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9. 'Livy's Pictured Page' is a just summary of the character of his works. His style is that of the Augustan age, a little removed from the rigid formalism of Ciceronian Latin; but it is never turgid, affected, nor strained. If we had not already adopted Cicero as the only model, and decided that other writers are less pure, we might well set Livy in that place, and call Cicero and Cæsar antiquated.

The peculiarities of Livy's style, as they affect the beginner, are mostly such as arise from the nature of his work and its purpose. Some, however, belong to the change which was going on in the language generally, and many are at the same time of both classes.

a. As the work deals with matters recorded in earlier annalists, archaisms are often apparently copied from his sources, either intentionally or accidentally, it is hard to say which: e.g., exsignata, I. 20. 5; ausim, Praef. 1 ; haud with all parts of speech; alliteration, as in I. 16. 3; and many others.

The lively and vivid representation to the imagination of events in their progress which was Livy's aim produces several effects on his style:

b. A tendency to dramatize, which brings in many words and constructions of common speech, and causes a naïveté of statement adapted to the speakers and actors themselves: e.g., viden tu puerum hunc? I. 39. 3; flexit viam Brutus (senserat enim adventum), I. 60. 1 (here the reason, instead of being formally made subordinate, takes the colloquial form of parenthesis); id mirum quantum profuit, II. 1. 11; enimvero non ultra contumeliam pati Romanus posse, II. 45. 11; velle ne scirem ipsi fecerunt, II. 45. 12. Here belongs also the frequent use of adeo, introducing an explanation of what goes before (see I. 9. 5 ; I. 10. 7).

c. A rapid flow of narrative, which causes many breaks in construction, constructiones ad sensum, omissions of connec

tives (see I. 6. 4), and omissions of words to be supplied from the context, together with a general carelessness of grammar and occasionally a want of perspicuity; e.g., darent, Praef. 13; I. 15. 1; and the indicative for subjunctive in I. 17. 2.

d. His ethical sympathy with the events, and the pressure, as it were, under which the narrative is composed tend to a poetical form of composition, marked

(1) By poetic phraseology; e.g., Romulum Remumque cupido cepit, I. 6. 3. Cf. for a poetic word, I. 9. 6.

(2) By poetic constructions. Cf. the frequent use of the dative (eg., parentibus, I. 13. 3; praetereuntibus, II. 49. 7).

(3) By the use of highly wrought imagery: see the desidentes, etc., Praef. 9; devolvere retro, I. 47. 5.

Other peculiarities belong to the earliest stage of the changes which distinguish imperial from republican prose,— changes which Livy, among the rest, himself helped much to produce. In these his style is marked, not so much by absolute novelties, as by the more frequent use of modes of expression which are more rare in earlier Latin.

e. Thus the use of the perfect participle in agreement to express an abstract idea has its roots deep in the language, but in Livy is so frequent as to be almost a feature of his style: e.g., iram praedae amissae, I. 5. 3.

f. The present participle as a noun (legentium, 'readers'; nocentium, 'the offenders') is not unknown at any period of the language, but in Livy it becomes one of his stock forms of speech.

g. So with adverbial expressions made of a preposition and noun: eg., inter precationem, II. 8.7; in obsidione et fame, II. 11.5.

h. So attributive expressions made of a noun and preposition become more frequent in Livy: e.g., omnis repentina atque ex virtute nobilitas, I. 34. 6; loca circa forum, I. 38. 6; area ad aedem, I. 38. 7.

i. The use of adjectives agreeing with subject or object to

express modifications which really belong to the verb is not uncommon: e.g., serae immigraverint, Praef. 11; adeo mitem praebuisse, I. 4. 6.

j. Nouns are used in apposition to express attributive ideas: e.g., pastor accola eius loci, I. 7. 5; exsule advena, I. 34. 5.

k. Participles take the place of clauses more frequently in Livy than in other writers: eg., concursu pastorum trepidantium circa advenam manifestae reum caedis, I. j. 9; haec eum haud -falso memorantem ingenti consensu populus Romanus regnare iussit, I. 35. 6.

7. The perfect participle is often used without any feeling of tense: e.g., pater moritur uxore gravida relicta, I. 34. 2; rebus suis Lavinium translatis civitate cessit, II. 2. 10; caesum, II. 36. I n.

m. The use of the gerund or gerundive, especially in the ablative of manner, becomes a mannerism almost: e.g., agere varie rogando alternis suadendoque, II. 2. 9; miscendo consilium precesque, II. 9. 1.

n. Shorthand expressions, with an attribute of any kind, taking the place of a descriptive clause: eg., factio haud dubia regis, I. 35. 6.

o. Livy has also his favorite derivatives and turns of phrase: as adjectives in -bundus; nunquam alias ante; cf. adeo (see b, above), and parentheses with enim.

p. A form of speech not really strange to the language is frequent, wherein a quality is summed up in an abstract, and made the main feature of an expression: e.g., adversus tanti belli terrorem, I. 2. 4; foeditate spectaculi, I. 28. 11; concient miraculo rei novae atque indignitate homines, I. 59. 3.

4. The use of the neuter singular of adjectives and pronouns, either alone or with a partitive genitive, apparently a colloquial usage, becomes more frequent, but not yet so common as in later writers: e.g., ex infimo, I. 9. 3; quidquid civium, I. 25. 1; pro indignissimo, I. 40. 2 ; quidquid deorum, II. 49. 7 ; ullius, II. 59. 8.

In constructions we may notice :

r. The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive in repeated action a growth of the times: e.g., ubi dixisset, I. 32. 13; si adesset, II. 58. 7.

s. The more free use of the infinitive instead of clauses. See I. 4. 9.

See II. 40. 7.

t. The indicative with quamvis, forsitan, etc. u. The free use of the dative — a more picturesque and poetic construction: e.g., with absonus, I. 15. 6. See d (2), above.

v. The free use of the ablative of manner for more exact modifiers: e.g., periculo, I. 12. 10.

w. Particles with participial phrases instead of a clause: e.g., velut, I. 14. 8.

x. It is more in arrangement than anything else that Livy differs from other prose writers. His narrative is not so much to inform the intellect as to excite the imagination. Hence he does not affect the finely balanced periods of Cicero, though periodic structure is almost inseparable from Latin; but with a skilful use of all the means of co-ordination and subordination, he presents a picture, stroke after stroke, with the proper emphasis to give its proper prominence to each detail, often leaving the grammar to take care of itself. In the skill with which he uses the position of the single words in a clause to produce these effects, he is unequalled (see I. 17. 4; II. 25. 3). It is impossible for us to get the effect he intends to produce without noticing the position of every word. Indeed, he sometimes for effect gives artificial and forced emphasis, which produces the effect, to be sure, but at the sacrifice of simplicity (see I. 11. 6).

Which of these or what other peculiarities of style gave rise to Asinius Pollio's charge of patavinity (provincialism), nobody has ever satisfactorily determined. But whatever the crime was, we may well forgive him, being sure that it can be nothing very bad.

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