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Iberum Hasdrubal cum octo millibus peditum, mille U. C. 536.

A.C. 218. equitum, tanquam ad primum adventum Romanorum occursurus, postquam perditas res ad Scissim amissaque castra accepit, iter ad mare convertit. Haud procul Tarracone 6 classicos milites? navalesque socios, vagos palantesque per agros, (quod ferme fit, ut secundæ res negligentiam creent) equite passim dimisso, cum magna cæde, majore fuga ad naves compellit. Nec diutius circa ea loca morari ausus, ne a Scipione opprimeretur, trans Iberum sese recepit. Et Scipio, raptim ad famam novorum hostium agmine acto, quum in paucos præfectos navium animadvertisset, præsidio Tarracone modico relicto, Emporias cum classe rediit. Vixdum digresso eos, Hasdrubal aderat: et, Ilergetum populo, qui obsides Scipioni dederat, ad defectionem impulso, cum eorum ipsorum juventute agros fidelium Romanis sociorum vastat. Excito deinde Scipione hibernis, toto cis Iberum rursus cedit' agro. Scipio, relictam ab auctore defectionis Ilergetum gentem quum infesto exercitu invasisset, compulsis omnibus Athanagiam, urbem', quæ caput ejus populi erat, circumsedit: intraque dies paucos, pluribus quam ante obsidibus imperatis, Ilergetes, pecunia etiam multatos, in jus ditionemque recepit. Inde in Ausetanos prope Iberum, socios et ipsos Ponorum, procedit: atque, urbe eorum obsessa, Lacetanos auxilium finitimis ferentes nocte, haud procul jam urbe, quum intrare vellent, excepit insidiis. Cæsa ad duodecim millia : exuti pæne omnes armis, domos passim palantes per agros diffugere; nec obsessos alia ulla res, quam iniqua oppugnantibus hiems, tutabatur. Triginta dies obsidio fuit: per quos raro unquam nix minus quattuor pedes alta jacuit: adeoque pluteos ac vineas Romanorum operuerat, ut ea sola, ignibus aliquoties conjectis ab hoste, etiam tutamentum fuerit. Postremo quum Amusitus princeps eorum ad Hasdrubalem profugisset, viginti argenti talentis: pacti deduntur. Tarraconem in hiberna reditum est.

Romæ aut circa urbem multa ea hieme prodigia facta: 62. aut (quod evenire solet, motis semel in religionem animis)

6 Tarracone, now Tarragon. or “ breastworks,” or “galleries,” ? Classicosmilites.] (al.classiarios). covering the trenches in which apThese were what we now know by proaches by zig-zags &c. were made. the name “marines.” Socii navales În modern warfare, the process is were the regular sailors.

much the same; the “sappers” pro& Vixdum digresso eo &c.) “He tecting themselves, at short distances, had scarcely left, when Hasdrubal with gabions and fascines, which are was on the spot."

analogous to the ancient vineæ. 9 Rursus cedit.]

« Once more

3 Argenti talentis. ] The silver withdrew from,” &c.

talent was the name not of a coin | Athanagiam, urbem.] On the but of a sum. It contained 60 minæ, Sicoris (Segre) in Catalonia. and was equal to about £193.

2 Pluteos.] These were“parapets”

לל

U.C. 536. multa nuntiata, et temere credita sunt: in quis ingenuum A.C. 218. infantem semestrem in foro olitorio triumphum clamasse :

et foro boario bovem in tertiam contignationem sua sponte escendisse, atque inde tumultu habitatorum territum sese dejecisse : et navium speciem de cælo4 affulsisse, et ædem Spei, quæ est in foro olitorio, fulmine ictam : et Lanuvii hastam se commovisse : et corvum in ædem Junonis devolasse, atque in ipso pulvinario consedisse: et in agro Amiternino multis locis hominum species procul candida veste visos, nec cum ullo congressos: et in Piceno lapidibus pluisse : et Cære sortes extenuatas 6: et in Gallia lupum vigili gladium e vagina raptum abstulisse. Ob cetera prodigia libros adire decemviri jussi. Quod autem lapidibus pluisset in Piceno, novendiale sacrum edictum, et subinde aliis procurandis prope tota civitas operata fuit.

Jam primum omnium urbs lustrata est, hostiæque majores, quibus editum est?, diis cæsæ: et donum ex auri pondo quadraginta Lanuvium ad Junonis portatum est; et signum æneum matronæ Junoni in Aventino dedicaverunt; et lectisternium Cære, ubi sortes attenuatæ erant, imperatum; et supplicatio Fortunæ in Algido; Romæ quoque et lectisternium Juventati, et supplicatio ad ædem Herculis nominatimo: deinde universo populo circa omnia pulvinaria

4 Navium speciem de coelo &c.] those in which Scipio was crossing Appeara

rances of this sort are more just then from the mouth of the easily explicable than the generality Rhone to the coast of Spain. of the portents of antiquity. It is 5 Hominum specie.] This might now generally known, of course, that also have been a mirage of the same dense vapours floating at a certain nature as the giant, seen by travellers, angle with the sun and an object on the Hartz Mountain, imitating below, will present a reflection of the gestures of the spectator. the latter; and that this occurs more 6 Sortes extenuatas.] “Shrunkfrequently in warm latitudes, where diminished in size." The sortes evaporation is more constant and were tablets bearing inscriptions of abundant. As a general rule, the some sort. In all portents, and in meteoric portents, recorded by Livy dreams especially, the increase and and other ancient writers, may be diminution of the size of any object attributed to volcanic phenomena, were respectively favourable exaggerated by the imagination of unlucky, ignorant and superstitious spectators. 7 Quibus editum est.] « To the It is remarked by Niebuhr, that gods specified in the order.” Edere extraordinary meteoric phenomena, is properly applied to the responses from this cause, are generally found from an oracle, or other consecrated in Grecian and Roman history to

source of information. coincide in time with pestilences, 8 Lectisternium.] See Roman Analso caused by meteoric influences; tiquities for particulars. The cereand this theory is curiously illus- mony is one of great antiquity among trated by the fact, stated by Pro- the Chinese and other Asiaticnations. copius, that the great plague at 9 Ædem Herculis nominatim.] Constantinople, (A.D. 747.) was Specially (i. e. for individuals) preceded by similar appearances. In at the temple of Hercules, and genethis particular instance, the ships rally at all temples for the whole seen in the sky were, most probably, people.”'

or

Hæc pro

indicta; et Geniol majores hostiæ cæsæ quinque; et U. C.536. C. Atilius Serranus prætor vota suscipere jussus, si in A. C. 218. decem annos respublica eodem stetisset statu. curata votaque ex libris Sibyllinis, magna ex parte levaverant religione animos.

Consulum designatorum alter Flaminius, cui eæ legiones, 63. quæ Placentiæ hibernabant, sorte evenerant, edictum et literas ad consulem misit, ut is exercitus Idibus Martiis Arimini adesset in castris. Huic in provincia consulatum inire consilium erat, memori veterum certaminum cum Patribus; quæ tribunus plebis, et quæ postea consul, prius de consulatu, qui abrogabatur, dein de triumpho habuerat; invisus etiam Patribus ob novam legem, quam Q. Claudius tribunus plebis adversus senatum, uno Patrum adjuvante C. Flaminio, tulerat: ne quis senator, cuive senatorius pater fuisset, maritimam navem“, quæ plus quam trecentarum amphorarum esset, haberet. Id satis habitum ad fructus ex agris vectandos: quæstus omnis Patribus indecorus visus. Res, per summam contentionem acta, invidiam apud nobilitatem suasori legis Flaminio, favorem apud plebem alterumque inde consulatum, peperit. Ob hæc ratus auspiciis ementiendis, Latinarumque feriarum mora, et consularibus aliis impedimentis retenturos se in urbe, simulato itinere privatus clam in provinciam abiit. Ea res, ubi palam facta est, novam insuper iram infestis jam ante Patribus movit: Non cum senatu modo, sed jam cum diis immortalibus, * C. Flaminium bellum gerere. Consulem ante inauspicato ' factum revocantibus ex ipsa acie diis atque hominibus non

I Genio.] This name appears to father interposed, to whose authohave been a mystic form of expression, rity he submitted. On the second for that which neither ancients nor (que consul) Plutarch mentions, moderns have yet very clearly under that the augurs had pronounced his stood—the vital principle. It is what election informal; and that he supHeraclitus seems to have intended pressed the letter of recall sent by by the phrase, delov nóyov åvanvons, the Senate, until after he had dewhat the Greeks generally call feated the Gauls. He was conseAaiuwv, and is designated in the quently refused a triumph, aud comjargon of the astrologers as kispos pelled to resign his office. Δαίμονος.

4 Maritimam navem, &c.] The 2 Vota susciperesi in decem object of this law was evidently to annos, &c.]

“To undertake vows check any tendency to a mercantile (which were to be paid) in case the spirit among the nobility; and the Republic) should have (when the motive was a desire to prevent such time came) stood for ten years.” dealings with and interest in the

3 V'eterum certaminum, &c.] On concerns of foreigners, as might the first of these (quæ tribunus) interfere with the sincerity of their Val. Maximus records, that when patriotism. Flaminius was passing his law, for 5 Consularibus aliis impedimenthe applotment of conquered lands tis.] “ Hindrances incidental to in Gaul, he resisted all the entreaties the Consulship.” and threats of the Senate, until his

94

TITI LIVII LIB. XXI. CAP. 63.

6

U.C. 536. 'paruisse; et nunc conscientia spretorum et Capitolium et A.C. 218. sollennem votorum nuncupationem fugisse: ne die initi

magistratus Jovis optimi maximi templum adiret : ne se'natum, invisus ipse, et sibi uni invisum, videret consule

retque: ne Latinas indiceret, Jovique Latiari sollenne sacrum in monte? faceret: ne, auspicato profectus in • Capitolium ad vota nuncupanda, paludatus& inde cum • lictoribus ad provinciam iret. Lixæ modo sine insignibus,

sine lictoribus, profectum clam, furtim”, haud aliter quam “si exsilii causa solum vertisset. Magis pro majestate

videlicet imperii Arimini, quam Romæ, magistratum ini'turum, et in deversorio hospitali, quam apud penates suos, prætextam sumpturum.' Revocandum universi retrahendumquel censuerunt; et cogendum omnibus prius præsentem in deos hominesque fungi officiis, quam ad exercitum et in provinciam iret. In eam legationem (legatos enim mitti placuit) Q. Terentius et M. Antistius profecti, nihilo magis eum moverunt, quam priori consulatu literæ moverant ab senatu missæ. Paucos post dies magistratum iniit, immolantique ei vitulus jam ictus e manibus sacrificantium sese quum proripuisset, multos circumstantes cruore respersit. Fuga procul etiam major apud ignaros, quid trepidaretur, et concursatio fuit: id a plerisque in omen magni terroris acceptum? Legionibus inde duabus a Sempronio prioris anni consule, duabus a C. Atilio prætore acceptis, in Etruriam per Apennini tramites exercitus duci est coeptus.

6 Senatum, invisus ipse, et sibi uni implies a concealment of the act; invisum, &c.] “ To avoid meeting the latter, a concealment of the and consulting the Senate, disliked motive. as he was, and their only enemy." 1 Retrahendumque.] “Brought

? Sollenne sacrum in monte.] back by force-arrested.” “ The anniversary festival on the 2 Fuga procul, &c.] “The dis(Alban) hill,” where the feriæ may and consternation was still Latina were always celebrated. greater among those who were at a LIBER XXII.

8 Paludatus may signify, in a se- distance, and ignorant of the cause condary sense, “ with a formal mili- of alarm.” tary commission.'

3 In omen, acceptum.] “Under9 Clam, furtim.] The difference stood as an omen.' would appear to be, that the former

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EPITOME. .

Hannibal, per continuas vigilias in paludibus oculo amisso, venit in Etruriam ; per quas paludes quatriduo et tribus noctibus sine ulla requie iter fecit

. C. Flaminius consul, homo temerarius, contra auspicia profectus, signis militaribus effossis, quæ tolli non poterant, et ab equo, quem conscenderat, per caput devolutus, insidiis ab Hannibale circumventus, ad Trasimenum lacum cum exercitu cæsus est. Sex millia, que eruperant, fide ab Maharbale data, perfidia Hannibalis vincta sunt. Quum ad nuntium cladis Romæ luctus esset, duæ matres, ex insperato receptis filiis, gaudio mortuæ sunt. hanc cladem ex Sibyllinis libris ver sacrum votum. Quum deinde Q. Fabius Maximus dictator, adversus Hannibalem missus, nollet acie cum eo confligere, ne, contra ferocem tot victoriis hostem, territum adversis præliis militem pugnæ committeret, et, opponendo se tantummodo, conatus Hannibalis impediret : M. Minucius magister equitum, ferox et temerarius, criminando dictatorem tanquam segnem et timidum, effecit, ut populi jussu æquaretur ei cum dictatore imperium; divisoque exercitu, quum iniquo loco conflixisset, et in maximo discrimine legiones ejus essent, superveniente cum exercitu Fabio Maximo discrimine liberatus est. Quo beneficio victus castra cum eo junxit, et patrem eum salutavit ; idemque facere milites jussit. Hannibal, vastata Campania, inter Casilinum oppidum et Calliculam montem a Fabio clausus, sarmentis ad cornua boum alligatis et incensis, præsidium Romanorum, quod Calliculam insidebat, fugavit : et sic transgressus est saltum. Idemque Q. Fabii Maximi dictatoris, quum circumposita ureret, agro pepercit, ut illum tanquam proditorem suspectum faceret. Æmilio deinde Paullo et Terentio Varrone consulibus et ducibus, cum maxima clade adversus Hannibalem ad Cannas pugnatum est: cæsaque eo prælio Romanorum quadraginta quinque millia, cum Paullo consule et senatoribus octoginta, consularibus atque prætoriis aut ædiliciis triginta. Postquam cladem quum a nobilibus adolescentibus propter desperationem consilium de relinquenda Italia iniretur, P. Cornelius Scipio tribunus militum, qui postea Africanus nuncupatus est, stricto super capita deliberantium ferro, juravit, se pro hoste habiturum eum, qui in verba suu non jurasset; effecitque, ut omnes, minime relictum iri a se Italiam, jurejurando astringerentur. Præterea trepidationem urbis et luctum, et res in Hispania meliore eventu gestas continet. Opimia et Floronia, Vestales virgines, incesti damnatæ sunt. Propter paucitatem vero militum servorum octo millia armata sunt. Captivi, quum potestas esset redimendi, redempci non sunt. Varroni obviam itum est, et gratiæ actæ, quod de republica non desperasset.

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