæstores Romani, C. Fulvius et L. Lucretius, cum duobus tribunis militum, et quinque equestris ordinis sena

the foot was raised, to that where perform two different duties. Upon the same foot was set down again; a march, it should be disposed in i. e, about five feet.

such a manner as to scour the coun9 Jam nona ferme diei hora &c.] try, to reconnoitre, and to pursue: in The military movements, detailed in action, on the contrary, the most this chapter, may be illustrated by efficient service it is capable of perobserving, that the Carthaginian forming, is charging suddenly and troops, weakened and discouraged in a mass upon the weak points and by the hardships described in the breaches of an enemy's line. From preceding, were unable to resist the the distinction between these two Romans, who had enjoyed some rest; duties arose the difference between and, that Hannibal had a twofold light and heavy cavalry. object in delaying an engagement 3 Accensum ingentibus animis.] till this late hour of the day; first, “ Animated by strong emotions." to fatigue the Romans; and second- 4 Lucam, on the Anser (Sterchio), ly, to prevent them, in the event of now Lucca. their success, from immediately fol. 5 Venienti in Ligures &c.] “There lowing up their advantage.

were surrendered to Hannibal, on Laxatamque pugnam.]

“ The his arrival among the Ligurians, slackering (or, falling off) of the two Roman Quæstors treacherously assault.” The metaphor is from a arrested, C. F. and L. L., with two pressure or ligature strained to a high military tribunes, and five of the degree of tension.

equestrian order, principally sons of 2 Equitibus dextra lævaque emis- senators, in order to confirm his sis.] It is observed by military au- belief of the sincerity of their (the thorities, that cavalry is intended to Ligurians') friendship and alliance.”

1

N

U.C. 536. torum ferme liberis, quo magis ratam fore cum his pacem A.C. 218. societatemque crederet, traduntur. 60. Dum hæc in Italia geruntur, Cn. Cornelius Scipio, in

Hispaniam cum classe et exercitu missus, quum, ab ostio Rhodani profectus, Pyrenæosque montes circumvectus, Emporiis6 appulisset classem, exposito ibi exercitu, orsus a Lacetanis, omnem oram usque ad Iberum flumen, partim renovandis societatibus, partim novis instituendis, Romanæ ditionis fecit. Inde conciliata? clementiæ fama, non ad maritimos modo populos, sed, in mediterraneis quoque ac montanis, ad ferociores jam gentes valuit: nec pax modo apud eos, sed societas etiam armorum, parata est: validæque aliquot auxiliorum cohortes ex iis conscriptæ sunt. Hannonis cis Iberum provincia erat: eum reliquerat Hannibal ad regionis ejus præsidium. Itaque prius, quam alienarentur omnia, obviam eundum ratus, castris in conspectu hostium positis, in aciem eduxit. Nec Romano differendum certamen visum: quippe qui scireto, cum Hannone et Hasdrubale sibi dimicandum esse; malletque adversus singulos separatim, quam adversus duos simul, rem gerere. Nec magni certaminis? ea dimicatio fuit. Sex millia hostium cæsa, duo capta cum præsidio castrorum : nam et castra expugnata sunt, atque ipse dux cum aliquot principibus capiuntur?: et Scissis, propinquum castris oppidum, expugnatur.

Ceterum præda oppidi parvi pretii rerum fuit; suppellex barbarica”, ac vilium mancipiorum. Castra militem ditavere; non ejus modo exercitus, qui victus erat, sed et ejus, qui cum Hannibale in Italia militabat, omnibus fere caris rebus“, ne gravia impedimenta

ferentibus essent, citra Pyrenæum relictis. 61.

Priusquam certa hujusó cladis fama accideret, transgressus 6 Emporis.) See chap. 57, note. structed; suppellex being in apposition Lacetanis, in Catalonia.

to præda; and mancipiorum to 7 Inde conciliatá.] “ Having rerum. sc. “ The plunder, however, thereby acquired a character for, consisted of things of little value: &c. valint, “ exercised an influence.” foreign furniture and (a booty of)

8 Itaque prius--obviam eundum worthless slaves.”
ratus. ]
Deeming it necessary,

4 Omnibus ferè caris rebus &c.] therefore, to interpose before all “As almost every thing of value beshould be estranged.”.

longing not only to the army just 9. Quippe qui sciret.] “Knowing defeated, but to that also &c. had as he did."

been left south of the Pyrenees, lest Nec magni certaminis &c.) the baggage might be an incumbrance “ But that was not a contest of much to carry.” obstinacy."

5 Priusquam certa hujus &c.) 2 Ipse dux, &c. capiuntur.] Ob- “ Hasdrubal having crossed the serve the idiom; dux cum cil. princi- Ebro with 8000 infantry and 1000 pibus, being equivalent to a nom. cavalry, before any authentic intelplur.

ligence of this loss could reach him ; 3 Suppellex barbarica &c.] This under the impression that he should sentence also is very peculiarly con- arrive (tanquam occursurus).”

[ocr errors]

66

Iberum Hasdrubal cum octo millibus peditum, mille U.C. 536. equitum, tanquam ad primum adventum Romanorum occur-A.C. 218. surus, postquam perditas res ad Scissim amissaque castra accepit, iter ad mare convertit. Haud procul Tarracone 6 classicos milites' navalesque socios, vagos palantesque per agros, (quod ferme fit, ut secundæ res negligentiam creent) equite passim dimisso, cum magna cæde, majore fuga ad naves compellit. Nec diutius circa ea loca morari ausus, ne a Scipione opprimeretur, trans Iberum sese recepit. Et Scipio, raptim ad famam novorum hostium agmine acto, quum in paucos præfectos navium animadvertisset, præsidio Tarracone modico relicto, Emporias cum classe rediit. Vixdum digresso eo', Hasdrubal aderat : et, Ilergetum populo, qui obsides Scipioni dederat, ad defectionem impulso, cum eorum ipsorum juventute agros fidelium Romanis sociorum vastat. Excito deinde Scipione hibernis, toto cis Iberum rursus cedit' agro. Scipio, relictam ab auctore defectionis Ilergetum gentem quum infesto exercitu invasisset, compulsis omnibus Athanagiam, urbem', quæ caput ejus populi erat, circumsedit: intraque dies paucos, pluribus quam ante obsidibus imperatis, Ilergetes, pecunia etiam multatos, in jus ditionemque recepit. Inde in Ausetanos prope Iberum, socios et ipsos Poenorum, procedit : atque, urbe eorum obsessa, Lacetanos auxilium finitimis ferentes nocte, haud procul jam urbe, quum intrare vellent, excepit insidiis. Cæsa ad duodecim millia: exuti pæne omnes armis, domos passim palantes per agros diffugere; nec obsessos alia ulla res, quam iniqua oppugnantibus hiems, tutabatur. Triginta dies obsidio fuit: per quos raro unquam nix minus quattuor pedes alta jacuit: adeoque pluteos 2 ac vineas Romanorum operuerat, ut ea sola, ignibus aliquoties conjectis ab hoste, etiam tutamentum fuerit. Postremo quum Amusitus princeps eorum ad Hasdrubalem profugisset, viginti argenti talentis: pacti deduntur. Tarraconem in hiberna reditum est.

Romæ aut circa urbem multa ea hieme prodigia facta: 62. aut (quod evenire solet, motis semel in religionem animis)

6 Tarracone, now Tarragon. or “ breastworks," or "galleries,” ? Classicos milites.](al.classiarios). covering the trenches in which apThese were what we now know by proaches by zig-zags &c. were made. the name “marines. Socii navales In modern warfare, the process is were the regular sailors.

much the same; the “sappers” pro8 Vixdum digresso eo &c.) “He tecting themselves, at short distances, had scarcely left, when Hasdrubal with gabions and fascines, which are was on the spot.

analogous to the ancient vineæ. 9 Rursus cedit.]

« Once more

3 Argenti talentis.] The silver withdrew from," &c.

talent was the name not of a coin Athanagiam, urbem.] On the but of a sum. It contained 60 minæ, Sicoris (Segre) in Catalonia. and was equal to about £193.

2 Pluteos.] These were“ parapets”

8

U.C. 536. multa nuntiata, et temere credita sunt: in quis ingenuum A. C. 218. infantem semestrem in foro olitorio triumphum clamasse :

et foro boario bovem in tertiam contignationem sua sponte escendisse, atque inde tumultu habitatorum territum sese dejecisse : et navium speciem de cælot affulsisse, et ædem Spei, quæ est in foro olitorio, fulmine ictam : et Lanuvii hastam se commovisse: et corvum in ædem Junonis devolasse, atque in ipso pulvinario consedisse : et in agro Amiternino multis locis hominum species procul candida veste visos, nec cum ullo congressos: et in Piceno lapidibus pluisse : et Care sortes extenuatas 6 : et in Gallia lupum vigili gladium e vagina raptum abstulisse. Ob cetera prodigia libros adire decemviri jussi. Quod autem lapidibus pluisset in Piceno, novendiale sacrum edictum, et subinde aliis procurandis prope tota civitas operata fuit. Jam primum omnium urbs lustrata est, hostiæque majores, quibus editum est?, diis cæsæ: et donum ex auri pondo quadraginta Lanuvium ad Junonis portatum est; et signum æneum matronæ Junoni in Aventino dedicaverunt; et lectisternium Care, ubi sortes attenuatæ erant, imperatum ; et supplicatio Fortunæ in Algido; Romæ quoque et lectisternium Juventati, et supplicatio ad ædem Herculis nominatimo: deinde universo populo circa omnia pulvinaria

4 Navium speciem de cælo &c.] those in which Scipio was crossing Appearances of this sort are more just then from the mouth of the easily explicable than the generality Rhone to the coast of Spain. of the portents of antiquity. It is 5 Hominum specie.] This might now generally known, of course, that also have been a mirage of the same dense vapours floating at a certain nature as the giant, seen by travellers, angle with the sun and an object on the Hartz Mountain, imitating below, will present a reflection of the gestures of the spectator. the latter; and that this occurs more 6 Sortes extenuatas.] “ Shrunk frequently in warm latitudes, where diminished in size." The sortes evaporation is more constant and were tablets bearing inscriptions of abundant. As a general rule, the some sort. In all portents, and in meteoric portents, recorded by Livy dreams especially, the increase and and other ancient writers, may be diminution of the size of any object attributed to volcanic phenomena, were respectively favourable exaggerated by the imagination of unlucky. ignorant and superstitious spectators. ? Quibus editum est.] " To the It is remarked by Niebuhr, that gods specified in the order.” Edere extraordinary meteoric phenomena, is properly applied to the responses from this cause, are generally found from an oracle, or other consecrated in Grecian and Roman history to source of information. coincide in time with pestilences, 8 Lectisternium.] See Roman Analso caused by meteoric influences; tiquities for particulars. The cereand this theory is curiously illus- mony is one of great antiquity among trated by the fact, stated by Pro- the Chinese and other Asiaticnations. copius, that the great plague at 9 Ædem Herculis nominatim.] Constantinople, (A.D. 747.) was Specially (i. e. for individuals) preceded by similar appearances.

In at the temple of Hercules, and genethis particular instance, the ships rally at all temples for the whole seen in the sky were, most probably, people.”

or

« IndietroContinua »