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Syphax was king of the western Numidians, and had assisted Carthage in the war, magnum, § 52, iv.- urbis = urbes. T. 2, 6.

24. luxu; the dat. in u is frequent in Sallust; the historical infinitive ($ 49, 111.), as equitare, is also common with him. 92. 1. plurumum ; for this archaic form, see top of p. 2; existu· mans is a similar form. — intellēgit is an old form of the perf. (from lēgo, lēgi); the form intellexi became afterwards more common. — suæ liberorumque, his own age and that of his children ; this combination of a genitive and a possessive qualifying the same word is common. — mediocris, of moderate passions. transvorsos, another archaic form, for transversos. ex quibus, i.e., studia.

16. neque per vim neque insidiis ; most writers would prefer two similar constructions (as vi or per insidias); Sallust, like Tacitus, is fond of varying his constructions. - Numantia was a town in Spain, which was captured by Scipio the younger,

Æmilianus, b.c. 133, after a siege of ten years. - Romanis ; a com

; mon use of the dat. after words denoting an office; see example in § 51, 1. note. —periculis after obviam, by analogy to $ 51, v.

- alterum-alterum, the latter, the former. 93. 6. erat; we should expect esset, by $ 63, II. ; the ind. is common in Sallust in such clauses. — huc accedebat; the subject is munificentia, etc. ; $ 49, 1. note; the adv. huc=huic rei.

10. novi atque nobiles ; the nobles at Rome were those whose ancestors had held office of dignity in the state, and who therefore belonged to the ruling class; those who reached position by their own exertions, like Marius and Cicero, were called novi homines (Hb. § 126). — The socii were the Italians in alliance with Rome, who were kept in a position of inferiority by the Romans.

-fore, etc., § 67, III. 1; this might also be potitum iri or fore; pro concione, in the presence of the army. The praetorium, headquarters (Hb. § 160), was so called because the consul, who commanded in war, originally bore the title praetor. — publice, etc.; e.g. rather by public services than private intrigues.—neu (neve) quibus, $ 21, 111. end. -a, from ; it was perilous to buy from a few, &c. — ultro, without his seeking. 94. 7. The death of Micipsa was b.c. 118. — justa, the proper rites. — ignobilitatem ; Jugurtha was of illegitimate birth. dextra, sc. manu, on his right hand. - Adherbalem, $ 52, II.

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1.; properly it is governed by the preposition ad, next to. — in alteram partem, i.e., to the left.

22. ipsum illum, i.e., Jugurtha. cum animo, in his mind.

31. placuerat, $ 39, 3. — finis, $ 52, vi. 95. 4. proximus lictor; the lictors were officers who went before certain Roman magistrates (HIb. $ 130); the Numidian king had similar attendants. The hindmost of these was next to the magistrate, and therefore highest in rank. — ministrum, $ 46. - referebantur, notice the imperf. — ceterum, moreover ; usually it means but.

After the death of Hiempsal, B.C. 118, war broke out between Jugurtha and Adherbal; Adherbal was defeated, and took refuge in Rome. Jugurtha also sent ambassadors thither, and succeeded by bribery in bringing about the appointment of a commission to divide the kingdom between the two cousins; this division was made in such a way as to give Jugurtha the best parts of the country, while Adherbal had the best cities and harbors, including the capital, Cirta, now Constantine.

22. contra timorem, in spite of his apprehensions. 96. 11. secus ceperat, he had come off worse.

28. partim=partem or alios. —togatorum ; the toga, a long, woollen unbleached shawl, of a semi-elliptical shape, was the distinctive dress of a Roman citizen; here, however, all the Italians are meant. — The vineæ were movable sheds, which were pushed up near the walls to protect the soldiers fighting and working under them; the turres were high, and were moved on wheels near the walls, and used to throw darts, &c., into the city besieged. — machinæ ; these were engines for hurling stones and darts. 97. 5. majores natu, elders, § 17, III. end. — usi, having enjoyed; honores is the word used for public offices. — Marcus Æmilius Scaurus was for many years the leading man in the Roman state; he was dignified and sagacious, but, it would appear, shared the prevailing corruption of the times. — senati, this form of the gen., of the second declension, is common in Sallust for this and one or two other nouns of the fourth declension. The princeps senatus was the person recognized by the censors as the leader of the body, as being the most eminent man in the state (Hb. § 13).

- in invidia, was a source of great scandal. Utica was the chief town of the Roman province Africa (now Tunis).

19. diducta, i.e., by the attack on all sides. casum, a chance or occasion. - Adherbalis, § 54, III. note. — frustra, without attaining their purpose. . 98. 1. omnia potiora, that any thing was better, i.e., more trustworthy. deditionem ; this was B.c. 112.

9. interpellando and trahendo qualify leniebant; gratia and jurgiis (by fair means or foul) qualify trahendo.—Caius Memmius was probably the one who was murdered twelve years later by a seditious mob; he is called by Niebuhr“one of the most energetic and right-minded men of that age.” — ut condonaretur is not a final clause (denoting purpose), but a substantive clause, in apposition with id. — Jugurthæ, dative of advantage.

18. The Sempronian Law, carried through by Caius Sempronius Gracchus, aimed to lessen the power of the senate and the opportunity for corruption in assigning provinces, by providing that the assignation should be made before the election of the consuls; that is, the senate determined beforehand what the consular provinces should be, and these were then divided by lot or agreement between the two consuls. — scribitur, levied.

Bestia proceeded to Africa, and shortly brought Jugurtha to terms; but was bribed by him to grant an advantageous peace, disgraceful to Rome. But the tribune Memmius, the boldest antagonist of the corrupt nobility, persuaded the people to reject the treaty, and to send Cassius, a man in a corrupt time” (Niebuhr), to summon Jugurtha to Rome, to answer for his crimes.

30. elephantos; i.e., those which Jugurtha had surrendered. 99. 1. Rogatione ; a proposition for a law was called rogatio, because the people were asked whether they would accept it. conscientia, from a bad conscience. — vim ; i.e., that he would use force if he did not submit himself to their mercy. - - minoris, $ 54, ix. 1. In Rome, Jugurtha bribed one of the tribunes, by whose intercession he escaped the necessity of an

answering the

questions put to him by Memmius.

11. This was B.C. 110. Gulussa was brother of Micipsa. metu; i.e., the anxiety of the Romans as to Jugurtha's future

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23. Jugurthæ, $ 51, VI. ; he did not venture to rely any longer upon his friends among the Romans, and therefore resolved to get rid of his rival.- egressus, acc. pl. -ejus, i.e., Massiva. — qui is pl., referring to the individuals implied in numero; this is called synesis, or constructio ad sensum, see § 47, 11. end. 100. 3. Fit reus, is put on trial. — The jus gentium of the Romans was not our Law of Nations, but consisted of those usages of law which were common to all nations; one of these was the sanctity of a safe-conduct. manufestus, like maxumus, an archaic form. animum advortit, he perceived. supra, etc.; that the obloquy of the deed went beyond, &c.

9. in priore actione, in the first stages of the action ; i.e., the preliminary inquiry. — popularis, those of his nation. — illo, Bomilcar. — urbem, § 52, v.

22. mos, etc.; this may mean the parties among the people, and the factions in the senate; but as popularis is used especially for the party opposed to the senate, it would seem best to take these nouns as relating to the individual parties; the custom of a popular and a senatorial party. — prima, the first things, $ 48, II. gloriæ, false glory; i.e., as rivals. — hostilis, $ 47, v.; it is here equivalent to the objective gen., hostium. - ea, $ 47, II. (2). — Carthage was destroyed B.c. 146 ; in the same year Corinth was captured; no enemy now remained whom the Romans need fear. 101. 3. in lubidinem [for lib.] vortere [for vert.], to turn to their own pleasure; abuse. —sibi quisque, each for himself. -factione, by combinations, i.e., owing to their fewness. — plebei, here 5th declension.— agitabatur, impers.; every thing was managed.

11. The tendency at this time to absorb all the lands of Italy into a few large estates, latifundia, cultivated by slaves, was the most alarming symptom of the times. Latifundia Italiam perdidere, says Pliny. To bring this about, and set all the neighboring small freeholds into their hands, the nobles scrupled at neither fraud nor violence; nor did the poor have any adequate protection in law.

18. These were the Gracchi, mentioned below. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus carried an agrarian law (Hb. § 168), for the distribution of public land among the poorer classes, B.C. 133 ; his brother Caius, ten years later, aimed at still more sweeping reforms: both were assassinated by the nobles. Their grandfather had fought successfully against Hannibal; their father was


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eminent as a statesman; their mother Cornelia was daughter of the great Scipio. — permixtio terræ, a chaos.

25. patefacere, $ 37, vii. note. - The Socii were the Italian nations in nominal alliance with Rome; the nomen Latinum, the Latin cities and colonies which were debarred from full political privileges, but possessed certain rights of Roman citizenship; both these classes held portions of the public domain which were affected by the laws of Gracchus, and therefore opposed bis

Later reformers undertook to extend full citizenship to all the inhabitants of Italy. — The equites were those who were entitled by their wealth to serve in the cavalry, receiving a horse from the state; by a law of Caius Gracchus, all possessing a specified amount of property received certain privileges, which constituted them a class by themselves, equester ordo: thus setting up an aristocracy of wealth to balance the hereditary aristocracy of the nobles. — societatis means a share in the privileges of the senate. - eadem, the same policy. — triumvirum ; Caius Gracchus failed in his third election to the tribuneship, but still held the office of triumvir [member of a committee of three] for planting colonies ($ 73, III. note), when he was killed, b.c. 121. — et sane, and to be sure. 102. 3. Three thousand are said to have been slain with Gracchus and Flaccus. — timoris, i.e., they feared the opposite party, whom they had treated with such barbarity. — parem, § 59, iv. 1.

After the return of Jugurtha, the war was conducted by Spurius Albinus and his brother Aulus. The latter was forced by Jugurtha to agree to a dishonorable peace, which was at once rejected by the Romans; and the consul of the year 109 took command, although late in the year. Quintus Cæcilius Metellus, afterwards called Numidicus, was one of the most eminent and respectable members of the aristocracy, belonging to an old and distinguished family. His vigilant and judicious measures soon excited the alarm of his antagonist, and his success induced the senate to retain him in command as proconsul for the following years.

18. antea experimentis, previous experience, i.e., of Bestia and Albinus ; $ 47, III. end. — maxime, if possible.

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