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The practice of establishing confederations and alliances Confederations was frequent amongst the Greeks and the Romans, in antiquity. particularly so in the case of the former. Indeed, ali the nations of antiquity, in spite of bellicose proclivities universally manifested, fully recognized the advantages of union and harmony between the civilized peoples, and accordingly often entered into federal pacts, or into more temporary and less comprehensive alliances. But usually such a policy obtained where there was a certain affinity between the nations,—an affinity due to common origin, similarity of national life and institutions, or common language. Thus in ancient China alliances with the alien barbarians could scarcely be dreamt of, but there were frequent confederations set up between the Chinese States, for which purpose the sovereigns usually attended in person general conferences specially convened therefor. Similarly the Phoenician cities entered into treaties of alliance with the object of mutual protection ; and even subsequent to their conquest by the Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the Persians, successively, they endeavoured to arrange a congress for the discussion and settlement of their common affairs, and for the establishment of a federation. But this effort failed owing to the jealous rivalry of Sidon and Tyre, each of which cities -as in the notorious case of Athens and Spartahankered after the political hegemony, if not the virtual supremacy.


Early Gree confedera. tionsreligious character.

Ih, the federations of the earlier Hellenic history, religious practices and ritual observances played an important part. The federal cities had their common hearths and altars ; thus Pausanias mentions the common hearths of the Arcadians. They resorted to common temples, worshipped certain gods in common, participated in the same rites, celebrated the same anniversaries with common feasts and games. Thus the Ionian colonies in Asia Minor, between which a bond of this description existed, had their Panionium (Ilaviávov), 3 their place of assembly, at Mycale, a promontory near Miletus, and the common temples erected there. Each year they met to celebrate their festival, the Panionia (tà Ilavióva), to offer their sacrifices to Poseidon, and to partake of the common meals. At one time, when the Ionians revolted against Persia, the amphictyony assumed to some extent the functions and authority of a federal council for regulating the common interests of its members. Thus, having heard of the Persian advance, the lonians despatched their respective deputies to the Panionium where, after due consultation together, various courses and proceedings were decided upon.. Similarly, the Dorian colonies in Asia possessed a common temple, dedicated to Apollo and Poseidon, at the promontory of Triopium. And so also in Greece we find Boeotian cities united, meeting together on the occasion of their annual feast, and worshipping at the temple of Athena Itonia. Further, Pausanias refers to

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1 Cf. P. Foucart, Des associations religieuses chez les Grecs (Paris, 1873).
2 Pausan. viii. 53 : εστία κοινή των Αρκάδων.
3 Cf. Herodot. i. 141, 142, 143, 148, 170, etc.
4 Herodot. i. 148:

συλλεγόμενοι από τον πολίων "Ίωνες, άγεσκον ορτήν, τη έθεντο ούνομα Πανιώνια.--Strabo, xiv. Ι. 20: Πανιώνια, κοινή πανήγυρις των Ιώνων συντελείται το Ποσειδώνι και Ovoía.-Cf. Diodor. xv. 49.

5 Herodot. vi. 7.

6 Herodot. i. 144.-Cf. Aristides of Miletus, in Frag. hist. Graec. ed. Didot, vol. iv. p. 324.

7 Pausan. ix. 34.


the Achaean cities which offered their sacrifices in common to Demeter Panachaea at Aegium. And in Argolis there was a national religious union established by the Triphylian townships, which assembled at the promontory of Samicum for the worship of Poseidon Samios.

Such associations or leagues of cities were designated Amphicamphictyonies 3 (aupectvovía), and implied a more or less tyonies. permanent tie explicitly established. The pan-Hellenic assemblings to witness or take part in the Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games were more universal in extent and popular in character, and were rather of the nature of implicit associations for the time being, and based on the recognition of racial community.

The word amphictyony * was derived by ancient writers from the name of the mythical hero Amphictyon ; but there is no doubt that it owes its origin to the term αμφικτίονες, practically equivalent to the word περικτίονες- the alternative form περίοικοι being more usual in prose—and hence signifying surrounding dwellers, neighbours."

There were numerous amphictyonies in Greece, as, Numerous for example (apart from those already mentioned), those

amphictyonies. of Calauria, Thermopylae, Delos, Delphi. The island of Calauria was the place of assembly of the representatives (the Dewpoi, delegates on missions of a religious

2 Strabo, viii. 3, 13 (p. 343). 3 Cf. G. de Sainte-Croix, Des anciens gouvernemens fidératifs (Paris, 1798), pp. 1-270 ; K. O. Müller, Die Dorier (being vols. ii. and iii. of Geschichten hellenischer Stämme und Städte, 3 Bde. (Breslau, 1844), Bk. ii. pt. 3, 85; G. Grote, History of Greece (London, 1872, etc.), vol. ii. pp. 169 seq.; F.W.Tittmann, Über den Bund der Amphiktyonen... (Berlin, 1812); H. Bürgel, Die Pylaeisch-Delphische Amphiktyonie (München, 1877), esp. pp. 197 seq.; E. A. Freeman, History of Federal Gwernment in Greece and Italy (London, 1893), esp. pp. 95-111; P. Foucart, s.v. Amphictyones, in Daremberg-Saglio, vol. i. p. 235.

i. 4 Strictly speaking, amphictiony is the correct spelling ; but the cus

; tomary form is here retained.

5 Cf. Iliad, xviii. 212 ; xix. 104, 109; Odyss. ii. 65.—The word is even found in the form of the original spelling in inscriptions, as, for example, in Corp. inscrip. Graec. i. 805.

1 Ibid. vii. 24.


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nature, have already been referred to ') of the seven towns of Athens, Aegina, Hermione, Epidaurus, Nauplia, Prasiae, and Orchomenus; later Argos acquired membership in place of Nauplia, and Sparta superseded Prasiae. This association, established probably for commercial reasons as much as for religious objects, possessed an international character, and continued its peaceful existence until Athens severed her relationships with Aegina, when the intercourse also between the other cities was in consequence disturbed. The amphictyony of Thermopylae was originally constituted by the neighbouring cities, which held annual festivals there, offering common sacrifices, and worshipping in the temple of Demeter. As for Delos, the Ionians of the neighbouring islands despatched their representatives there, to celebrate the festivals, and assist at the athletic and musical competitions held in honour of Apollo. The Delian amphictyony was re-established by Athens in 426 B.C., but it then assumed a somewhat different character, inasmuch as the main motive of Athens in effecting the restoration of the league was to bring about the religious unity of her empire. There is an extant inscription belonging to the earlier portion of the fourth century (c. 377-374 B.C.), which indicates that the association was still composed of Ionian islanders under the leadership of Athens, and that the term 'Auditúoves was still applied to the Athenian presiding or administrative officers, who shared the guardianship of the temple with the delegates of the other constituent States.

1 See vol. i. pp. 306, 314.

Strabo, viii. 6, 14.

3 Pausan, x. 8. 4 Strabo, ix. 5. 17: Δήμητρος Γερον εν ω θυσίαν ετέλουν οι αμφικτύονες.

5 Τhuc. iii. 104 : ήν δέ ποτε και το πάλαι μεγάλη ξύνοδος ες την Δήλον των Ιώνων τε και περικτιόνων νησιωτων ξύν τε γαρ γυναιξί και παισιν έθεώρουν, ... και αγων εποιείτο και γυμνικός και μουσικός, χορούς τε ανήγον αι πόλεις.

6 See Hicks, no. 104 ; Corp. inscrip. Graec. 158; Michel, 577 ; and cf. Hicks, 50, as to the Athenian administration of the Delian temple.

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