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with a prayer to the gods that the alliance, offensive and defensive, between the two communities, may conduce to their common good; and it provides for the taking of oaths, and for the final ratification of Ratification. the convention. The Hierapytnians engage to give hospitality to the Rhodians, open their ports, and remain perpetually their friends and devoted allies; they promise to assist them to the utmost of their power in repelling invaders from their territory, or such as may Union in war. try to subvert their laws, or interfere with their liberty and democratic government; and a number of auxiliary forces is specified for the purpose, provision being also made for their pay and victualling. If war break ou between Rhodes and an ally of Hierapytna, the Hierapytnians are to send aid, 'if Rhodes is attacked; but if Rhodes is the aggressor, then the Hierapytnians may, if they choose, withhold their assistance. If the Rhodians wish to raise mercenaries in Crete, the Hierapytnians are to give them full liberty to do so on their territory, and to help them elsewhere; on the other hand, they are not to help any other State to do so when its intention is to conduct hostilities against Rhodes. Further, the Hierapytnians are to aid the Piracy. Rhodians to put down piracy in the neighbouring seas; all pirates and vessels captured are to go to Rhodes, but the remainder of the booty is to be shared between the parties. On the other hand, the Rhodians are like- Equality. wise to be the friends and devoted allies of the Hierapytnians, and to regard them as possessing equal rights with themselves; to aid them against aggressors, and to send two galleys, the equipment and maintenance of which being provided for. If Rhodes is herself text of Cauer). ... Ει δε κα συστα(ι) πόλεμος Ροδίοις ποσί τινα των έν συμμαχίαι εόντων “Ιεραπύτνίοις, ει μέν |κα πολεμώντ(α). “Ρόδιοι, αποστελλόντων ταν συμμαχίαν Ροδίοις Ιεραπύτν(ι)οι, ει δε κα πολεμώντι κατάρξαντες πολέμου, μη επανεγκες έστω Ιεραπύτνίοις αποστέλλειν συμμαχίαν Ροδίοις (11. 35-40). Έξέστω δε και διορθώσασθαι τάς συνθήκας, εί τι κα δοκρι αμφοτέραις ταις πόλεσι διαπρεσβευσαμέναις ποθ' αυτάς· α δε και κοινάι δόξηι, ταύτα κύρια COTW (11. 86-88).

of treaty.

at war, then she is to aid Hierapytna as far as she can; but if Hierapytna make war on any State without the advice of Rhodes, then Rhodes is not bound to send forces. No Rhodian is ever, under any circum.

, stances, to take up arms against a Hierapytnian. Modification Finally, permission is given to modify this convention

by their respective embassies, if the suggested alterations or additions are mutually agreed upon; and provision is made for inscribing the text on steles and depositing them in their temples, and for taking and administrating the oaths by deputies and commissioners.

About 267 B.C. an alliance was established between Athens, Areus, king of Sparta, several other Greek States, and Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, to oppose the

, Philadelphus, ambitious projects of Antigonus Gonatas, king of

Macedonia. The inscription of the decree relating to this alliance is contained on a marble slab found on the Acropolis. The purport of this is to the follow

. ing effect :-Whereas the Athenians and the Lacedaemonians, including their respective allies, having engaged, in pursuance of a previous compact of friendship and alliance, against those who endeavoured to

etc., and

C. 267 B.C.

1 Rangabé, Antig. hellén. t. i. no. 453 ; Michel, 130 ; Corp. inscrip. Att. ii. 332 ; Dittenberger, 163.—The portion of the text here given is taken from that of Rangabe:

Επειδή εκάτερον μεν 'Αθηναίοι και Λακεδαιμόνιοι και οι σύμμαχοι οι εκατέρων φιλίαν και συμμαχίαν κοινήν ποιησάμενο

ι προς εαυτούς, πολλούς και καλούς αγώνας ηγωνίσαντο μετο τ' αλλήλων προς τους καταδoυλούσθαι τας πόλεις επιχειρή)

σαντας, εξ ών εαυτοίς τε δόξαν έκτήσαντο και τοις άλλοις
"Ελλησι παρεσκεύασαν την ελευθερίαν, και νύν δε κ(α)ιρών
καθειληφότων ομοίων την Ελλάδα πάσαν διά τους) καταλύε-

ιν επιχειρούντας τούς τε νόμους και τας π(α)τρίους εκάστ-
15 οις πολιτείας. ...

... όπως αν ούν, κοινής ομονοίας γενομένης τους Έλλησι πρός τε τους νυν ήδικηκότας και παρασπονδ)η(κό)τας τας πόλεις, πρόθυμοι μετά του βασιλέως Πτολεμαίου και μετ' αλλήλων υπάρχωσιν αγωνισται, και το λοιπόν μεθ'

ίας σώζωσιν τας πόλεις. ...

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subjugate their cities, their combined action bringing glory to themselves and ensuring liberty to the other Greek States ; now, similar circumstances having arisen in Greece, owing to the attempt made on the freedom and the political constitutions of the various independent communities, the Athenians have concluded an alliance with king Ptolemy, who has shown a friendly disposition towards Greece, and have resolved to procure also an alliance between him and the other Greek States; likewise, the Lacedaemonians, being the friends and allies of Ptolemy, have decreed to ally themselves with Athens, together with the Eleans, Achaeans, Mantineans, and the other allies of Areus, in order that harmony be established amongst all the Hellenic communities, and combined action be taken by them, along with Ptolemy, against those who might conceive designs on Greece.

The treaty between Smyrna and Magnesia (on the Treaty between Sipylum, in Lydia), 244 B.C., establishes a complete Magnesia, alliance between the two States. Smyrna bestows the 244 B.C. right of citizenship to the Magnesians, that is, to such Citizenship. as are freemen and of Greek nationality, on the condition that the latter will preserve the alliance, and continue their friendship towards king Seleucus. The contracting parties are to have the same friends and enemies, and to enjoy a certain community of laws. Laws in Provision is made for the administration of the oath, the form of which is specified. After the compact has been ratified by their oaths, all grievances that arose between them during the war shall become extinguished. Among other stipulations, it is laid down that the currency of Smyrna is to be accepted in Magnesia.

The text of the document? (preserved on a large marble slab brought from Smyrna, and now in Oxford) is of an elaborate character. It consists of three parts; and the whole is drawn up with extreme care and

1 This probably refers to the defeated projects of Demetrius, 288 B.C., and of Pyrrhus, 272 B.C.

* Corp. inscrip. Graec. 3137 ; Michel, 19.-Cf. Egger, pp. 108 seq. ; Szanto, op. cit. p. 108.



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In the treaty

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Perpetual peace.

precision, indicating a tolerably advanced stage in the development of ancient diplomatic methods.

«On se croirait en pleine diplomatie du moyen âge,” says Egger, "au temps où les républiques de l'Italie septentrionale s'agitaient dans des discordes sans fin, protégées et opprimées tour à tour par les royautés du midi ou

par l'Empereur.” Treaty between Different kinds of treaties are those (as reported by Byzantium, Bithynia,

Polybius) between Byzantium, Prusias, the king of and Rhodes

, Bithynia, and Rhodes, 220 B.c. The treaty with the

Rhodians provided that Byzantium should not impose
any toll on ships sailing into the Pontus.
with Prusias the following conditions were laid down :

(1) “There shall be peace and amity for
ever between Prusias and the Byzantines.

(2) 'The Byzantines shall in no way attack Prusias, nor Prusias the Byzantines.

(3) • Prusias shall restore to the Byzantines all lands, forts, populations, and prisoners of war without ransom; and besides these things, the ships taken at the beginning of the war, and the arms seized in the fortresses; and also the timbers, stonework, and roofing

belonging to the fort called Hieron.
Restoration of (4) Finally, Prusias shall compel such of

the Bithynians as have any property, taken
from the Byzantine district of Mysia, to

restore it to the farmers.'
An interesting example of a combination effected

with a view to opposing the Roman supremacy is the Eumenes, and alliance between Pharnaces, Eumenes, and Ariarthes,

179 B.C. According to Polybius, the terms were as

follows: Perpetual

(1) 'Eumenes, Prusias, and Ariarthes shall maintain perpetual peace with Pharnaces and Mithridates.

Prisoners of war.


Alliance between Pharnaces,



179 B.C.



2 Polyb. iv. 52.
3 Polyb. xxvi. 6 (Shuckburgh, xxv. 2); cf. Liv. xl. 20.

p. 119.

Op. cit.


Restoration of territory.

(2) 'Pharnaces shall not enter Galatia on
any pretence.

(3) ‘Such treaties as exist between Phar-
naces and Gauls are hereby rescinded.
(4) Pharnaces shall likewise

Paphlagonia, after restoring the inhabitants
whom he had previously expelled, with their
shields, javelins, and other equipment.

(5) Pharnaces shall restore to Ariarthes all territory of which he has deprived him, with the property thereon and the hostages.

(6) *He shall restore Tium by the Pontus which some time before was given freely and liberally by Eumenes to Prusias.

(7) 'Pharnaces shall restore, without ransom, all prisoners of war and all deserters.

(8) “He shall repay to Morizus and Ariarthes, in lieu of all money and treasure taken from them, the sum of nine hundred talents, and shall add thereto three hundred talents for Eumenes towards the expenses of the

Prisoners of war.



(9) “Mithridates, the satrap of Armenia, shall also pay three hundred talents, because he attacked Ariarthes in defiance of the treaty

with Eumenes.' The treaty further mentioned the other signatories, Hostages. and specified the number and quality of the hostages to be given by Pharnaces.

In the treaty between Lato and Olus, two towns in Treaty between Crete, entered into in the latter half of the second latter half of century B.c., a perpetual alliance was stipulated, and second provision was made regarding the territoriality of their

Lato and Olus,

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century B.C.

1 Cf. Polyb. v. 77.
2 Corp. inscrip. Graec. 2554.-Cf. Egger, p. 125.

3 The alliance is entered into “ for all time,” and, as usual, speaks of their having " the same friends and enemies” ; cf. ibid. 11. 10-12 : ... [φίλως] και συμμάχως αλλάλοις υπομένειν απλόως και αδόλως εις τον πάντα χρόνον, και τον αυτόν φίλον] και [έχ]θρον [ξεν.

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